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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: pope urban

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  • Pope Urban Ii - 437 words
    Pope Urban Ii Pope Urban II had called the Christians to join him in a Holy War to reclaim the Holy Lands as an act of Christianity, but there were many activities that took place that werent characteristics of Christianity. The Crusades were a smokescreen for Popes craving for power and control. The Crusades were the idea of Pope Urban II, a wise Frenchman. On November 18, 1095 AD, Pope Urban II opened the Council of Clermont. Nine days later, the Pope made a very important speech just outside the French city of Clermont-Ferrand. In his speech, he asked the people to help the Christians effort to restore peace to the East. The Crusades had originally been to help the Churches in the East, b ...
    Related: pope, pope urban, urban, social classes, holy war
  • Catholic Church And Contraception - 1,451 words
    Catholic Church And Contraception The issue of contraception has been an extremely controversial and debated one in the Catholic Church. The Catholic religion declares that the three requirements for healthy sexual expression include a mutual physical drive for pleasure, intimacy and committed love between the couple, and the openness to procreation and parenting children. This last aspect is the subject of much disagreement between people both inside and outside the church community. The authoritative voice of the church, the Magisterium, holds that artificial contraception is a sin and only accepts the form of contraception called Natural Family Planning. This method involves avoiding sexu ...
    Related: catholic, catholic church, catholic religion, contraception, emergency contraception
  • Christian Antisemitism - 1,362 words
    Christian Anti-Semitism For sixteen hundred years, the Jewish people have been persecuted and murdered by people who worship a Jewish man as their savior: the Christians. Why did Christian anti-Semitism, a seemingly illogical belief given that Jesus himself was a Jew, develop? How did it evolve, and why has it persisted for centuries? In the Biblical gospels, despite three of the four being ostensibly written by Jews, enemies of Jesus are referred to as "the Jews." Early Christians found themselves in a quandary. The savior they worship, himself a Jew, purportedly was killed by Jews. Since at least the fourth century, some groups of Christians have actively practiced anti-Semitism, taking re ...
    Related: antisemitism, christian, constantine the great, middle east, kidnapped
  • Christian Muslim Conflict - 1,634 words
    Christian Muslim Conflict The conflict between the Christians and the Muslims, between 1098 and 1229, was the result of political unrest; which was fueled the Muslims migrating into the Christian holy lands, lead by Pope Urban II and carried on, throughout latter centuries by his followers. What follows is a story of war, holy visions,unholy alliances, promises made with fingers crossed, sieges and slaughters, the details of which fill volumes. Christianity, in its infancy, was a very threatened state. It was enriched with radical ideas that called for the worship of a single god in place of the many dieties that had ruled for centuries before. These radical concepts took a while to sink in ...
    Related: christian, muslim, civil war, legal status, luxury
  • Crusades - 1,014 words
    Crusades Crusades were military expeditions planned and carried out by western European Christians. The crusades started around 1095. The purpose of these crusades was to overtake and gain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. The Holy Land was Jerusalem and the Christians believed that gaining control of it was their fate. The pope would gather the people together and incite them. The origin of the crusades was a result of the expanding Turks in the middle east. These Turkish forces invaded Byzantium, a Christian empire. The crusaders were a militia, sent out to recover what they thought was theirs. The first crusades were essentially started by Pope Urban II. On November 27, 1095, he ...
    Related: crusades, first crusade, second crusade, french army, french king
  • Crusades - 1,040 words
    Crusades In the Middle Ages, Christians considered Palestine the Holy Land because it was where Jesus had lived and taught. The Arabs had conquered Palestine in the 600s. Most Arabs were Muslims, but they usually tolerated other religions. Jews and Christians who paid their taxes and observed other regulations were free to live in Palestine and practice their own religion. The Arab rulers didnt usually interfere with Christian pilgrims visiting Palestine, and European traders could generally do business there. During the 1000s the Seljuk Turks, people from central Asia who had adopted the Muslim faith, conquered Palestine and attacked Asia Minor, which was part of the Byzantine Empire. When ...
    Related: crusades, first crusade, second crusade, philip augustus, holy roman emperor
  • Galileo Galilei - 1,231 words
    Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Galileo Galilei was born near Pisa, Italy, on February 15, 1564 (Drake). Galileo was the first child of Vincezio Galiei, a merchant and a musician (Jaki 289). In 1574, Galileos family moved from Pisa to Florence, where Galileo started his formal education (Jaki 289). Seven years latter, in 1581, Galileo entered the University of Pisa as a medical student (Drake). In 1583, home on vacation from medical school, Galileo began to study mathematics and physical sciences (Jaki 289). A Family friend and professor at the Academy of Design, Ostilio Ricci, worked on translating some of Archimedes, which Galileo read and became interested in. This is where Ga ...
