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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: transport

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  • Active Transport - 1,302 words
    Active Transport Since the cell membrane is somewhat permeable to sodium ions, simple diffusion would result in a net movement of sodium ions into the cell, until the concentrations on the two sides of the membrane became equal. Sodium actually does diffuse into the cell rather freely, but as fast as it does so, the cell actively pumps it out again, against the concentration difference. The mechanism by which the cell pumps the sodium ions out is called active transport. Active transport requires the expenditure of energy for the work done by the cell in moving molecules against a concentration gradient. Active transport enables a cell to maintain a lower concentration of sodium inside the c ...
    Related: transport, early stages, carbon dioxide, carried away, chloroplasts
  • Challenges Facing Urban Transport In Asia Construction - 1,552 words
    - Challenges Facing Urban Transport In Asia - Construction CHALLENGES FACING URBAN TRANSPORT IN ASIA Abstract- One of the greatest challenges facing the new millennium is to effect a well integrated and environmentally acceptable solution for urban transportation. In spite of many decades of studies, involving research and experiments, success has often been elusive and more importantly, there is still a lack of consensus of what constitutes an acceptable integrated transport policy within the urban fabric The paper analyses the global trend towards urbanisation and demonstrates that while there are megacites throughout the world,there is a concentration of them in the Asian region and that ...
    Related: asia, challenges facing, construction, facing, transport, urban, urban areas
  • Challenges Facing Urban Transport In Asia Construction - 1,594 words
    ... employment and services so as to shorten journeys, public transport availability effectiveness and fares, and road pricing. 1.Short term Measures : a. Pricing and Finance : In urbanized areas with substantial amount of congestion caused by motorization, road pricing offers the best solution since it promotes both the purposes; it encourages that the socially efficient number of trips be undertaken and raises revenue to finance road ways and transport expansion to the efficient level. More ever, road pricing can contribute to viable loan financing and voluntary participation of the private sector. Some supplements to other basic taxes which may be used are petrol tax and parking fees, w ...
    Related: asia, challenges facing, construction, facing, transport, urban, urban development
  • South African Food Security And The Lack Of Transport Systems - 841 words
    South African Food Security And The Lack Of Transport Systems Bus. Policy 402 3/27/00 South African Food Security and the lack of Transport Systems Agriculture is often a major part of any countries economy. It not only serves as a means of feeding the nations people, but also may serve as an excellent export to other countries. We are all familiar with Florida Oranges, Idaho Potatoes, and even Wisconsin Cheese. These have become famous for their unique taste or perhaps just marketability, which is an important strategy of foodstuffs next to the transportation systems. For example, because ours in the U.S. are up to date, it allows us to get certain crops, such as rice from Japan in a timely ...
    Related: african, food security, south african, transport, transport system
  • The Role Of Transport Proteins In Eukaryotic Organisms And Their Potential Exploitation In Genetically Modified Plants - 1,228 words
    The role of transport proteins in eukaryotic organisms and their potential exploitation in genetically modified plants There are three major types of membrane transport proteins (Lodish, et. al, 1995). ATP-powered pumps derive the energy required for energetically unfavorable transport of ions or molecules via the hydrolysis of ATP. Channel proteins engage in passive transport, moving particular ions, or water down their respective concentration gradients. Transporters use the slowest mechanism for transport binding only one or a few substrate molecules for transport at a time. All three of these types of molecules contribute to the amazing selectivity of plasma membranes and are, thus, crit ...
    Related: eukaryotic, exploitation, genetically, genetically modified, modified, organisms, plant species
  • Downs Syndrome, Turners Syndrome, And Redgreen Color Blindness - 682 words
    1.) Three genetic disorders are Down's syndrome, Turner's syndrome, and Red-green color blindness. They are all caused by undesirable genes inherited by normal genetic mechanisms. These mutations are usually recessive because dominant ones usually die. Turner's Syndrome is caused by faulty cell division known as non disjunction. This occurs when chromosomes fail to separate. IN this disorder, the affected have one "x" chromosome. The effect are an underdeveloped female, mental retardedness, and sterility. Down syndrome is a condition caused by an oddosome that occurs on the pair #21. It results in severe abnormality physical and mental defects. For example, shorter bubble-shape eyes, short f ...
