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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: chromosomal

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  • Downs Syndrome, It Is One Of The Most Frequently Occurring Chromosomal Abnormalities Found In Humans Effecting People Of All - 1,868 words
    Down's Syndrome, it is one of the most frequently occurring chromosomal abnormalities found in humans effecting people of all ages, races and economic levels. It is a chromosomal anomaly in cell development that results in a person being born with forty-seven chromosomes instead of the normal forty-six chromosomes. People with Down syndrome may have mild to severe learning disabilities and physical symptoms, which include a small skull, extra folds of skin under the eyes, and a protruding tongue. Roughly one out of every one thousand children born making it the most common genetic disorder. Down syndrome affects over 350,000 people, in the United States alone. Down syndrome has plagued the h ...
    Related: chromosomal, down syndrome, downs, human body, human race, occurring
  • Bio Outline - 2,483 words
    ... lecule of glucose requires (1) 18 ATP 7.3 kcal/mole x 18 = 131.4 kcal (2) 12 NADPH 53 kcal/mole x 12 = 636 kcal (a) Note 53 kcal/mole - ref: Campbell pg. 178 for NADH to O2 H2 O (3) Takes 767.4 kcal to make 1 molecule of glucose (686 kcal) (a) 686/767.4 = 89% efficiency. F. PHOTORESPIRATION (Use Study Sheet) 1. Rubisco prefers O2 to CO2 2. If rubisco binds O2 a. Process uses 6 additional ATP b. Regenerates RuBP c. Produces a 2-C compound (instead of 3-C) d. This compound is sent to peroxisome and mitochondrion (1) converted to Glycerate (3C) (2) transported back to chloroplast (3) Uses ATP to convert to 3-PGAL 3. NET LOSS OF ENERGY 4. Some plants waste as much as 50% of the energy they ...
    Related: outline, compare and contrast, citric acid cycle, krebs cycle, acid
  • Cancer - 668 words
    Cancer Good morning ladies and gentlemen, my colleagues and I have called you in at such short notice because we need to discuss a patient who was brought to our attention earlier this week. The patient presented with rapidly progressing lymphadenopathy, subsequent examination lymph nodes congested with many small B-lymphocytes. The B-lymphocytes showed a significant chromosomal aberration in the form a 14;18 translocation. The patient has been diagnosed with lymphoma and has been prescribed an immediate course of chemotherapy. This mornings presentation will include a short description of the cell cycle and how and where certain checkpoints of genomic integrity function. My colleagues Assoc ...
    Related: cancer, good morning, protein synthesis, cell division, mutation
  • Cancer - 1,894 words
    ... Bibliography Of all the diseases and viruses that are known to man, no other can strike fear in so many peoples hearts, as the word cancer. What is cancer? Cancer is a new growth of tissue resulting from a continuous proliferation of abnormal cells that have the ability to invade and destroy other tissues.1 Cancer may be found in any type of cell or tissue in the human body. Cancer is not found in just humans, but also in animals and plants. Cancer cells can grow where ever normal cells grow or divide. Cancer is not one disease but many single diseases classified under one name.2 In our bodies we produce many thousands of new cells everyday. We produce these cell in order to grow until ...
    Related: american cancer, breast cancer, cancer, cancer research, cancer society, colon cancer, human cancer
  • Career Review: Pharmacist - 1,307 words
    ... dynamics 1 (CHEM254), Organic Chemistry2/Laboratory (CHEM 265/265L), Physics2/Laboratory (PHYS112/112L), (Third year) Advanced Cell Biology (BIOL 331), Physical Biochemistry (CHEM 357), Synthetic Organic Chemistry/Laboratory (CHEM 360/360L), Molecular Biology (BIOL330), Metabolism 1(CHEM333), Advanced Biochemistry Laboratory (CHEM334L), Elementary Statistics for biology (STAT202), And four elective courses, (Fourth year) Elective courses chosen from Group A, B, and C (Seven credits from Group A, B, and C, with at least 5.5 credits from Group A and B, of which are not less than 4.0 credits are from Group A). Group A: (BIOL 342) Molecular Biotechnology 1, (BIOL 428) The Molecular Genetics ...
    Related: pharmacist, social issues, drug therapy, unemployment rate, structural
  • Cell Structure And Function - 566 words
    Cell Structure And Function CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION All living things are made of the same basic building blocks, cells. A human is made of 65 trillion cells. Cells are everywhere, on you skin, in your blood, and even on your tongue. In fact, your blood is clear but red blood cells are what make your blood red. Most living things are made up of many cells but some are made of only one cell, like amebas, paramecium, fungi, protists, monerans, and bacteria. There are two basic types of cells, animal cells and plant cells. They have some common parts found in both and other parts that are unique to each. A cell membrane is found in both plant and animal cells. It is the structure that surro ...