    Related: galilei, galileo, galileo galilei, pope urban, common law
  • Galileo Galilei - 990 words
    Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564, in Pisa, Italy. Galileo was the first of seven children of Vincenzio Galilei, a trader and Giula Ammannati, an upper-class woman who married below her class. When Galileo was a young boy, his father moved the family moved to Florence. Galileo moved into a nearby monastery with the intentions of becoming a monk, but he left the monastery when he was 15 because his father disapproved of his son becoming a monk. In November of 1581, Vincenzio Galilei had Galileo enrolled in the University of Pisa School of Medicine because he wanted his son to become a doctor to carry on the family fortune. Vincenzio thought that Galileo should be a ...
    Related: galilei, galileo, galileo galilei, young boy, catholic church
  • In The Middle Of The Eleventh Century The Tranquillity Of The - 1,405 words
    In The middle of the Eleventh Century The tranquillity of the eastern Mediterranean seemed assured for many years to come, but little did the people know what was ahead . This, thus embark us on a journey back into the First Crusade. In this paper I will be discussing the events that lead up to the first in a long line of crusades. I will also be mentioning the lives of some of the crusaders through letters that they wrote. The crusades were a time of confusion for most people, yet today we look back at them as a turning point. The Crusades were Christian military expeditions undertaken between the 11th and the 14th century to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims. The word crusade, which ...
    Related: world history, holy land, seljuk turks, eternal, broad
  • Middle Ages As The Age Of Faith - 1,004 words
    Middle Ages As The Age Of Faith? Is it accurate to refer to the Middle Ages as the Age of Faith? The Middle Ages is often referred to as the Age of Faith and it is correct to do so, as during this period religion dominated all aspects of life from architecture, literature, art and music. The dominant religion during this period was Christianity. The middle ages saw "the emergence ... of Christian literary forms ... a popular religious culture centred around processions, icons, and relics" (George Holmes 42). The crusades were wars fought in the name of God or holy wars. The first of the crusades began in 1095 when Pope Urban the second received an appeal for help from Alexius the first, the ...
    Related: early middle ages, high middle, middle ages, liberal arts, gregorian chant
  • Religious Conflict Through The Ages - 1,278 words
    ... two groups of people spanning borders and languages side themselves on religion alone. The First Crusade was called by Pope Urban II in 1095. Urban was a reforming, activist pope who according to Dr. Ellis Knox was looking for some great event or cause. Pope Urban II gave a speech, which directly leads to the first but not last lengthy battles of the Crusades. Knox gives a summary of what Urban II says on his website page. Christians are being oppressed and attacked; the holy places are being defiled; and Jerusalem itself is groaning under the Saracenyoke. The Holy Sepulchre is in Muslim hands.The West must march in defense of the Holy Land. All should go, rich and poor alike. God himse ...
    Related: church and state, king henry viii, queen mary, eventual, deeply
  • The Conciliar Movement And Schism - 827 words
    The Conciliar Movement And Schism Exemplified by the Babylonian Captivity, the problems, which aroused in the eleventh century papacy, were nothing that could be overlooked. Eventually causing the schism and conciliar movement, the corruption of those leaders of the Catholic Church was caused by a question of who had more power, the king or the pope? The quest for more power in the papacy resulted in the beginning of the reform movement, another reason for the European states to politically separate, and caused the church to reevaluate its system of power. A question of power and control was plaguing the pope and the king. Attacks ricocheted back and forth between Pope Boniface the VIII and ...
    Related: great schism, schism, universal church, decision making, salvation
  • The Crusades - 1,122 words
    ... (6) The Muslims had time to regroup after the Second Crusade, and in 1169, Nur al-Din's forces took Egypt. Saladin took control of the Muslims when Nur al-Din died on May 15, 1174 in Damascus. In 1180 he joined forces with the Anatolian Seljuk sultan, Kilij Arslan II. Saladin stopped the unification of Aleppo and Mosul in 1182, brought Aleppo under his control in 1183, and made a four year truce with the Franks in 1185 after invading Palestine in 1183. Reynald of Chtillon, leader of the Franks, broke the truce when he heard of a rich caravan of unarmed merchants traveling on the east bank of Jordan. In retaliation, Saladin invaded Palestine in 1187. The Franks got their forces together t ...
    Related: crusades, second crusade, holy roman emperor, king richard, ransom
  • The Crusades - 1,122 words
    ... (6) The Muslims had time to regroup after the Second Crusade, and in 1169, Nur al-Din's forces took Egypt. Saladin took control of the Muslims when Nur al-Din died on May 15, 1174 in Damascus. In 1180 he joined forces with the Anatolian Seljuk sultan, Kilij Arslan II. Saladin stopped the unification of Aleppo and Mosul in 1182, brought Aleppo under his control in 1183, and made a four year truce with the Franks in 1185 after invading Palestine in 1183. Reynald of Chtillon, leader of the Franks, broke the truce when he heard of a rich caravan of unarmed merchants traveling on the east bank of Jordan. In retaliation, Saladin invaded Palestine in 1187. The Franks got their forces together t ...
