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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: photosynthesis

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  • Photosynthesis - 984 words
    Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which chlorophyll - containing organisms - such as green plants, algae, and some bacteria - capture energy from light and convert it to chemical energy. For the process of photosynthesis to take place the organism must contain chloroplasts. Chlorophyll is responsible for the green color in plants and is also responsible for their ability to photosynthesize. Photosynthesis is usually carried out in the leaves of green plants, but it can also take place in other parts of the plant such as the stem. The balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis is: Sunlight + 6CO2 + H2O --yields-C6H12O6 + 6O2 The purpose of this lab is to answer the question, ...
    Related: photosynthesis, cellular respiration, carbon dioxide, plant, respiration
  • Acid Rain - 999 words
    ... an affect the fish in the water in two ways: directly and indirectly. Sulfuric acid directly interferes with the fish's ability to take in salt, oxygen and nutrients crucial for daily life. Osmoregulation is the process of maintaining the delicate balance of salts and minerals in their tissues. For freshwater fish, maintaining osmoregulation is key in their survival. Acid molecules, which are a result of acid rain in the water, cause mucus to form in the fishs gills. This in return prevents the fish from absorbing oxygen. If the fish are unable to absorb oxygen, the consequence could be the eventual suffocation of fish and the low pH could throw off the balance of salts in the fish tissu ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, rain, new media, modern society
  • Acid Rain - 995 words
    ... ish in the water in two ways: directly and indirectly. Sulfuric acid directly interferes with the fish's ability to take in salt, oxygen and nutrients crucial for daily life. Osmoregulation is the process of maintaining the delicate balance of salts and minerals in their tissues. For freshwater fish, maintaining osmoregulation is key in their survival. Acid molecules, which are a result of acid rain in the water, cause mucus to form in the fishs gills. This in return prevents the fish from absorbing oxygen. If the fish are unable to absorb oxygen, the consequence could be the eventual suffocation of fish and the low pH could throw off the balance of salts in the fish tissue. Salt levels ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, rain, modern society, staying alive
  • Acid Rain - 1,731 words
    Acid Rain Introduction: What Causes Acid Rain? One of the main causes of acid rain is sulfur dioxide. Natural sources, which emit this gas, are Volcanoes, sea spray, rotting vegetation and plankton. However, the burning of fossil fuels, such as Coal and oil, are largely to be blamed for approximately half of the emissions of this gas in the world. When sulfur dioxide reaches the atmosphere, it oxidizes to first form a sulfate ion. It then Becomes sulfuric acid as it joins with hydrogen atoms in the air and falls back down to earth. Oxidation occurs the most in clouds and especially in heavily polluted air where other compounds such as ammonia and ozone help to catalyze the reaction, changing ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, rain, case study, ohio river
  • Active Transport - 1,302 words
    Active Transport Since the cell membrane is somewhat permeable to sodium ions, simple diffusion would result in a net movement of sodium ions into the cell, until the concentrations on the two sides of the membrane became equal. Sodium actually does diffuse into the cell rather freely, but as fast as it does so, the cell actively pumps it out again, against the concentration difference. The mechanism by which the cell pumps the sodium ions out is called active transport. Active transport requires the expenditure of energy for the work done by the cell in moving molecules against a concentration gradient. Active transport enables a cell to maintain a lower concentration of sodium inside the c ...
    Related: transport, early stages, carbon dioxide, carried away, chloroplasts
  • Animal Behavior - 2,294 words
    ... cle. Although, there were no consistent intervals between breaks, they did range between five and l0 minutes apart. Furthermore, every time the trout moved, it always returned to the same position it left from. Conveniently, the trout may have used the three stones at the base of it's schooling position as a marker Also, the school showed something that resembled a hierarchy of order. It appeared that the larger fished floated toward the bottom, while the smaller fished floated at the top. During the observation period, the fish dispersed in a rapid manner on three occasions. On the first random dispersement, no significant signal was apparent. However during the second rapid dispersion! ...
    Related: animal behavior, social animal, food chain, more important, component
  • As Long As The Human Race Has Been Cultivating The Soil, We Have Had To Deal With Other Vegetation - 1,265 words
    As long as the human race has been cultivating the soil, we have had to deal with other vegetation that ends up competing with the crops. People have tried many methods to get rid of these pesky weeds but they always seem to come back. This eventually led to development of pesticides and herbicides. Herbicides allowed people to kill off the unwanted weeds. Over time these herbicides became more and more specialized allowing them to only harm certain weeds as needed such as broad leaf killers. One of these specialized herbicides known as hexazinone. Hexazinone is used in the blueberry industry. Since low-bush blueberries only grow less than a foot high at the most, a plant that grows taller t ...
