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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: cost effectiveness

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  • Adult Illiteracy - 3,219 words
    ... atic, enemies of early, intensive teaching of phonics. Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman are two of today's most influential proponents of the look and say or as they would term it, whole language philosophy of teaching reading. San Diego State University Professor Patrick Groff recently reviewed 43 reading texts, all published in the1980's and used by teachers' colleges in training reading teachers, to see if they included the findings of researchers that the code-emphasis or phonics approach to teaching reading should be used. He found that none of these books advocate phonics. In fact, only nine of these books inform teachers that there is current debate about if or when phonics should ...
    Related: adult, adult education, adult literacy, illiteracy, state university
  • Alcatraz Island And Prison - 1,993 words
    Alcatraz Island And Prison Alcatraz Island has quite a distinct history. Many people know that Alcatraz served as a federal prison, but most are reluctant to know that this island served as fort. Built before the Civil War, it served two main purposes. First, that it was to guard the San Francisco bay area from enemy ships against a foreign invasion, and second, to hold hostage prisoners of war or POW's as they were called. In this report, I'll show you how this fortress came to be a federal prison, why it is no longer in operation today, and most importantly, to show why it was built in the first place. When the great Gold Rush of 1849 first started, California grew from what would be consi ...
    Related: alcatraz, federal prison, military prison, prison population, state prison
  • Alternative Medicine - 1,408 words
    Alternative Medicine Chiropractic is the third largest doctoral-level health profession in the United States, after medicine and dentistry. This form of health care is on the rise and there are more than forty thousand chiropractors in practice in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, and many other nations. Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine commonly used and accepted today. Chiropractic is specifically defined as a therapeutic system of curing ailments and manipulation of various body parts, particularly the spinal column. Although chiropractors have had a hard time establishing a worthy reputation, times have changed and studies are proving the benefits of chiropractic. ...
    Related: alternative medicine, medicine, district of columbia, back pain, ultrasound
  • As Twentyfirst Century Draws Near, There Appears To Be In The World An Era Of Unprecedented Peace Contrary To The Predictions - 2,260 words
    ... linton Administration should attempt to negotiate the permanent withdrawal of both Turkish and Greek military forces from the island as a precondition to any settlement regarding the future status of Cyprus. In this case, the United States should actively seek the involvement of the European Union in the process of negotiation, as the unification of Cyprus has direct bearing on the vital interests of the European Union. To the extent that the mounting dispute between Greece and Turkey over the Aegean border areas has the potential to undermine the stability of NATO, and one of the strategic objectives of the Administration is to preserve American commitment to international alliances (Sc ...
    Related: contrary, regions of the world, world bank, world market, world trade, world view
  • Auto Competition - 1,007 words
    Auto Competition Auto Competition Intro When an auto manufacturer needs to cut costs it will sometimes look for help from another manufacturer. This process results in a merging between companies in order to benefit one another. Companies may merge to be cost efficient or even to gain entry into another market segment. Either way, manufacturers try to gain instant results by merging. Auto manufacturers compete with each other to give consumers the state of the art safety systems that they demand. Parents are becoming more concerned about their family's safety with the lifesaving abilities of airbags. Consumers are looking at airbags as a very important option when making a vehicle purchasing ...
    Related: auto, auto industry, ford motor company, automotive industry, combining
  • Boot Camps - 1,983 words
    ... e said, should be considered when designing any program for youth: Adolescents are fairness fanatics. Running any adolescent group care program is difficult because adolescents are very sensitive to anything they perceive as unfair, particularly anything that applies to the whole group. Adolescents reject imposed structure and assistance. Adolescents respond to encouragement, not punishment. Although they may change their behavior to avoid punishment, their attitudes and behaviors do not change in response to punishment (Andrews, 1990). The implications of these three factors are that youth will defend themselves against what they see as unfair, regardless of the motivation of the adults ...
    Related: boot, boot camps, juvenile court, support system, rehabilitation
  • Business Research - 1,571 words
    Business Research Introduction and Overview Businesses in today's economy often face challenges that are not readily apparent until, more often than not, the costs of those challenges become critical. A businesses ability to identify the fundamentals of these challenges and act accordingly to squelch the damage that has been done while bouncing back is paramount to the businesses success. This paper will identify three key areas in identifying and repairing the critical problems that can occur. More importantly, this paper will also identify several fundamentals within the three areas. The paper will examine some sub levels of (1) analysis, (2) cost, and (3) research. Additionally, this pape ...
