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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: derivatives

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  • A Risk Neutral Framework For The Pricing Of Credit Derivatives - 1,476 words
    A Risk Neutral Framework For The Pricing Of Credit Derivatives 1. INTRODUCTION Considerable research effort has gone into Credit Derivatives since the early 1990s. The roots of credit derivatives can be traced back to the notion that the credit risk of a firm can be captured by the credit rating ascribed to it. This premise is also the cornerstone of loan pricing and credit risk management models the world over, including J.P. Morgans CreditMetricsTM. Empirical research enables the predictability of the event of default as well as the Loss in the Event of Default (LIED). This information is expressed in terms of a transition matrix - a matrix that traces out the probabilities the migration o ...
    Related: credit, credit risk, derivatives, framework, neutral, pricing, risk management
  • A Risk Neutral Framework For The Pricing Of Credit Derivatives - 1,578 words
    ... A or B (6) The probabilities of transition from period 2 to period 3 are obtained as: {RN}02 {RN}23 = {RN}03 Where {RN}ij is the risk-neutral transition matrix from period i to period j Thus, {RN}23 = {RN}-102 {RN}03 Table -6 shows the risk neutral probabilities of transition from period 2 to period 3. From this table, it can be seen that P (F / EA ) = 0.074 and P (F / EB ) = 0.176. In addition, we know that P(EA) = 0.181 and P(EB) = 0.530 (refer Table -5a). Thus, the risk-neutral probability that Rs. 100 is received in period 3 is 0.074 x 0.181 + 0.176 x 0.530 = 0.107 The value of the derivative is obtained as 20.76 Table-6 Risk neutral probabilities of transition from period 2 to perio ...
    Related: credit, credit risk, derivatives, framework, neutral, pricing, rate risk
  • Active Transport - 1,302 words
    Active Transport Since the cell membrane is somewhat permeable to sodium ions, simple diffusion would result in a net movement of sodium ions into the cell, until the concentrations on the two sides of the membrane became equal. Sodium actually does diffuse into the cell rather freely, but as fast as it does so, the cell actively pumps it out again, against the concentration difference. The mechanism by which the cell pumps the sodium ions out is called active transport. Active transport requires the expenditure of energy for the work done by the cell in moving molecules against a concentration gradient. Active transport enables a cell to maintain a lower concentration of sodium inside the c ...
    Related: transport, early stages, carbon dioxide, carried away, chloroplasts
  • Air Pollution - 1,567 words
    Air Pollution Acid rain is a problem that has plagued earth for years. It is poisoning our waters, animals, plants, soil, and more. It is a problem that can not be ignored or it might have catastrophic results on our environment. Acid rain is caused by air pollution, which is due to man-made actions. Scientists have discovered that air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels is the major cause of acid rain. Power plants and factories burn coal and oil, which is used to produce the electricity we need to heat and light our homes and to run our electric appliances. We also burn natural gas, coal, and oil to heat our homes, and our cars, trucks, boats, and airplanes use gasoline to run, whic ...
    Related: air pollution, pollution, pollution prevention, power plants, fossil fuel
  • Alzheimers Disease - 1,539 words
    Alzheimer`s Disease Alzheimers Disease is a progressive, degenerative disease that affects the brain. Individuals with AD experience a progressive and specific loss of cognitive function resulting from the differentiation of the limbic system, association neocortex, and basal forebrain. It is also accompanied by the deposition of amyloid in plaques and cerebrovasculature, and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles in neurons. Alois Alzheimer, a German doctor, diagnosed this disease for the first time in 1907. At that time it was considered a rare disorder. Currently, this tragic brain disorder affects approximately four million people; It is the most common type of dementia and the fourth ...
    Related: alois alzheimer, alzheimer's disease, alzheimers disease, physiological processes, limbic system
  • Anabolic Steroids - 1,862 words
    Anabolic Steroids Anabolic Steroid Use in the Olympics Canadian track star Ben Johnson was denied his gold medal in the 1988 Olympics after he tested positive for anabolic steroids. This incident sparked worldwide attention to the extent of anabolic steroid use. To date, the International Olympic Committee has barred the use of seventeen anabolic steroids. Other organizations, including The National Football League, National Collegiate Athletic Associations International Amateur Athletic Federation, and the International Federation of Body Builders have followed suit. Athletes and non-athletes alike are still abusing anabolic steroids to excel in sports. Anabolic steroids belong to a group o ...
    Related: anabolic, anabolic steroids, steroid use, steroids, works cited
  • Anabolic Steroids - 1,099 words
    Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids (steroids for short) are used widely among bodybuilders to increase their testosterone, thus to get stacked or larger. Steroids seem to be a wonderful thing for these bodybuilders, but very few of them know just how they work and what the effects are. History The word "anabolic" portrays any substance, which accumulates nitrogen in muscle protein and from there builds muscle tissue. The bodys natural anabolic steroid is called testosterone, which men (naturally) obtain more of, than women do. Testosterone brings on the development of speed, mass, endurance, definition, and strength. Testosterone is naturally released into the blood stream, goes to differen ...