    Related: human race, vegetation, ground water, chemical formula, specialized
  • Bacteria Are Often Maligned As The Causes Of Human And Animal Disease Like This One, Leptospira, Which Causes Serious Disease - 793 words
    Bacteria are often maligned as the causes of human and animal disease (like this one, Leptospira, which causes serious disease in livestock). However, certain bacteria, the actinomycetes, produce antibiotics such as streptomycin and nocardicin; others live symbiotically in the guts of animals (including humans) or elsewhere in their bodies, or on the roots of certain plants, converting nitrogen into a usable form. Bacteria put the tang in yogurt and the sour in sourdough bread; bacteria help to break down dead organic matter; bacteria make up the base of the food web in many environments. Bacteria are of such immense importance because of their extreme flexibility, capacity for rapid growth ...
    Related: bacteria, food poisoning, carbon dioxide, organisms, streptococcus
  • Bio Outline - 2,398 words
    Bio Outline BIOLOGY 220 OUTLINE SECTION II Text: Essential Cell Biology I. Opening Comments (Chapter 3) A. Life creates order out of disorder through a never-ending series of chemical reactions B. This is Metabolism and the ability to Metabolize C. Most of the chemical reactions required by the cell would not occur at physiological conditions D. Control of these reactions is achieved by specialized protein, ENZYMES. II. Basic Principles of Energy A. Energy - Basics Principles 1. Define Energy - ability to do work 2. Define Work - the ability to change the way matter is arranged 3. Define Kinetic Energy 4. Define Potential energy - energy of position 5. FIRST LAW of THERMODYNAMICS Energy can ...
    Related: outline, energy level, carbon dioxide, basic principles, storage
  • Bio Outline - 2,483 words
    ... lecule of glucose requires (1) 18 ATP 7.3 kcal/mole x 18 = 131.4 kcal (2) 12 NADPH 53 kcal/mole x 12 = 636 kcal (a) Note 53 kcal/mole - ref: Campbell pg. 178 for NADH to O2 H2 O (3) Takes 767.4 kcal to make 1 molecule of glucose (686 kcal) (a) 686/767.4 = 89% efficiency. F. PHOTORESPIRATION (Use Study Sheet) 1. Rubisco prefers O2 to CO2 2. If rubisco binds O2 a. Process uses 6 additional ATP b. Regenerates RuBP c. Produces a 2-C compound (instead of 3-C) d. This compound is sent to peroxisome and mitochondrion (1) converted to Glycerate (3C) (2) transported back to chloroplast (3) Uses ATP to convert to 3-PGAL 3. NET LOSS OF ENERGY 4. Some plants waste as much as 50% of the energy they ...
    Related: outline, compare and contrast, citric acid cycle, krebs cycle, acid
  • Biodiversity - 1,177 words
    Biodiversity Diversity Essay American biologist R. H. Whittaker in 1959 described a classification system of five primary kingdoms: plants, animals, fungi, protists, and monera. Kingdom animalia cover all taxonomic kingdom all living or extinct animals, an example of an animal is a human. Humans thrive off of one thing or another in each of the five kingdoms. The monera kingdom is the lowest division of rhizopods. Bacteria belong to this kingdom. There are many useful and harmful bacteria in the human body including those that are similar to amoebas. They dont have a nucleus. Plantae consist of all living or extinct plants (Plantae, kingdom Plantae, plant kingdom) the taxonomic kingdom that ...
    Related: biodiversity, humans evolved, animal kingdom, north america, specialized
  • Biology Molecule - 1,108 words
    ... covalent bond or a glycosiolic link -bond is angular and forms a spiral called an alpha helix -if it branches, amylopectin is formed -cellulose is a 1-4 linkage of beta glucose -this creates a straight strand and not a helix -these bonds are rigid and require special enzymes (cellulase) to break them -the position of the beta glucose molecules alternates Lipids: -humans rarely eat pure lipids -cell membranes are primarily lipid and lipids can easily enter cells, carrying a foods flavor with them -a diet should have less than 30% fat, 55-65% carbs, and 10-15% protein -lipids are important as a source of energy, insulation (adipose tissue), cushions for the internal organs, as a lubricant, ...
    Related: biology, molecule, heart disease, boiling point, blood
  • Biology Of Earth - 545 words
    Biology Of Earth Sometime during our lives, we've questioned ourselves at one point just how long has the earth existed and how did life begin? Our Biology book written by: Solomon, Berg, and Martin, shows theories that has taught us that earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old, and the earliest pieces of life form found was dated back to approximately 3.8 billion years old. This only leaves a time space of 800 million years between the formation of earth and the creation of life. Since then, new theories have shown that life may have originated earlier then they thought. From Bernstein, Sanford, and Allamandolas' article, "Life's Far-Flung Raw Materials" comes the theory that only abou ...