    Related: cell, cell structure, building blocks, different ways, thick
  • Cerebral Palsy - 908 words
    Cerebral Palsy Katherine Dillon Child Psychology Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a term used to describe disorders of movement that result from injury to the brain. It is a problem of muscle coordination. The muscles themselves are not effected but the brain is unable to send the appropriate signals necessary to instruct the muscles when to contract or relax. Cerebral Palsy can be caused by numerous problems occurring in the prenatal period, prematurity, labor and delivery complication in the newborn period due to genetic or chromosomal abnormality to the brain may not develop in the typical way. Some environmental factors such as drugs metabolic problems, and placental dysfunction may also lead to C ...
    Related: cerebral, cerebral palsy, palsy, technical support, resource center
  • Chapter 10 Definitions - 556 words
    Chapter 10 Definitions autosome: any chromosome other than the sex chromosome base deletion: a mutation in which a nucleotide is lost from the DNA sequence base insertion: a mutation in which a nucleotide base is added to the DNA sequence carrier: an individual who is heterozygous for a recessive trait chromosome mapping: a method of determining the relative position of genes on a chromosome using information on crossover frequency crossing over: exchange of parts between two homologous chromosomes deletion: a mutation in which a chromosomal piece breaks off and is lost frame-shift mutation: a mutation in which a base deletion or insertion cause the genes message to be translated incorrectly ...
    Related: turner syndrome, sickle cell, cell disease, error, syndrome
  • Chernobyl - 1,003 words
    Chernobyl La era nuclear empieza a partir de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, a 50 aos de este suceso histrico, dos ciudades nuevas se han levantado de las cenizas atmicas de esta catastrfica guerra. En una de estas ciudades, Chernobyl, a diez aos de la explosin nuclear, poblaciones enteras han sido abandonadas alrededor del reactor destruido, para escapar del agua y del alimento contaminados producidos en el suelo que una vez fuera rico. En el mismo perodo desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la mayora de los bosques tropicales fueron destruidos. Se encontro una declinacin dramtica en las especies de plantas y de animales. Los antroplogos registraron una catstrofe global tan enorme que probablemente ...
    Related: chernobyl, bone marrow, fuel cells, immune system, migration
  • Ergot - 1,204 words
    Ergot Ergot and its disease ergotism have been a worldwide plague to humans ever since humans have started to harvest and cultivate grains in all their forms. Although outbreaks of ergotism still occur periodically they have all but become nonexistent in the modern era. Ergot has had beneficial effects as well. Ergot has produced medicines, which are vital to the medicine world. Ergot has produced in the world's eyes an ugly stepsister to its medicines: LSD. D-lysergic acid diethylamide known to the world as LSD is a derivative of ergot. Ergot has had a far and wide-ranging impact on man unrealized by most people. Ergot fungi are molds that infect rye and other cereals and wild grasses (Micr ...
    Related: term effects, microsoft encarta, recreational drug, chronic, physiologically
  • Eugenics - 1,452 words
    Eugenics President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." The Civil War was fought to save the republic and free the enslaved. World War II was fought to save the world and stop a group which thought they were a superior race. What do these two wars have in common? They were fought, in part, for equality. The difference or believed difference between people causes tension and discrimination. Genetic engineering will cause a new form of differences between people and will c ...
    Related: eugenics, equal opportunity, abraham lincoln, genetically modified, tangible
  • Eugenics - 2,066 words
    ... orn or even fertilized. In this way, a doctor can see that a child will have a genetic disorder and can prepare the parents for the child's birth. The general term for these practices is genetic counseling. This is an umbrella term which includes in vitro fertilization, artificial insemination, amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling. In vitro fertilization and artificial insemination are techniques that were originally created in order to overcome infertility among couples. In vitro fertilization involves fertilizing an egg outside a woman's body and later inserting it into the uterus. Artificial insemination involves placing sperm inside a female in order to fertilize an egg. Due t ...
    Related: eugenics, therapeutic intervention, social costs, vitro fertilization, makeup
  • Fragile X Syndrome - 623 words
    FRAGILE X SYNDROME Fragile X Syndrome is an inherited genetic condition associated with mental retardation. It is caused by a mutation of the "X" chromosome. Fathers cannot pass the disease onto their sons, because females always give an "x" chromosome where a man gives either an "x" or a "y." If a man gives a "y" chromosome, then the result is a boy baby, and since the disease is only carried in the "x" chromosome, a boy can only inherit this disease from his mother. A girl, on the other hand, can inherit the disease from either her father or mother. Interestingly enough, more boys than girls are affected by this disease. Fragile X syndrome appears in children of all ethnic, racial, and eco ...