    Related: anabolic, anabolic steroids, steroid use, steroids, protein synthesis
  • Anesthetics - 1,530 words
    Anesthetics Anesthesia is a partial or complete loss of sensation or feeling induced by the administration of various substances. For many decade, people have used one form of an anesthetic during surgical procedures. Some people also use some of these anesthetics as recreational drugs, e.g. laughing gas (a.k.a. Nitrous Oxide). The term anesthetic literally means "without feeling". There are many different types of anesthesia, but they are usually put into three groups. These groups are gene- ral anesthetics, local anesthetics, and spinal anesthetics. A general anesthetic causes a complete loss of consciousness. They are used when having a serious operation or in the case of an emergency ope ...
    Related: hopkins university, long history, recreational drugs, quiet, maintaining
  • Anesthetics - 1,467 words
    ... amount of side effects. Throughout the country there are many different types of anesthetics used. Some of the most popular anesthetics are used in U.S. hospitals across the region. Among general anesthetics, cyclopropane, ethylene, and halothane are the most popular. Cyclopropane and ethylene are used with caution because they are highly explosive. Halothane is the most prefered over the three because it is neither inflammable or explosive. Amongst intravenous anesthesia, Pentothal sodium is the most popular. This is because it produces the least amount of side effects during and after a surgical procedure. Block anesthesia is the most common and popular of the group known as local anes ...
    Related: different types, new england, side effects, concentration, 1984
  • Argentinas Economy - 1,071 words
    ... Mercosurs GDP; Brazil share exceeds 70 percent. Each country in the Mercosur has preferential agreements with each other. The average trade-weighted external tariff is 17 percent. 85 percent of goods are included in Mercosurs common external tariff, with the balance to be phased into he common external tariff by 2006. Mercosur members countries expect to implement a common auto policy by 2000, which is to replace the current quota and tariff system. Argentinas trade with its other neighbor countries is not as significant as the trade it has with Brazil. Nevertheless, Trade between Argentina and Bolivia (56.4 percent), Peru (20 percent), Uruguay (12.8 percent), and Chile (8.3 percent) has ...
    Related: economy, foreign direct, duty free, intelligence unit, urge
  • Boeing 700 - 1,000 words
    Boeing 700 The Boeing 700s are very capable of handling duties in the commercial and military world. The Boeing 700s are capable of handling many tasks in the commercial and military world. With the introduction of the 707 in the late fifties to the most recent 777 in the early nineties the, 700s have dominated the commercial world for five decades. They are a line of aircraft that are capable of handling many roles from basic civilian transport to various military needs. They are the people movers of the 20th century. Each with a large carrying capacity combined with the range of a jet aircraft they have moved more people longer distances than what was once thought possible. Boeing has trul ...
    Related: boeing, growing demand, carrying capacity, airline industry, carrying
  • Bovine Tmb - 1,501 words
    Bovine TMB Bovine Tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) (or cattle Tuberculosis) was first discovered by Columella (Louis Junius Moderatus Columella) which was born in Cadiz, Spain and resided in Northern Italy when he discovered the bovine Tuberculosis in the year 14 A D. In 1882 Robert Koch discovered that the connection between human and animal Tuberculosis actually were established. When Koch realized that children were becoming infected from contaminated cows milk most nations brought out legal instruments designed to remove chronically infected animals and take a look at the public health aspect of the problem. The Disease Mycobacterium bovis is the bacterium that caus ...
    Related: bovine, control programs, new zealand, most effective, confirmation
  • Cannabis Hemp Marijuana - 2,262 words
    Cannabis Hemp. . .Marijuana! Article copied work for work from April 1990 Issue of High Times Magazine pages 37-41 and page 57. "OUR CHALLENGE TO THE WORLD: TRY TO PROVE US WRONG-- If all fossil fuels and their derivatives (coal, oil, natural gas, synthetic fibers and petrochemicals) as well as the deforestation of trees for paper and agriculture (e.g., Brazilian & Indonesian rainforests), are banned from use in order to save the planet, preserve the ozone layer and reverse the greenhouse effect with its global warming trend: Then there is only one known renewable natural resource able to provide all(underlined) of the following goods and essentials such as paper and textiles; meet all of th ...