    Related: biology, amino acids, building blocks, raw materials, evolution
  • Biology Test: Cells - 748 words
    Biology Test: Cells My brother was studying for his biology test. The next morning he was telling me about the dream he had. He said he traveled through a cell. I started to call him insane. My brother have an educational dream? I thought to myself, impossible. My brother started to tell me his crazy dream. The first place he came upon was the cell wall. He was trying to find a way out. He said he started to talk to the cell wall. He asked the cell wall the way out. The cell wall said to him "How should I know? I'm the outer most part of the cell all I do is make cellulose. You might want to ask the cell membrane she is right next to me." He told me he didn't have to walk far to get to the c ...
    Related: biology, cellular respiration, assembly line, nucleus, dream
  • Biomes Of The World - 1,106 words
    Biomes Of The World A biome, also known as life zones, consists of all plants, animals, and other organisms, as well the physical environment in a particular area. A biome is characterized by its' plant life, climate, and location. The climate and physical features determine the boundaries of a biome. A biome is made up of many different ecosystems. The ecosystems tend to have the same pants and animals as neighboring biomes around the boundaries. The major biomes are the tundra, taiga, tropical rain forest, temperate forests, desert, grassland, savanna, chaparral, and marine. Each biome has it's own characteristics such as the tundra. The tundra is a biome that is located in the Northern He ...
    Related: south africa, polar bear, flowering plants, alaska, trout
  • Cell Structure And Function - 566 words
    Cell Structure And Function CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION All living things are made of the same basic building blocks, cells. A human is made of 65 trillion cells. Cells are everywhere, on you skin, in your blood, and even on your tongue. In fact, your blood is clear but red blood cells are what make your blood red. Most living things are made up of many cells but some are made of only one cell, like amebas, paramecium, fungi, protists, monerans, and bacteria. There are two basic types of cells, animal cells and plant cells. They have some common parts found in both and other parts that are unique to each. A cell membrane is found in both plant and animal cells. It is the structure that surro ...
    Related: cell, cell structure, building blocks, different ways, thick
  • Chemical Reactions - 1,932 words
    Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are the heart of chemistry. People have always known that they exist. The Ancient Greeks were the firsts to speculate on the composition of matter. They thought that it was possible that individual particles made up matter. Later, in the Seventeenth Century, a German chemist named Georg Ernst Stahl was the first to postulate on chemical reaction, specifically, combustion. He said that a substance called phlogiston escaped into the air from all substances during combustion. He explained that a burning candle would go out if a candle snuffer was put over it because the air inside the snuffer became saturated with phlogiston. According to his ideas, wood is ...
    Related: nineteenth century, seventeenth century, eighteenth century, urge, combustion
  • Chemistry Research - 2,121 words
    Chemistry Research CHAPTER 32 The tallest tree is the Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) approx 110 m The tallest Angiosperm is the Australian Eucalyptus regnans Water Uptake and transport (Fig. 32.1) = water is essential because: transport solute, cool the body, photosynthesis and Turgor pressure Osmosis- movement of H2) through a semi-impermeable membrane Osmotic potential ( o)-depend on dissolve solute: Hi concentration means more negative o. Isoosmotic-two solution with same o; Hypoosmotic- solution that has a less negative o(more +) Turgor Pressure -hydraulic pressure result from water up take, cell turgid; analog to air pressure in a tire Water Potential ( )-Overall tendency of a solution ...
    Related: chemistry, respiratory system, nervous system, endocrine system, poison
  • Chlorophyll Is The Green Pigment Inside Of Plants That Give Them Their Characteristic Green Color Chlorophyll Absorbs Violet - 393 words
    Chlorophyll is the green pigment inside of plants that give them their characteristic green color. Chlorophyll absorbs violet -blue and orange- red light from the sun needed for photosynthesis. Composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen it is a necessary compound used in the complex process that allows for much of the human life on earth to take place. Photosynthesis is the procedure by which green plants use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar known as glucose. In the process it creates breathable oxygen and depletes poisonous carbon dioxide. Without chlorophyll there would not be enough oxygen to sustain life on earth, nor would the be much of the swee ...
    Related: characteristic, violet, adenosine triphosphate, carbon dioxide, sweetness
  • Classification - 1,138 words
    Classification Classification in biology, is the identification, naming, and grouping of organisms into a formal system. The vast numbers of living forms are named and arranged in an orderly manner so that biologists all over the world can be sure they know the exact organism that is being examined and discussed. Groups of organisms must be defined by the selection of important characteristics, or shared traits, that make the members of each group similar to one another and unlike members of other groups. Modern classification schemes also attempt to place groups into categories that will reflect an understanding of the evolutionary processes underlying the similarities and differences among ...
    Related: classification, class mammalia, brief description, microsoft encarta, lupus
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