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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: utilitarian

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  • Abortion In Utilitarian Terms - 1,387 words
    Abortion In Utilitarian Terms Abortion This essay is an analysis of abortion in utilitarian terms. Compared to some writings on abortion, it is very short. And it is short for good reason: utilitarianism really has very little to say on this issue. Intuitionists will predictably take this as proof of the inadequacy of utilitarianism. The utilitarian, however, after noticing the various muddles produced by the intuitionist - the arguments over whether the fetus is a person, whether one person has the right to the use of another's body and/or whether someone has the right to determine what occurs in their own body (and in the case of both, the interminable debates as to what is to be done abou ...
    Related: abortion, utilitarian, animal abuse, high cost, poorer
  • Moral Judgement Kant Utilitarian - 659 words
    ) Moral Judgement (Kant / Utilitarian.) ) Moral Judgement (Kant / Utilitarian.) First of all I want to state the Kantian and the Utilitarian views butt heads on this issue. The Kantian view is nonconsequential, that is as a matter of principle with the consequences be damned. The Utilitarian view is consequential with the results given as much consideration as possible. I will attempt to explain what I mean through some examples. Some school systems hand out condoms free of charge to their students. The Utilitarian view would be that this is a good thing. They would state that by doing so they are stopping unwanted pregnancies that in turn could cost society. This program would help stop the ...
    Related: judgement, kant, utilitarian, utilitarian view, good thing
  • Buckley Jr - 2,713 words
    1. WM. F. BUCKLEY JR. Last summer WFB was asked by the New York Bar Association to make a statement to the panel of lawyers considering the drug question. He made the following statement: We are speaking of a plague that consumes an estimated $75 billion per year of public money, exacts an estimated $70 billion a year from consumers, is responsible for nearly 50 per cent of the million Americans who are today in jail, occupies an estimated 50 per cent of the trial time of our judiciary, and takes the time of 400,000 policemen--yet a plague for which no cure is at hand, nor in prospect. Perhaps you, ladies and gentlemen of the Bar, will understand it if I chronicle my own itinerary on the sub ...
    Related: buckley, illegal drug, medical care, federal government, princeton
  • Buckley Jr - 2,624 words
    ... alleviate the symptoms of glaucoma; to improve appetite dangerously reduced from AIDS. They use it as an effective medicine, yet they are technically regarded as criminals, and every year many are jailed. Although more than 75 per cent of Americans believe that marijuana should be available legally for medical purposes, the Federal Government refuses to legalize access or even to sponsor research. 2. Drugs are here to stay. The time has come to abandon the concept of a "drug-free society." We need to focus on learning to live with drugs in such a way that they do the least possible harm. So far as I can ascertain, the societies that have proved most successful in minimizing drug-related ...
    Related: buckley, war on drugs, johns hopkins, community policing, stick
  • A Critique Of Philosophical Approaches To Criminal Justice Reform - 1,000 words
    A Critique Of Philosophical Approaches To Criminal Justice Reform People are arrested every day in the United States. They are put on probation or sent to jail, and sometimes they are let out on parole; there are millions of people affected. In 1995 alone there were over five million people under some form of correctional supervision, and the number is steadily increasing. The incarceration rate is skyrocketing: the number of prison inmates per 100,000 people has risen from 139 in 1980 to 411 in 1995. This is an immense financial burden on the country. Federal expenditure for correctional institutions alone increased 248% from 1982 to 1992. Obviously something has to be changed in the justic ...
    Related: approaches, criminal, criminal activity, criminal acts, criminal behavior, criminal justice, criminal mind
  • A Sociological Look At Jaws - 1,690 words
    A Sociological Look At Jaws The movie I choose to review was Jaws, which is one of my favorites and a timeless classic. A traditional story about man against beast takes place on an island that depends on its summer tourist business. When the summer season in threatened by a series of shark attacks three men are sent out to track down a great white shark. The three main (human) characters are Brody (Roy Scheider), the police chief, who came to the island from New York looking, so he thought, for a change from the fears of the city. There's Quint (Robert Shaw), a caricature of the crusty old seafaring salt, who has a very personal reason for hating sharks. And there's Hooper (Richard Dreyfuss ...
    Related: jaws, sociological, turning point, working class, ocean
  • Absolutism And Relativism - 1,251 words
    Absolutism And Relativism Absolutism and relativism are two extreme ethical approaches to reality. While they are both valid and supported by facts, they are very contrasting in their views. Values are what a person cares about and thinks is worthwhile. For example, values can include life, love, religious faith, freedom, relationships, health, justice, education, family and many other things. Usually these values are what provides the passion in a person's life, and gives them hope and a reason for being. A person might go to any lengths to protect what they feel is right and to preserve these values. Values can be divided up into two subcategories: absolute and relative. Absolute values de ...