    Related: business research, research techniques, individual level, environmental protection agency, defining
  • Business Research - 1,523 words
    ... s to the answers. Newsom sites an example of an organization trying to determine where employer bias might play in the event of employment discrimination by asking a the following question: If you had two applicants absolutely equal in terms of educational background and experience, and one was a woman or a member of a minority race, or both, which would you hire? The answer is then interpreted and depending on the employers response, the interviewer is open to several lines of questioning. Adversely, personal interviews can also lead a company down the wrong path. Kotler states that intercept interviews have the drawback of being non-probability samples, and the interviews must be quite ...
    Related: business journal, business research, research techniques, financial risk, cost analysis
  • Changes In Health Care - 1,459 words
    Changes In Health Care In today's society, public perception of the U.S. health care system is widespread. Many people are satisfied with the advancements that we have made in the medical community. Less than one hundred years ago, health care was non-existent. Today, it is one of the leading industries in our country and worldwide. However, many people criticize where health care is going. They believe that doctors are giving up quality care and replacing it with the quantity served. This paper will describe the changes that have occurred and are occurring in the US health care system. Beginning with the health care environment, we will see that although we are downsizing some subdivisions, ...
    Related: care facilities, care system, community health, health, health care, health insurance, hospital care
  • Changing Job Roles - 3,044 words
    Changing Job Roles Introduction This paper is the result of research into and reflection on the roles carried out by those who are responsible for managing the 'people' function within organisations. Whether these incumbents are called personnel or HR managers is not necessarily important; it is however critical to give recognition to the complexity of the task that faces those who have to take responsibility for this function. This paper raises two inter-related issues. First, in what sorts of activities do personnel managers decide to invest time and energy? Are the old reliables of recruitment, training and employee relations the key tasks of the 1990s or are other issues more important? ...
    Related: management role, global information, private sector, career development, evaluation
  • Death Penalty - 1,357 words
    Death Penalty Virtually every major program designed to address the underlying causes of violence and to support the poor, vulnerable, powerless victims of crime is being cut even further to the bone In this context, the proposition that the death penalty is a needed addition to our arsenal of weapons lacks credibility Scott Harshbarge, Attorney General of Massachusetts Across the United States, police officers are losing their jobs, prisoners are obtaining parole early, courts are clogging with cases, and crime is on the rise. Over two-thirds of the states use capital punishment, which is a grave mistake by any measure of cost effectiveness. The government spends hundreds of millions of dol ...
    Related: death penalty, death sentence, penalty, north carolina, black hole
  • Electronic Monitoring Today - 1,543 words
    Electronic Monitoring Today Electronic Monitoring Today Electronic monitoring has emerged as one of the most popular forms of community corrections in the United States today. Electronic monitoring began and/or was first used in approximately 1984. Today, approximately 12,000- 15,000 offenders or participants are being monitored on a daily basis. The electronic monitoring equipment used today allows us to determine if a monitored participant is in his/her required place at the proper time. When I speak of electronic monitoring the first thing that comes to your mind is probably an ankle bracelet. Well, todays technology has called for a few new and interesting not to mention easier forms of ...
    Related: corrections today, electronic monitoring, monitoring, monitoring system, united states today
  • Federal Government - 1,452 words
    Federal Government Electronic Commerce and - FACNET - Electronic Commerce Electronic Commerce (EC) is a concept whereby the acquisition of supplies and services is conducted via a paperless exchange of business information through computers. This new approach to procurement activity requires agreed upon formats and standards by which computers can communicate to each other and transfer information back and forth. This exchange of information is defined as Electronic Data Interchange, or EDI. The Federal Governments recent attempts to streamline Government and reduce costs have focused on the potential of Electronic Commerce to help in achieving these goals. A Brief History of EC, EDI and FAC ...
    Related: federal agency, federal government, government procurement, cash flow, management information
  • Hrm : A Comparison Of Hrm Strategies In Two Local Companies - 1,031 words
    ... ns. A good example of the ill effects that unprepared and poorly controlled employees can have is the demise of Ford UK. Ford has struggled for years to educate their employees into a flexible mold, in an attempt to stem the tide of advancement from foreign firms. The poor quality of HRM at Ford prevented management from adapting to match the cost effectiveness and quality of certain Japanese and German car firms. The famous Ford employee quote, Im not doing that! Its not in my job description., sums up the inherent lack of flexibility in the culture of Fords employees. This culture, predictably has ended with the halting of the majority of Fords manufacture in the UK, and moves to count ...
