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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: bandwidth

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  • Adsl Modems - 659 words
    Adsl Modems Does the humble telephone lines play a major role in shaping the third millennium? Can a mere pair of thin copper wires twisted around each other transmit Internet data reliably and securely at blazing fast speed, making it possible to view high-quality moving images, sound and vast amounts of data on your personal computer screen or television? The answer is yes, as the growing success of DSL (digital subscriber line) technology abundantly demonstrates. The capacity of a communications channel depends on its bandwidth and its signal-to-noise ratio. A voice connection through a conventional phone network uses a bandwidth of about 3,000 hertz (Hz): from about 300 Hz to 3,300 Hz. A ...
    Related: adsl, cable modems, alexander graham bell, personal computer, application
  • Analytical Report On Rambus - 1,339 words
    Analytical Report On Rambus TO: Small Online Investors, Stock Owners, and Consumers FROM: Dmitry Podkuiko DATE: November 21, 2000 SUBJECT: DDR-SDRAM vs. Rambus RDRAM INTRODUCTION The purpose of this report is to provide small online investors, stock owners, and consumers with information on stocks investment into memory manufacturers and processor manufacturers. Computer industry is moving away from old SDRAM memory standard and is looking for a new industry standard. Changing a memory standard can change the stock and consumer market significantly. PROBLEM It is very crucial to know which industry standard will be accepted by the industry and consumers. Current situation doesnt allow for a ...
    Related: analytical, computer industry, production cost, intel corporation, samsung
  • Aol Time Warner - 1,567 words
    AOL Time Warner On January 10, 2000, one of the largest, most powerful mergers was announced to the world. Media giant Time Warner will join forces with the Internet superstar, America on Line. The $183 billion dollar deal is the biggest in history. In the recent past, there has been a wave of merger-mania, both in the United States and in Europe. The merger of the Millennium is between America on Line and Time Warner. The AOL Time Warner deal represents the joining of the Old Media with the New Media. Not only is it a marriage of different approaches, the two CEO's are very diverse individuals. The two companies are quite different, in nearly every aspect. Some of the divisions of Time Warn ...
    Related: time warner, warner, warner brothers, warner music, e-mail address
  • As A Technology, It Is Called Multimedia - 1,640 words
    As A Technology, It Is Called Multimedia As a technology, it is called multimedia. As a revolution, it is the sum of many revolutions wrapped into one: A revolution in communication that combines the audio visual power of television, the publishing power of the printing press, and the interactive power of the computer. Multimedia is the convergence of these different professions, once thought independent of one another, coming together to form a new technological approach to the way information and ideas are shared. What will society look like under the evolving institutions of interactive multimedia technologies? Well, if the 1980's were a time for media tycoons, the 1990's will be for the ...
    Related: multimedia, multimedia technologies, video games, technological advances, professions
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode - 1,094 words
    Asynchronous Transfer Mode Asynchronous Transfer Mode: Asynchronous Transfer Mode By Gene Bandy State Technical Institute Asynchronous Transfer Mode: Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM) is a high-speed transmission protocol in which data blocks are broken into small cells that are transmitted individually and possibly via different routes in a manner similar to packet-switching technology. In other words, it is a form of data transmission that allows voice, video and data to be sent along the same network. In the past, voice, video and data were transferred using separate networks: voice traffic over the phone, video over cable networks and data over an internetwork. ATM is a cell- switching and ...
    Related: mode, transfer, york john wiley sons, fast ethernet, customer
  • Cable Modems: Cable Tv Meets The Internet - 3,872 words
    Cable Modems: Cable Tv Meets The Internet Cable Modems: Cable TV Meets the Internet John G. Shaw IS 3348 October 2, 1999 Abstract The Telecommunications Act of 1996 opened the way for cable TV (CATV) companies to become full-fledged telecommunications companies, offering two-way voice and data communications services, in addition to television programming. After passage of the Act, the cable companies were eager to expand into the new fields of business that had been opened to them, especially the rapidly growing Internet Service Provider (ISP) business. The biggest hurdle facing the cable companies is that cable television systems were designed for one-way traffic, and must be upgraded into ...
    Related: cable, cable modems, cable television, internet access, internet connection, internet service, internet service provider
  • Cable Modems: Cable Tv Meets The Internet - 3,910 words
    ... downstream traffic travels through the cable modem's Media Access Control mechanism. The MAC mechanism's functions are fairly complex. The MAC mechanism's main purpose is to implement MAC protocols under the direction of the CMTS. MAC protocols are used to time-share the cable media among the various cable modems in a cable data network. The MAC processes can be implemented in hardware, or a combination of software and hardware. Both the CMTS and the MAC mechanism implement MAC protocols to perform ranging procedures to compensate for cable media delays and line losses. The CMTS also interfaces with the MAC mechanism in each cable modem to assign upstream frequencies and upstream time s ...