    Related: absolutism, relativism, john stuart mill, more important, fundamental
  • An Ethical Dilemna - 1,185 words
    An Ethical Dilemna Dilemma- Taken from: Business Ethics - Ethical Decision Making and Cases A Real Life Situation pages 62-63 After three years with the company, Sandy was promoted to assistant plant manager. This was a big step for Unity Welding and Construction, as well as for the industry; Sandy was one of only a handful of women who had broken through the "glass ceiling" and made their way into management. She had proved to the men around her that she deserved the job, and she was now being toasted by assistant managers from other plants across the country John, her boss, had been her advocate with the company. He had personally lobbied upper management in her behalf. Unity Welding and C ...
    Related: ethical, ethical decision, ethical decision-making, environmental protection agency, quality control
  • An Ethical Dilemna - 1,165 words
    ... will have to say that overlooking everything would benefit almost everyone involved. Sandy will have to doctor up the quality-control reports, but this is considered acceptable in the Utilitarianism viewpoint because she will save many peoples jobs. If Sandy does modify the quality-control reports, she will be supporting John who has helped and supported her career when no one else believed in her. This decision would also benefit the good of the company because they would not have to layoff their most productive workers around the Christmas holidays. If they did lay off their most productive workers, the company would be left with the least productive and lazy workers because they have ...
    Related: ethical, ethical behavior, ethical decision, ethical decision-making, ethical standards
  • Aristotle: Highest End To All Things Is Happiness - 624 words
    Aristotle: Highest End To All Things Is Happiness Aristotle argues things people do aims at some end or end. The highest end to all of these things is attaining happiness. I maintain that it is impossible for a human being to be happy according to Aristotle's definition due to the fact that he sets strict conditions of perfect virtue thus happiness. Aristotle suggests that happiness is not a state, but rather we count happiness as an activity. He argues that happiness is an activity of the soul in accordance with perfect virtue. This cannot be true, because if one, at anytime, acts outside of perfect virtue than he has undermined the whole "activity." Aristotle argues that happiness is not f ...
    Related: human beings, happy life, deny, accordance
  • Business Ethics - 1,474 words
    Business Ethics As a corporate manager of a publicly held company, one is responsible for the interests of many different stakeholders. In the past, it has been a very common assumption and practice that corporate managers of a company should strive to act solely for the benefit of shareholders, or owners of the company. Corporate managers were trained to take any actions necessary or use any means possible to improve the bottom line; or profits, without regard to other stakeholders. As a business student at San Diego State, I had adopted this same bottom line philosophy that had been preached to me since the day of my first business class. I had bought into these teachings so wholeheartedly ...
    Related: business ethics, doing business, ethics, acid rain, utilitarian perspective
  • Catagorical Imperative - 1,590 words
    ... at lying was deontologically bad i.e. immoral despite the consequences. However we must consider, why is lying bad in itself? Why should it be the duty of all man not to lie? Kant would say that in considering lying, one must ponder whether the maxim of the action could become a universal law. Therefore isnt Kant looking at morality from a teleological perspective, for one must consider the consequence of lying in order to be able to universalise truth telling? In Kants Categorical Imperative he is really using a Hypothetical Imperative on a larger scale. Universalising is always moving toward the teleological as it is always considering the consequence. I believe that lying is bad becau ...
    Related: categorical imperative, imperative, facing death, moral decision, credit
  • Categorical Imperative - 1,088 words
    Categorical Imperative The principle of private happiness states that an individuals prosperity is weighed in proportion to that persons good conduct. In short, ones peace of mind is empirically measured by how virtuous one is towards others and to himself. Kants objection to ethical theories that use this idea emanates from the fact that it extends human reason, one that determines good will and good conduct, outwards instead of inwards, reason being automatic, inherent in an individual. The above doctrine puts motive on virtues, meaning that ones good conduct is being used as a means to an end. Morality is not established because the inner self is not developed out of ones duty but instead ...
    Related: categorical, categorical imperative, imperative, last time, good and evil
  • Cesare Beccaria - 656 words
    Cesare Beccaria Cesare Beccaria is one of the most famous criminal justice theorists of all time. He lived from 1738 to 1794. He was the eldest son of an Aristocratic Family and was educated in a Jesuit school. His fascination with philosophy lead to him a bunch of friends who soon formed a group called the academy of fists. This group focused their attention on reforming the criminal justice system. This group exposed Beccaria to many great philosophers, who encouraged his work. One to his motivators was a philosopher named Pietro who was in favor of the idea protesting against torture to obtain confession for the law and justice system. As well as many other injustices going on such as, th ...
