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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: optics

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  • Fiber Optics - 1,648 words
    Fiber Optics Thesis: Some of the important features of the fiber optics that we are interested are discussed below. Now a days we are using copper wires as they are the most cost effective and reliable interconnect in parallel machines. However as machines grow more powerful, wire density becomes critical making fiber possible alternatives because of their small wire size. Fiber optics are used mainly to use effectively its high bandwidth. On a single fiber lots of information/data can be transmitted concurrently and in parallel. Over 1000 high bandwidth (100-200 Mb/s) independant channels or busses can be supported on a single optical fiber. Furthermore multiple buses can co-exist on a sing ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, computer networks, magnetic field
  • Fiber Optics - 1,561 words
    ... on requires great deal of changes in current networks and systems. This requires a lot of time and effort which the management is not willing to sacrifice. People are comfortable with what they have and don't want to change. Although most problems regarding program changing can be solved, the solutions to it will take much longer than expected. Thus, any new program has to be a big improvement over the old one to justify a significant change (although the great improvement usually means that the old program does not work). Another fundamental problem in fiber optic LANs is the change in technology. The hardware and software to make LAN run efficiently add up to an expensive package. If m ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, quality control, data security
  • Fiber Optics - 1,280 words
    Fiber Optics Table of Contents 1.0 Intro to Fiber Optics 2.0 Fiber Constuction 1.0 Introduction to Fiber Optics Today many communications companies are replacing their copper carrier wires with fiber optic cables. A fiber optic cable is capable of transmitting laser light across thousands of miles and can carry many more messages at the same time than the copper wire of equivalent diameter. With the relentless pursuit of bandwidth, fiber optic cabling is being deployed at an ever increasing rate. This cable, which uses glass to carry light pulses, poses both advantages and challenges. The intent of this paper is to explain the how's and why's of fiber optic cabling and to provide a set of so ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, different ways, high cost
  • Fiber Optics - 1,252 words
    ... olor. The 1300nm and 1550nm transmitters emit light only in the infrared spectrum. The difference in performance of the various wavelengths is beyond the scope of this paper. What is important is an awareness of the wavelengths and that the equipment on both ends of the fiber needs to be matched. The final characteristic of transmitters is the output power. This is a measure of the optical energy (intensity) launched into the fiber. It is measured in dBm. A typical value for multi mode transmitters used in Ethernet is -15dBm. Single mode transmitters have a wide range in power depending on the application. Receiver Specifications With a knowledge of transmitters, what happens at the othe ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, network design, potential risk
  • Fiber Optics - 2,211 words
    Fiber Optics Fiber optics produced by special methods from silica glass and quartz which replaced copper wire is very useful in telecommunications, long distance telephone lines and in examining internal parts of the body (endoscopy). Equipment for photography is available with all current fiber-optic endoscopes. Through a process known as total internal reflection, light rays beamed into the fiber can propagate within the core for great distances with remarkably little attenuation or reduction in intensity. In general, the methods of fiber production fall into three categories; (a) the extrusion method for synthetic fibers; (b) hot drawing of fibers from molten bulk material through an orif ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, sedimentary rocks, different kinds
  • Fiber Optics - 2,292 words
    ... ight- or left-handed symmetry group. At the transition temperature the tetrahedral framework of beta-quartz twists, resulting in the symmetry of alpha-quartz; atoms move from special space group positions to more general positions. At temperatures above 867 C (1,593 F), beta-quartz changes into tridymite, but the transformation is very slow because bond breaking takes place to form a more open structure. At very high pressures alpha-quartz transforms into coesite and at still higher pressures, stishovite. Such phases have been observed in impact craters. Quartz is piezoelectric: a crystal develops positive and negative charges on alternate prism edges when it is subjected to pressure or ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, control system, best method
  • Fiber Optics - 585 words
    Fiber Optics Fiber optics is a branch of optics concerning the transmission of light by means of optical fibers, which are thin strands of glass or other optically transparent materials. Optical fibers can be used to guide light--which is electromagnetic radiation in a certain frequency range--in much the same way that metal wave guides or coaxial cables can be used to guide lower-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Optical Fiber An optical fiber is usually circular in cross section and consists of a core and cladding. An optical fiber for communication applications is typically between about 0.1 and 0.2mm (0.004 and 0.008 in) in diameter. In order that the light waves be guided by the fibe ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, communication channels, electric power
  • A Look Into Music Technologies: - 1,585 words
    A Look Into Music Technologies: A LOOK INTO MUSIC TECHNOLOGIES: HOW HAS THE INFORMATIONAL AGE INFLUENCE MUSIC? INTRODUCTION As we enter a new millennia, so will our music. The entire field of music has experienced dramatic changes due to the post- industrial/ informational age. This paper will focus primarily on the expansion of musical research and the development of new tools to aid in learning. The overall reaction details innovations that enhance and expand the depths of music. RESEARCH In the 1970's, the US government underwent a secret project making an underground port of communication. This project created what we now know as the Internet. The term Internet is often used to describe ...