    Related: crusades, second crusade, catholic religion, north africa, history
  • The Crusades - 340 words
    The Crusades In the beginning of the thirteenth century most people were Roman Catholic. The church was the center of life and it was very important to them to pilgrimage to the Holy Lands. By 1212 Christians were not allowed into the Holy Lands. The Moslems controlled those lands and would not let them in. The crusades were a series of wars, that were fought in order to attain control over the Holy Lands. Some of the crusades were successful and some of them were not successful. The first crusade was led by Pope Urban then second in 1096. It took the over two years to reach the Holy Lands. They had started with over six-hundred thousand men and by the time they reached the Holy Lands they w ...
    Related: crusades, first crusade, second crusade, roman catholic, pope urban
  • The Crusades - 714 words
    The Crusades The Crusades were just a war waged over power, fear, and interest. The purpose of the Crusades was to recapture the Christian Holy Land from the Muslims, Arabs, and even the Turks. The Crusades were stirred up and sponsored by the papacy. It is the will of G-d, claimed Pope Urban II. His statement was not the only reason as to why the majority of the Christian population decided to engage in war against the nonbelievers. Pope Urban IIs statement seems more like an excuse to make the war seem just and rightful in the name of G-d. The Crusades were expeditions undertaken in fulfillment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Land from Muhammedan tyranny. By the late 11th century, the ...
    Related: crusades, henry iv, pope urban, holy roman emperor, secular
  • The Crusades - 1,122 words
    ... (6) The Muslims had time to regroup after the Second Crusade, and in 1169, Nur al-Din's forces took Egypt. Saladin took control of the Muslims when Nur al-Din died on May 15, 1174 in Damascus. In 1180 he joined forces with the Anatolian Seljuk sultan, Kilij Arslan II. Saladin stopped the unification of Aleppo and Mosul in 1182, brought Aleppo under his control in 1183, and made a four year truce with the Franks in 1185 after invading Palestine in 1183. Reynald of Chtillon, leader of the Franks, broke the truce when he heard of a rich caravan of unarmed merchants traveling on the east bank of Jordan. In retaliation, Saladin invaded Palestine in 1187. The Franks got their forces together t ...
    Related: crusades, second crusade, king louis, southern france, boost
  • The Crusades Were Military Expeditions Launched Against The - 1,147 words
    The crusades were military expeditions launched against the Muslims by the Christians in an attempt to regain the Holy Land. They took place between 1095 A.D. and 1270 A.D. It was one of the most violent periods in the history of mankind. The starting point of the crusades was on November 18, 1095 A.D. when Pope Urban II opened the Council of Clermont. On November 27, outside the French city of Clermont-Ferrand, the Pope made an important speech . He called upon everyone to help the Christians in the east to restore peace. The crowd's response was very positive. Garments were cut into crosses which were attached to people's shoulders in an imitation of Christ (Matthew 10:38).(1) The original ...
    Related: crusades, first crusade, second crusade, holy land, roman emperor
  • The Crusades Were Military Expeditions Launched Against The - 1,122 words
    ... he Muslims had time to regroup after the Second Crusade, and in 1169, Nur al-Din's forces took Egypt. Saladin took control of the Muslims when Nur al-Din died on May 15, 1174 in Damascus. In 1180 he joined forces with the Anatolian Seljuk sultan, Kilij Arslan II. Saladin stopped the unification of Aleppo and Mosul in 1182, brought Aleppo under his control in 1183, and made a four year truce with the Franks in 1185 after invading Palestine in 1183. Reynald of Chtillon, leader of the Franks, broke the truce when he heard of a rich caravan of unarmed merchants traveling on the east bank of Jordan. In retaliation, Saladin invaded Palestine in 1187. The Franks got their forces together to wit ...
    Related: crusades, second crusade, pope gregory, king richard, rome
  • The Heresy Of Galileo - 1,486 words
    The Heresy Of Galileo THE HERESY OF GALILEO Galileo was condemned by the Inquisition, not for his own brilliant theories, but because he stood up for his belief in Copernicus's theory that the earth was not, as the Church insisted, the center of the universe, but that rather, the universe is heliocentric. Galileo was a man of tremendous intellect and imagination living in a era dominated by the Catholic Church, which attempted to control the people by dictating their own version of reality. Any person who publicly questioned Church doctrine ran the chance of condemnation and punishment. If man could think, man could question, and the Church could lose its authority over the masses. This coul ...
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