    Related: blindness, down syndrome, downs, cell division, external environment
  • 15 Geog 123 - 1,575 words
    15 - GEOG - 123 Anthony November 22, 2000 Travels In Alaska Travels in Alaska takes readers on a trip to Alaska through the vivid descriptions of the author, John Muir. The book is based on journals Muir wrote during his visits to Alaska in 1879, 1880, and 1890. These chronicles of his journey relate his observations of nature, glaciers, and the many people he met. Traveling on foot, by canoe, and dogsled Muir experienced excitement discovering unfamiliar types of lands and animals. Each summer Muir and his new found Presbyterian missionary friend S. Hall Young accompanied by Tlingit Indian guides launched extensive voyages of discovery in a thirty foot canoe. John Muir was a naturalists who ...
    Related: typical american, john muir, gold rush, oval, exploration
  • A Parasite Is Defined As An Organism That Lives In Or On Another Organism, Called A Host 2 If The Parasite Has The Capacity T - 1,538 words
    A parasite is defined as an organism that lives in or on another organism, called a host (2). If the parasite has the capacity to cause disease in the host then the parasite is called a pathogen. Disease in the host is caused by the infection of the parasite. The interaction between the host and parasite is complex. Both the pathogen and the host strive for survival in some of the cases. The pathogen divides within or on the host in an attempt to keep its species alive while the hosts defense mechanisms simultaneously attempt to eliminate the pathogen. The extent of the battle for survival varies depending on the relationship. This paper discusses the disease state of Chlamydia; how the orga ...
    Related: capacity, host, organism, parasite, upper saddle
  • Acid Rain - 1,289 words
    Acid Rain Pollution comes in various forms. Whether its toxic waste, CFCs, or sewage, they are all hazardous, to the earth. These can deplete the earth and its inhabitants of resources, causing a harmful change. A product of pollution is acid rain. We shall see that acidification is harmful to all forms of life. Acid rain is any form of precipitation that is polluted by sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX). This acid precipitation can be in the form of rain, snow, sleet, fog, or cloud vapors. The acidity of substances dissolved in water are measured by their pH levels. Normal precipitation pH levels fall between 5.0-5.6.2 When levels fall below these numbers, then the precipitati ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, rain, human activity, food supply
  • Acid Rain - 1,774 words
    Acid Rain What is acid rain? Acid rain is the term for pollution caused when sulfur and nitrogen dioxides combine with atmospheric moisture. The term 'acid rain' is slightly misleading, and would be more accurate if deemed 'enhanced acid rain', as rain occurs acidic naturally. Acidity is measured on what is know as the pH scale. Fourteen is the most basic, seven is the most neutral, and zero is the most acidic. Pure rain has a pH level of 7, which is exactly neutral. The acidity of rain is determined by the pH of pure water in reaction with atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, resulting in carbonic acid. These particles partly dissociate to produce hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, rain, electric utilities, major change
  • Adolf Hitler - 818 words
    Adolf Hitler What is greatness? Who can be considered as a great person? When we talk about a person being great, we often think about a good or a hero type of a person. We sometimes think of greatness as a heroic title to a person. A person with good qualities and a person that has great strength physically. But what does greatness in a person really mean? If someone asks you: Was Adolf Hitler a great person? what would you say? Knowing Hitler's history when he ordered the killings of the Jews and how the war started might have an affect on how you will answer. But if you look at how Hitler gained Germany's trust and confidence, how he took control of Germany and other countries, and how lo ...
    Related: adolf, adolf hitler, hitler, everyday life, first world
  • Adolf Hitler - 903 words
    Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Branau, Austria, a small town across the inn River from Germany. He was the third son of Customs Official, Alois Hitler, and his third wife Klara. Alois moved his family into Linz, Austria where Adolf attended school and church regularly. Young Hitler was a good student until his mother's death when Adolf was only sixteen, and having his dad die just two years prior, he dropped out of school and made his way to Vienna, Austria to study art but poverty and rejection forced degradation that gnawed at his soul. He found relief in hatred in trade unionists and Marxists and thanks to the propaganda of Karl Lueger, in the hatred of Jews. Hitl ...
    Related: adolf, adolf hitler, alois hitler, hitler, democratic republic
  • Advertising, The Good With The Bad - 1,119 words
    Advertising, The Good With The Bad Mass Communication Process Thesis Paper Advertising (Chapter 11) Advertising is a necessary market force that is responsible for the success of most, and involved in all, forms of Multimedia. It is also responsible for some of our most powerful and long-living icons that dominate the American landscape. Advertising, like it or not, is everywhere. It is on buses, billboards and hot-air balloons. It invades our living rooms, our classrooms and almost every aspect of human life. The average American is exposed to 115 advertisements during their morning commute. With this much exposure to the consumer market, one wonders weather or not this is good or bad for t ...