    Related: cable, cable modems, internet access, internet connection, internet protocol, internet service, internet usage
  • Controlling The Internet - 1,353 words
    Controlling The Internet Controlling the Internet Censorship plays a role in everything that is portrayed on the Internet. However, due to the size and its rapid growth, it has become almost impossible to control. In respect to censorship in the Internet, we will be examining the issues of pornography, privacy, security, and the Napster debate. In 1989, the World Wide Web was developed. This new technology enabled Internet users to exchange information on a global scale. With no restrictions on what information could be shared, the Internet has become home to an assortment of web-sites consisting of topics that are shunned from the mainstream media. For example, literature that was banned fr ...
    Related: controlling, internet censorship, internet users, address phone, file sharing
  • Convergence - 1,829 words
    Convergence TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary 1 Introduction 2 Part I Business Factors 3 What is Convergence? 3 Toll Bypass 3 Utilization Getting Your Moneys Worth 3 Part II Technical Overview 4 Mixed-Media Requirements 4 Problems: - Delay 4 - Packet Loss 5 - Jitter 5 Network Technology 5 Voice over ATM 5 Voice over Frame Relay 6 Voice over IP 7 Inter-Vendor Support 8 H.323 8 Part III Implementations 10 Types of VoIP Implementations VoIP through a router 10 LAN Telephones 10 IP PBX 11 VoIP Gateway 12 Conclusion 13 Appendix A Works Cited 14 Illustrations Chart 1 Cost of International Voice Calls 3 Graph 1 Long 1-Way Voice Transmission 4 Chart 2 Summary of H.32x Standards 8 Picture 1 C ...
    Related: convergence, network layer, packet switching, network architecture, upgrading
  • Convergence - 1,849 words
    ... the workload. ATM is one technology that definitely does just that. Beginning at the way the header is made up; ATM is arguably the best choice for transporting voice. The header, itself contains a pointer, which allows a digital signal level 0 (DS0) structure to be maintained. DS0 are the lines that today transport voice. They are multiplexed together to get larger and larger number of signals through. Signaling with VoATM is compared in the pictures below. VoATM has the ability to either transport voice signals transparently through the network or to interpret and move the signals at ATM speeds. The second is more advantageous because of the use of SVCs or Switched Virtual Circuits. T ...
    Related: convergence, control protocol, best choice, telephone number, handbook
  • Digital Subscriber Line - 766 words
    Digital Subscriber Line Digital Subscriber Line new technology that takes advantage of standard copper telephone line to provide secure, reliable, high-speed Internet access. DSL refers to the family of digital subscriber line technologies, such as ADSL, HDSL, and RADSL. Connection speed for DSL ranges from 1.44 Mbps to 512 Kbps downstream and around 128 Kbps upstream. Unlike traditional connections DSL such as analog modems and IDSN, DSL deliver continuous "always on" access. That means multimedia-rich websites, e-mail, and other online applications are available anytime. DSL makes it possible for you to remain online even while youre talking on the telephone-without jeopardizing the qualit ...
    Related: digital, subscriber, internet users, cable modems, bandwidth
  • Digital Subscriber Line - 645 words
    Digital Subscriber Line Imagine a world where connecting to the Internet was as simple as turning on your television. Where web pages pop up on the screen like we would all like for them to. We are all aware that WWW is an a acronym that stands for World Wide Web, however, it turns out to be World Wide Wait. But now, in most places, the World Wide Wait is over. There is a new technology DSL. Digital Subscriber Line, or DSL is a new technology for bringing high bandwidth connection to Internet service for both business and homes over ordinary copper telephone lines. DSL is a reference to family of digital subscribers to line technologies. The connection of speed for DSL ranges forms 1.544 MB ...
    Related: digital, subscriber, small business, internet connection, dial
  • Dwdm - 1,536 words
    Dwdm Bandwidth is the capacity for carrying digital information. In the past few years, bandwidth has been increasing at roughly twice the rate of computing power. Data traffic has been doubling every 100 days (according to the U.S. Department of Commerce) and it is predicted that that Internet traffic will reach 16 million terabytes by 2003. Fiber is the transport medium of choice. It out performs copper, coaxial cable, and high frequency radio in data-carrying ability. As service needs increase, fiber exhaust becomes a problem. In some areas it is not economically feasible to lay new fiber. In these areas, it is important to look at alternatives to provide economical solutions. One of the ...