    Related: music, world wide, global communication, internet service provider, station
  • Adsl Modems - 659 words
    Adsl Modems Does the humble telephone lines play a major role in shaping the third millennium? Can a mere pair of thin copper wires twisted around each other transmit Internet data reliably and securely at blazing fast speed, making it possible to view high-quality moving images, sound and vast amounts of data on your personal computer screen or television? The answer is yes, as the growing success of DSL (digital subscriber line) technology abundantly demonstrates. The capacity of a communications channel depends on its bandwidth and its signal-to-noise ratio. A voice connection through a conventional phone network uses a bandwidth of about 3,000 hertz (Hz): from about 300 Hz to 3,300 Hz. A ...
    Related: adsl, cable modems, alexander graham bell, personal computer, application
  • As A Technology, It Is Called Multimedia - 1,640 words
    As A Technology, It Is Called Multimedia As a technology, it is called multimedia. As a revolution, it is the sum of many revolutions wrapped into one: A revolution in communication that combines the audio visual power of television, the publishing power of the printing press, and the interactive power of the computer. Multimedia is the convergence of these different professions, once thought independent of one another, coming together to form a new technological approach to the way information and ideas are shared. What will society look like under the evolving institutions of interactive multimedia technologies? Well, if the 1980's were a time for media tycoons, the 1990's will be for the ...
    Related: multimedia, multimedia technologies, video games, technological advances, professions
  • Bacon, Roger - 442 words
    Bacon, Roger Roger Bacon was an English Scholastic philosopher, scientist and one of the most influential teachers of the 13th century. He was born in Ilchester, Somersetshire in 1214. Roger Bacon was educated at the universities of Oxford and Paris. He remained in Paris after completing his studies and taught for a while at the University of Paris. When he returned to England in about 1251, he entered the religious order of the Franciscans and lived at Oxford. He carried on active studies and did experimental research in alchemy, optics, and astronomy. Bacon was critical of the methods of learning of the times, and in the late 1260s, at the request of Pope Clement IV, he wrote his Opus Maju ...
    Related: roger, roger bacon, franciscan order, experimental research, oxford
  • Building Bridges - 467 words
    Building Bridges Building Bridges: a summation Globalization can be defined as an opportunity to generate more wealth and promote harmony between the peoples of the world. In the mid-1800s to the late 1900s the world experienced a similar era of globalization. If you compared the volumes of trade and capital flows across borders (relative to gross national product), and the flow of labour across borders (relative to populations) the period of globalization preceding World War I was quite similar to the one we are living through today. In those days countries did not require passports for travel, and with the inventions of the steamship, telegraph, railroad and eventually telephone, it is saf ...
    Related: bridges, world war ii, fall of the berlin wall, national product, computers
  • Carl Gauss Was A Man Who Is Known For Making A Great Deal Breakthroughs In The Wide Variety Of His Work In Both Mathematics A - 1,499 words
    Carl Gauss was a man who is known for making a great deal breakthroughs in the wide variety of his work in both mathematics and physics. He is responsible for immeasurable contributions to the fields of number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, magnetism, astronomy, and optics, as well as many more. The concepts that he himself created have had an immense influence in many areas of the mathematic and scientific world. Carl Gauss was born Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss, on the thirtieth of April, 1777, in Brunswick, Duchy of Brunswick (now Germany). Gauss was born into an impoverished family, raised as the only son of a bricklayer. Despite the hard living conditions, Gauss's brill ...
    Related: carl, friedrich gauss, gauss, greek mathematics, mathematics, world wide
  • Challenger - 2,357 words
    ... ere scrutinized. "Mr. OConnor - who flew on the shuttle Atlantis three months before Challenger was destroyed - said his next mission wasnt until 1991." (Price, p1) But there more to the effects than the investigations; there were also many emotional issues that had to be faced. "For the Challenger mission, Robert B. Sieck was Director of shuttle operations at Floridas Kennedy Space Center - a position he still holds. He is also 57, balding and soft spoken. On the wall of his second floor office is a formal portrait of the Challenger Crew, autographed by the seven members. ! There is also a quote from Teddy Roosevelt that he hung after the explosion. It says " the credit belongs to the m ...