    Related: cannabis, hemp, marijuana, stock exchange, true meaning
  • Cannabis Hemp Marijuana - 2,195 words
    ... lity is strong enough that we must try. Ultimately, the world has no other rational environmental choice but to give up fossil fuel. ENERGY SECURITY At this point, we can tell OPEC goodbye forever. The national balance of payments deficit is cast by the wayside and your personal energy bills can by cut by at least 50%, and perhaps as much as 90% with biomass from hemp and recycled waste. No more elderly or poor people freezing to death or living in misery in the winter. If introduced to Third World nations, hemp biomass could drastically cut our overseas aid and reasons for war, while raising the quality of life there by quantum leaps. The world's economy will/should boom as it never has ...
    Related: cannabis, hemp, marijuana, marijuana prohibition, u.s. government
  • Career Review: Pharmacist - 1,307 words
    ... dynamics 1 (CHEM254), Organic Chemistry2/Laboratory (CHEM 265/265L), Physics2/Laboratory (PHYS112/112L), (Third year) Advanced Cell Biology (BIOL 331), Physical Biochemistry (CHEM 357), Synthetic Organic Chemistry/Laboratory (CHEM 360/360L), Molecular Biology (BIOL330), Metabolism 1(CHEM333), Advanced Biochemistry Laboratory (CHEM334L), Elementary Statistics for biology (STAT202), And four elective courses, (Fourth year) Elective courses chosen from Group A, B, and C (Seven credits from Group A, B, and C, with at least 5.5 credits from Group A and B, of which are not less than 4.0 credits are from Group A). Group A: (BIOL 342) Molecular Biotechnology 1, (BIOL 428) The Molecular Genetics ...
    Related: pharmacist, social issues, drug therapy, unemployment rate, structural
  • Diamond - 1,187 words
    Diamond The unique nature of diamond is heavily dependent upon its composition, crystal structure, and mechanical, thermal, and electromagnetic properties.1 Of those dependencies, composition exacts the most influence over the characteristics. Crystal structure is the repeating pattern of diamonds composition, and each of the properties are the result of molecular interaction which is determined by composition. Therefore, composition is paramount in the determination of the qualities of diamond. Before its discovery, adamantane was known as decaterpene, the name applied by Decker to his tricyclic hydrocarbon. Decker believed that his decaterpene was similar in structure as the diamond lattic ...
    Related: diamond, mass production, natural process, scientific community, proceed
  • Early Roman Architecture - 449 words
    Early Roman Architecture DAVID HATFIELD ART HISTORY I FALL 2000 The Romans gained much of their engineering skill from the Etruscans and drew on Etruscan and Asian models for the semicircular arch. From them, the Romans learned the use of the keystone arch, which enabled them to build extremely strong and durable structures. Many of these engineering and architectural projects are still standing. Some are still in use after two thousand years like this bridge in Spain. Early Roman architects were influenced by Greek post-and-lintel construction. But the Greek design was limited in its capabilities to span large distances and being able to bear heavy loads while not falling down of its own we ...
    Related: architecture, roman, roman architecture, art history, coliseum
  • Ergot - 1,204 words
    Ergot Ergot and its disease ergotism have been a worldwide plague to humans ever since humans have started to harvest and cultivate grains in all their forms. Although outbreaks of ergotism still occur periodically they have all but become nonexistent in the modern era. Ergot has had beneficial effects as well. Ergot has produced medicines, which are vital to the medicine world. Ergot has produced in the world's eyes an ugly stepsister to its medicines: LSD. D-lysergic acid diethylamide known to the world as LSD is a derivative of ergot. Ergot has had a far and wide-ranging impact on man unrealized by most people. Ergot fungi are molds that infect rye and other cereals and wild grasses (Micr ...
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  • Hacking For Money - 1,941 words
    ... sign my own operating system from the ground up when I can take the work done by Linus Torvalds and the hundreds of other skilled programmers around the world, and bend it to my whim? This is a much more flexible system than one in which I must depend on Microsoft to provide me with every convenience I desire. How does this apply to the arts, though? Software is almost universally the kind of thing that is constantly being altered, updated, and optimized. Art is generally considered a thing that is made once and finished afterwards. I don't plan on remixing or modifying my Elvis Costello and the Attractions CDs. But should our copyright and licensing laws necessarily prohibit those who w ...
    Related: hacking, world wide web, marshall mcluhan, hard drive, advertising
  • Hormones - 1,052 words
    Hormones IntroductionHormones are organic substances that are secreted by plants and animals and that function in the regulation of physiological activities and in maintaining homeostasis. They carry out their functions by evoking responses from specific organs or tissues that are adapted to react to minute quantities of them. The classical view of hormones is that they are transmitted to their targets in the bloodstream after discharge from the glands that secrete them. This mode of discharge (directly into the bloodstream) is called endocrine secretion. The meaning of the term hormone has been extended beyond the original definition of a blood-borne secretion, however, to include similar r ...
    Related: growth hormone, hormones, water balance, reproductive system, react
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