    Related: cost cutting, bibliography references, ohio state, patents, boxes
  • Electrical Circuits - 459 words
    Electrical Circuits Unlike the last lab on RL, RC and RLC circuits, we measured the frequency characteristics of these circuits. We observed the steady-state sinusoidal response of an high-pass RL circuit, a low-pass RC circuit and a band-pass RLC circuit. PROCEDURE 10.4.1 Steady-State Sinusoidal Response of High-Pass RL Circuit This part of the lab consisted of constructed an high-pass RL circuit shown below in Figure 10.1. We used the scope to measure the phase and the gain of the circuit. Also, we used the Gain-Phase meter to measure the phase and the gain of the circuit. Figure 10.1: High-pass RL circuit. A Bode plot is shown below from the measurements of the scope, gain in dB versus lo ...
    Related: electrical, compare, meter
  • Electronic Commerce - 1,165 words
    ... tion key can gain access to your information. Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape come standard with 40-bit encryption. With your data encrypted, even with a 40-bit encryption, it is safer to transmit that data around the world than to call in your number over the telephone. When you are talking about online banking, you most likely will have to upgrade your browser to support 128-bit encryption. The majority of online banking companies will not let you use the basic 40-bit encryption because it is not quite as safe as the 128-bit version. It is assumed that you need more protection for your bank accounts than you do for a basic online purchase. In all cases you should be using some ...
    Related: commerce, electronic commerce, savings account, technical support, mart
  • Federalism - 255 words
    Federalism Federalism is a way of setting up a government with multiple layers so that there is more than one level that has authority over the people. Different types of government share the power associated with running a county. In the United States our two main layers of government lie between the states and the federal aspects. Our federal system not only decentralizes our politics but also our polices. We elect leaders and representatives on a statewide level and create and vote on public policy as well. On a national level, they give protection and establish laws for the states to follow. The federal government also helps the states in the way of mandates. Although these mandates some ...
    Related: federalism, public policy, federal government, federal system, balances
  • Fiber Optics - 1,648 words
    Fiber Optics Thesis: Some of the important features of the fiber optics that we are interested are discussed below. Now a days we are using copper wires as they are the most cost effective and reliable interconnect in parallel machines. However as machines grow more powerful, wire density becomes critical making fiber possible alternatives because of their small wire size. Fiber optics are used mainly to use effectively its high bandwidth. On a single fiber lots of information/data can be transmitted concurrently and in parallel. Over 1000 high bandwidth (100-200 Mb/s) independant channels or busses can be supported on a single optical fiber. Furthermore multiple buses can co-exist on a sing ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, computer networks, magnetic field
  • Fiber Optics - 1,561 words
    ... on requires great deal of changes in current networks and systems. This requires a lot of time and effort which the management is not willing to sacrifice. People are comfortable with what they have and don't want to change. Although most problems regarding program changing can be solved, the solutions to it will take much longer than expected. Thus, any new program has to be a big improvement over the old one to justify a significant change (although the great improvement usually means that the old program does not work). Another fundamental problem in fiber optic LANs is the change in technology. The hardware and software to make LAN run efficiently add up to an expensive package. If m ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, quality control, data security
  • Fiber Optics - 1,280 words
    Fiber Optics Table of Contents 1.0 Intro to Fiber Optics 2.0 Fiber Constuction 1.0 Introduction to Fiber Optics Today many communications companies are replacing their copper carrier wires with fiber optic cables. A fiber optic cable is capable of transmitting laser light across thousands of miles and can carry many more messages at the same time than the copper wire of equivalent diameter. With the relentless pursuit of bandwidth, fiber optic cabling is being deployed at an ever increasing rate. This cable, which uses glass to carry light pulses, poses both advantages and challenges. The intent of this paper is to explain the how's and why's of fiber optic cabling and to provide a set of so ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, different ways, high cost
  • Fiber Optics - 585 words
    Fiber Optics Fiber optics is a branch of optics concerning the transmission of light by means of optical fibers, which are thin strands of glass or other optically transparent materials. Optical fibers can be used to guide light--which is electromagnetic radiation in a certain frequency range--in much the same way that metal wave guides or coaxial cables can be used to guide lower-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Optical Fiber An optical fiber is usually circular in cross section and consists of a core and cladding. An optical fiber for communication applications is typically between about 0.1 and 0.2mm (0.004 and 0.008 in) in diameter. In order that the light waves be guided by the fibe ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, communication channels, electric power
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