    Related: communication process, natural world, mass communication, drinkers, technological
  • Aids And Retroviruses - 1,241 words
    AIDS And Retroviruses Today, tens of millions of people around the world are going to die young because they are infected by HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The primary AIDS virus is HIV-1, which can be spread via sexual intercourse or drug use (activities, which result in body fluid exchange like blood and semen). HIV can also be passed from mother to child and can also be acquired during blood transfusions. AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, is a virus that causes a loss of protection against disease causing microorganisms. People who are infected by AIDS usually have a decline in the number of T-cells that are responsible for their immune system. Because the virus reproduces by a ...
    Related: aids, immune system, deficiency syndrome, fact sheet, mediate
  • Air And Water - 412 words
    Air And Water A major transition in the modern energy age began in the 1970s, when the big nations industry started to grow up rapidly. The use of oil was very important and overnight, oil prices shot through the roof, and the trend of ever-cheaper, ever-more-plentiful energy sources were in need. Another player on the modern energy stage is nuclear power. An industry that didn't exist 40 years ago is now at a huge amount of production, producing 20 percent of the nation's electricity. Ironically, the industry is fading out. New orders ceased 20 years ago, and as aging plants reach the end of their lives, they are closing, one by one. All the non-renewable energy resources have positive and ...
    Related: renewable energy, fuel cells, nuclear fusion, chernobyl, cheap
  • Air Force History - 920 words
    Air Force History 1- The position of Chief Master Sergeants of the Air Force occupies the top enlisted grade, and has great responsibility and prestige in the Air Force. The objective of this background paper is to inform on the career progression, awards, and decorations of the former Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force Thomas N. Barnes. In the first main point, I will trace the former CMSAF military career from Non-Commissioned Officer to Senior Non-Commissioned Officer Tier. Secondly, I will discuss the major awards and decorations of former CMSAF Thomas N. Barnes. CMSAF Thomas N. Barnes has been a significant figure in the development of Air Force History. 2- In April 1949 Chief Barne ...
    Related: force base, history, internet history, government printing, armed forces
  • Air Pollution In Australia - 1,002 words
    Air Pollution In Australia 1. Identify current trends, scale and likely future sources of carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, particles and photochemical oxidants..... AGA notes that considerable background material is already available on this issue including the State of the Environment Report and other processes being developed through the NEPC. It is important that reporting by the Inquiry take account of existing material. 2. Identify and evaluate management options for each of the identified pollutants, including options which address one or more pollutants together, which will lead to improved urban air quality in the medium (5-10 years) and longer (10-15 years) ...
    Related: air pollution, australia, pollution, federal government, development strategy
  • Air Quality - 1,726 words
    Air Quality Air Quality & Dispersion Today, the air quality aspect of ARL research is by far the dominant theme, but distinctions among the themes remain somewhat vague. For example, the models developed for emergency response purposes are among those used for air quality prediction. The Air Quality and Dispersion theme is one of the strongest ties that binds ARL's components together. ARL is not heavily involved in the pure science of the business. Instead, ARL focusses on the need to assemble integrated understanding and models from all available sources, to develop the capability to predict changes in air quality that will follow changes in emissions, or that will occur as a result of met ...
    Related: quality assurance, scientific research, global positioning system, silver spring, zone
  • Airline Safety Bill 2001 - 1,711 words
    Airline Safety Bill (2001) Introduction (Background of Actors): There are quite a few actors in respect to interest groups and domestic airline safety. The interest groups come from varying backgrounds of business, labor, government and public interest. The actors that we are focused on are the domestic airline companies, the aerospace industry, private security firms, various labor groups, National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT), Congress, The World Conference on Transportation Research Society (WCTRS) and the American people. Business Sector The business sector plays a major role in our domestic airline safe ...
    Related: airline, airline industry, national transportation safety board, safety regulations, transportation safety board
  • Alaska Airlines - 1,400 words
    Alaska Airlines Alaska Airlines For nearly 70 years, Alaska Airlines has served the west coast of North America. Alaska Airlines has grown from a small regional airline in 1932 to one today that carries more than 12 million customers per year. Alaskas route system spans more than 40 cities and primarily services four countries: Canada, United States, Mexico, and Russia. Its fleet of 88 Boeing jets is the youngest among all major airlines and it has earned U.S. airline recognition from Travel & Leisure and Cond Nast Traveler magazines. The foundation of Alaska Airlines began in 1932, when Mac McGee started flying his three-seat Stinson between Anchorage and Bristol Bay, Alaska. In 1934, a mer ...
    Related: airline industry, alaska, san jose, total assets, financially
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