    Related: challenger, shuttle challenger, space shuttle, modern physics, stars
  • Computers Have Changed The World Along With The Internet, Advanced Telecommunications Easier Travel A Global Community Has Be - 1,222 words
    Computers have changed the world. Along with the Internet, advanced telecommunications easier travel. A global community has been created in the past 50 years. Using satellite technology and fiber-optics it is possible to communicate instantaneously anywhere in the world, using the Internet it is possible to use visual-telephones with almost no lag and this technology is available to almost everyone. If there is one field of social change that is on the fast track, then it is the field of technology, specifically computers, telecommunications and the Internet. Computers There are five recognized generations of the modern computer. The first is from 1945-1956, World War II lead governments to ...
    Related: computer program, computers, global community, telecommunications, travel, world war ii
  • Copernicus - 581 words
    Copernicus Nicolas Copernicus Nicolas Copernicus 1473-1543 Physics February 8, 2000 Nicolas Copernicus Nicolas Copernicus 1473-1543 Copernicus was born in Poland in 1473, he started his education at Cracow University. There he studied mathematics and optics. From here he went to Italy, where he was appointed as a canon in the cathedral of Frauenburg, where he spent a comfortable academic life studding. Copernicus had some small hobbies while at the cathedral, he painted, and frequently translated Greek poetry into Latin. One other hobby that just wasn't small enough to be called a hobby to most of us was astronomy. He made investigations quietly and alone, without any help. He observed from ...
    Related: copernicus, solar system, universal gravitation, seventeenth century, optics
  • Crocodile Physics - 392 words
    Crocodile Physics Crocodile Physics Crocodile Physics is like a well-stocked physics lab where you can experiment to your hearts content. Covering many syllabus topics, here is the hardware flattened for the small screen. There are masses, trolleys, lenses and electronic components to assemble, experiment and take measurements with. You can swing pendulums, change gravity, change angle of ramps to learn about forces. Excellent are the optics tools which let you split light into its colours with a prism and see how fibre optics transmit light. A section on eye defects, where you increase the focal length of a spectacle lens and see what that does to the light rays will make an awesome teachin ...
    Related: crocodile, physics, school subject, high school, component
  • Da Vinci - 553 words
    Da Vinci I chose Leonardo Da Vinci as the greatest renissance personality. I chose Da Vinci because he made many contributions to the time period. Da Vinci was an artist, a scientist, and a philosopher. A lot of the famous artists and thinkers of the time werent recognized as being great for many years after their death. The kings and other important people of the time recognized Da Vinci as a great artist. This is why I chose Da Vinci as the greatest renissance personality. Leonardo Da Vinci was born in 1452 on his fathers estate in Vinci, Italy. At 15 his father had noticed Leonardos potential and had decided to send him to be an apprentice to the artist Andrea del Verrocchio in Florence. ...
    Related: leonardo da vinci, vinci, mona lisa, duke of milan, apprentice
  • Decartes Method - 527 words
    Decartes Method Descartes' Method of Doubt Biography Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Born in La Haye, a small town in Touraine, France. Educated at the Jesuit college Wrote Meditations Descartes is extremely important to Western intellectual history Contributions in physiology, psychology, optics, and especially mathematics Introduced analytic geometry Influential in modern scientific approach (can't just say it's true, show it's true) The Cartesian Method Descartes is very concerned with skeptical questions Though he was not actually a skeptic, he used skepticism as a method of achieving certainty. "I will doubt everything that can possibly be doubted, and if anything is left, then it will be ab ...
    Related: rene descartes, small town, intellectual history, cogito, absolute
  • Descartes Was A Jack Of All Trades, Making Major Contributions To The Areas Of Anatomy, Cognitive - 262 words
    Descartes was a "jack of all trades", making major contributions to the areas of anatomy, cognitive science, optics, mathematics and philosophy. Underlying his methodology is the belief that all science is based on mathematics. This is manifested in his unification of ancient geometry and his new alegbra based on the Cartesian coodinate system. For Descartes, certainty in philosphy and in mathematics is gained through understanding. We may know that two apples and two apples makes four apples, but Descartes believes that matematics transcends the senses, contributing to an overall mathematical order to the universe that is independent of senses. Senses were at the center of his Meditations o ...
    Related: cognitive, cognitive science, descartes, jack, cartesian dualism
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