    Related: down syndrome, fragile, fragile x syndrome, syndrome, northern california
  • Genetic Screening - 1,580 words
    Genetic Screening Genetic screening, also known as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), is a newly emerging technology that has brought with it much controversy. PGD involves the in vitro fertilization of an embryo. The embryos are allowed to develop to a 6 to 10 cell stage, at which point one of the embryonic cells is removed from each embryo and the cellular DNA is analyzed for chromosomal abnormalities or genetic mutations (Botkin, 1998). In doing this, it can be determined which embryos will be most likely to implant and germinate successfully in the uterus. PGD is a complicated, technologically sophisticated process. It is a union of in vetro fertilization technology and molecular b ...
    Related: genetic, genetic screening, genetic testing, screening, colon cancer
  • Genetics - 2,123 words
    Genetics Genetics: Issues of IVF, screening, pre-selection, genetic testing, cloning and the social implications. James Watson once said, We used to think that our fate was in our stars. Now we know that, in large measure, our fate is in our Genes (Jaroff 1998). On June 26th 2000, The Human Genome Project will unveil its rough draft mapping of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences within the human chromosomes (genetic code), to the public. The project has been ongoing since the late eighties, and is a huge international exercise, which has so far cost approximately 3 billion dollars. The final draft is expected to be complete by the year 2003 and the assumption is that it will have a mas ...
    Related: genetic code, genetic disease, genetic disorder, genetic screening, genetic testing, genetics
  • Genomics - 1,424 words
    ... uggests that DZ twins, which are similar but not identical in terms of genotype, respond quite differently. Parents and their children are even more genetically different that non-identical siblings, so it seems that a child would have a significantly different beta-endorphin response from its parent. The whole basis for the conclusion that risk for alcoholism is genetic is that DZ twins are not as similar in their response as are MZ twins. This demonstrates that parental alcoholism does not necessarily translate into similar risk of alcoholism in the child. A parent and child are not identical in their genome. The second study suggests that the COMT gene, which is involved in dopamine m ...
    Related: genomics, research center, sample size, risk factor, dopamine
  • I Believed This Was A World - 1,976 words
    I believed this was a world In which all men were brothers Across the four seas Why then do the waves and winds Arise now in such turmoil? ~by Meiji Emperorar ~recited by Japanese Emperor in 1945 *Emperor Hirohito On August 6, 1945 at 8:15am history was made. The first atomic bomb called Little Boy was dropped in Hiroshima, Japan. Again on August 9 a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. Hundreds of thousands of people died. With hundreds of thousands more injured. These days of radioactive heat rays of more then 3000 degrees Celsius instantly burning skin, bulldozing houses and even evaporating human existence was not needed to win war over Japan, nor should it have been. Causing a co ...
    Related: world leaders, world peace, simon schuster, new zealand, incredible
  • Intelligence: Genetic And Environmental Factors - 1,957 words
    ... ay not be passed down because they are broken up at meiosis and a new genotype is formed at conception. One of the consequences of the Human Genome Project, tasked with sequencing the entire human complement of DNA, is a public perception that scientists are developing a molecular understanding of the human condition. Seldom a month goes by without a media article trumpeting a new genetic link to a behavior or disease. Everything from schizophrenia to television watching is postulated to be linked to genetics, yet scientists are a long way from being able to explain the ramifications of the human genome sequence. Kaye (1992) suggests that phrasing used by the media such as gene for alcoh ...
    Related: biological factors, cultural factors, environmental, environmental factors, environmental influences, genetic
  • Klinefelter - 487 words
    Klinefelter Klinesfelters syndrome is a genetic endocrine disorder that affects about one in five hundred to one in one thousand live born males. It is the most common chromosomal variation found among humans(Klinefelters Syndrome & Associates). Klinefelters Syndrome is characterized by a lack of normal sexual development, infertility, and psychological adjustment problems (Wyndbrant, Ludman 317). In this chromosomal variation an extra "X" chromosome is present in the sex chromosome, the twenty-third chromosome. Klinefelters Syndrome is also know as "XXY Syndrome." Klinefelters Syndrome was named after H.F. Klinefelter, who studied these patients at Harvard. Klinefelter noted similar charact ...
    Related: language problems, self esteem, psychological adjustment, patients, passive
  • Leukemia - 1,190 words
    Leukemia According to the Cancer Book from the American Cancer Society, Leukemia is a cancer of the blood. It was first identified as a new disease in around 1830 in Germany. The scientific term, "leukemia," comes from the Greek words that mean "white blood." The disease is described as a cancerous disorder not just of the blood itself, but also of the organs that produce the blood cells in the body. The organs are mainly the bone marrow and the lymph system, where normal red and white cells, lymph cells, and platelets grow before entering the bloodstream. Normal cells usually go through the same process but with differences in rate, number, and function ability. With the disease, the bone m ...
    Related: leukemia, personal health, large numbers, cancer society, adult
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