    Related: beccaria, cesare, cesare beccaria, social contract, criminal justice
  • Cocaine - 1,412 words
    Cocaine Cocaine is an alkaloid found in leaves of a South American shrub. It is a powerfully reinforcing stimulant. The drug induces a sense of exhilaration in the user primarily by blocking the dopamine from going into your brain. Life-long happiness will be genetically pre-programmed. "Peak experiences" will become a natural part of everyday mental health. Cocaine, alas, offers merely a tragically delusive short-cut. Before Columbian times, the coca leaf was reserved for Inca royalty. The natives subsequently used it for mystical, religious, social, nutritional and medicinal purposes. They exploited its stimulant properties to ward off fatigue and hunger, enhance endurance, and to promote ...
    Related: cocaine, human experience, sherlock holmes, drug testing, wonderful
  • Concept Of Prostitution - 1,181 words
    Concept Of Prostitution Introduction The concept of prostitution is one that causes a visceral revulsion in conventional Western morality - a symptom of which is how the many colloquial terms for a prostitute, such as 'whore', or 'harlot', are commonly used as denigratory pejoratives towards women. Although a persistent phenomenon throughout human history , it remains difficult to view prostitution in an objective light - various cultures have alternately tried to ban it on religious or moralistic grounds, or stigmatise it under a "don't-ask-don't-tell" sort of veneer which was a barely-tolerated but necessary evil of society. It is interesting to note that despite an increasingly secularise ...
    Related: prostitution, sanctity of marriage, john paul, human history, adverse
  • Constantine Brancusi - 1,565 words
    Constantine Brancusi Constantine Brancusi I found it very difficult to find information on Constantine Brancusi in hard copy, therefore, you will see at the end of my paper that all of my sources are websites. The little information I did locate on the artist was very, very little. Therefore, I combined the small amount of information with some research I found on artists that were strongly influenced by Brancusi. Brancusi's imprint on contemporary sculptural practice ranges from the dissemination of furniture-oriented sculpture and the emerging topos of architectural folly to new paradigms for public art. At the same time many postwar artists engaging in a dialogue with his legacy have read ...
    Related: brancusi, constantine, research paper, social environment, london
  • Control As Enterprise: Reflections On Privatization And Criminal Justice - 2,864 words
    ... ness with non-profit community groups that ran many of the halfway houses and towards corporate, commercial, and for-profit groups. Second, I think this decision signals a move away from humane or at least human forms of supervision in favour of a move toward technological forms of supervision, a move from human to technological control. Let me know talk a little bit about capsicum. A more difficult scenario arose when the Ministry of the Solicitor General was approached by the private sector to try and market capsicum for use by police officers. Capsicum is a form of pepper which when packaged in a can and sprayed has the effect of totally immobilising its human target. Now given that c ...
    Related: crime control, criminal, criminal justice, justice system, privatization
  • Cultural Relativism: Is Truth Defined By Our Culture Or Our Culture By Truth - 1,597 words
    Cultural Relativism: Is Truth Defined By Our Culture Or Our Culture By Truth? In his article "Cultural relativism and cultural values", Melville Herkovits defines the principle of cultural relativism as "judgements are based on experience, and experience is interpreted by each individual in terms of his own enculturation" (26). This is the basic premise of cultural relativism, that beliefs, values, and morals are all based on one's culture. Therefore, since morality is based on society and different societies have different views of right and wrong, there can be no moral absolutes. Since there are no absolutes, under this view of cultural relativism all moral views determined by one's cultur ...
    Related: african culture, american culture, cultural relativism, cultural values, western culture
  • Death Penalty - 765 words
    Death Penalty I feel that the Death Penalty is wrong, and I dont see how anyone could justify killing somebody with killing somebody. I think our socity is just using this for a band-aid for the real problems of our socity, we need to get back to our roots and stop the problems before they start. Nobody knows the date and the hour in which they will die, but in many states now you know the date and hour very well. Also there are to many issues that nobody but God should decide on, read what follows. The Rights and Privileges of Prisoners During the past year, there has been increasing discussion of the rights and privileges of prisoners. Some of these--such as exercise and weight lifting--re ...
    Related: death penalty, penalty, justice system, illinois university, felons
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