    Related: comparison, methods used, human resources, working hours, ford
  • Introduction - 1,185 words
    ... nal air pollution legislation appeared until the 50's. The first federal legislation appeared in 1955 when the Air Pollution Control Act was passed. In 1965 the Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Act was passed, establishing national automobile emission regulations for the first time. Then the Air Quality Act of 1967 was passed, providing funds for additional federal research and designating air quality control regions to help establish air pollution criteria. Another goal of this act was to research the cost -effectiveness relation of available engineering control techniques. Later, during the 70's National Air Quality Standards were set for the major pollutants. Primary standards were set for ...
    Related: economic problem, twentieth century, pollution control, sunlight, sulfur
  • Is Legalization A Realistic Alternative To The War On Drugs - 2,299 words
    ... use of the effects of their use, they would continue to engage in stealing and prostitution to pay for drugs and would continue to subject their families and friends to abuse. (Lynch and Blotner 139-144) While there have not been any narcotic legalization experiments in the United States, international experiments support Lynch and Blotner in their claim that legalization would not lead to a reduction in crime. The aforementioned failed experiments in Switzerland and the Netherlands are evidence of the effects legalization would have on crime. The Netherlands became the most crime-prone country in Europe as a result of their experiment, and the Zurich crime rate soared to an all time hig ...
    Related: drug abuse, drug legalization, drug problem, drugs, illegal drug, illegal drugs, illicit drug
  • Managed Care - 1,383 words
    Managed Care Managed Care By Debbie Barbaroussis-Goot Regis University Dr. Ron Shaver April 16, 2001 To decide on whether or not an issue is considered ethical or moral we need the hard cold facts. Facts expose or explain what is to be decided upon - not what the outcome should be. Decisions regarding health care and mental health issues represent a major portion of ethical and moral choices. As individuals we are not always able to understand the justice, or fairness, behind the decisions supposedly based on hard cold facts. Once upon a time being a therapist was considered a calling. The images of a counselor sitting back in their comfy cushioned chairs listening to hours and hours of pati ...
    Related: care delivery, care policy, care providers, care system, health care, managed care
  • Mexico - 3,526 words
    ... to import finished automobiles (although they were required to earn US$2.50 in automobile exports for every US$1 spent on imports). In the early 1980s, automobile exports increased as domestic demand fell. Export growth leveled off in the early 1990s as the domestic market recovered. Growth of total vehicle output slowed from 21 percent in 1991 to 9 percent in 1992. In 1994 vehicle production totaled more than 1 million units, of which 850,000 were cars. Production fell by 16 percent between January and November 1995. During those months, exports rose by 37 percent to 700,000 units, while domestic sales fell by 70 percent, to 140,000 units. Textiles, clothing, and footwear together acco ...
    Related: mexico, mexico city, northern mexico, general agreement, trade relations
  • New Public Management - 1,427 words
    New Public Management INTRODUCTION Public sector reforms adopted in a number of countries such as USA, UK and New Zealand in the last fifteen years and characterised by efficiency units, performance management, contracting out, market type mechanisms, and agency status have come to be known as the New Public Management or NPM. Appearance of the NPM as shifting the paradigm from the old traditional model of administration has been promoted by a remarkable degree of consensus among the political leadership of various countries and is presented today as the major tool for public sector management reforms. The elements of NPM have been implemented in diverse forms in different countries dependin ...
    Related: effective management, management, public administration, public management, public sector, public service, sector management
  • Pain Medicine - 865 words
    Pain Medicine IMPLANTABLE INFUSION DEVICES FOR LONG TERM PAIN MANAGEMENT; EXAMINATION OF ITS EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST OTHER MEASURES I reviewed 36 available articles up to date in order to answer the above question. In my presentation I will start by giving background information about chronic pain. I will discuss different types of delivery systems available, their benefits to the patient, as well as disbenefits, and cost. Chronic pain reduces the quality of life in many patients and restricts their ability to engage in normal daily activities. Although many pain patients may be managed in the long term on oral medications, there is percentage of this population that needs additional or altern ...
    Related: chronic pain, medicine, pain management, side effects, life expectancy
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