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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: modern philosophy

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  • Modern Philosophy - 406 words
    Modern Philosophy 1. The modern world is considered to be the time from the Renaisance (late 15th to 16th century) to the end of the 19th century. Many changes took place during these times. We first see a change in the Division of Philosophy. We see the Medieval Theopocentric views change to an anthropocentric view and monotheism to humanism. Much focus was now placed on humans. We looked to ourselves as the root source of all the values that are important to us. The knowledge that the human gathers is very powerful. With this view and new knowledge we see that people have natural rights. We no longer believe that order is established by birth. We begin to see a demand for Parlimentary gove ...
    Related: modern period, modern philosophy, modern world, philosophy, local government
  • Subject: Critical Modern Philosophy - 941 words
    Subject: Critical Modern Philosophy "What are the main features and functions of the Superego according Freud?" Words: 1000 Name: Samuel Johnstone Student Number: 99189860 Tutor: Dr Paul Alberts. Tutorial Time: Wednesday 12-1:30. What is the Superego? According to Anne Neimark " Sigmund called the third area of the mind the Superego. Like a judge in a court trial, the superego announced its verdicts or decrees." (Neimark A, 1976, page 96) The superego is part of a trio that controls our urges and desires. The id being the urge at it raw form, the ego filtering the urge, and the superego is the decider of whether or not the urge can be satisfied immediately or must be saved until later. The s ...
    Related: critical, modern philosophy, philosophy, bibliography references, morally acceptable
  • Beyond The Problem Of Evil - 3,996 words
    Beyond The Problem Of Evil evil Beyond the Problem of Evil Introduction: The problem of evil is, in my opinion, the best point of departure for a fruitful dialogue between Christianity, traditionally conceived, and those strands of modern philosophy which have been perceived--indeed, have sometimes perceived themselves--as a threat to that tradition. As such, I will attempt first, to outline the problem of evil in the starkest terms possible, presenting Augustine's approach to its solution followed by a critical analysis; second, to present an alternative approach to the questions which give rise to the problem--an approach derived in large part from Spinoza and Nietzsche; and, third, to sho ...
    Related: good and evil, falls short, human experience, free choice, referring
  • Beyond The Problem Of Evil - 3,962 words
    ... is caught in his illusion of volition . . . [This illusion], his assumption that free will exists, is also part of the calculable mechanism ( 106). When a misfortune strikes, we can overcome it either by removing its cause or else by changing the effect it has on our feelings . . .( 108). There are elements in each of these texts--e.g., the denial of free will, the rejection of the idea retributive justice, and the recognition of possibility of overcoming our emotional reactions rather than our external environment--which resonate with the sympathetic reader of Spinoza. And while, in later years, Nietzsche loses some of his positivistic fervor, we shall see that significant similarities ...
    Related: good and evil, spoke zarathustra, heavenly father, c. s. lewis, attain
  • Descartes - 1,785 words
    Descartes Ren Descartes is often referred to as the father of modern philosophy. Although some controversy exist over the appropriateness of such a label one can hardly dispute the fact that his approach to philosophy was dramatically different than many of his contemporaries. Descartes grew tired of how dogmatically the ideologies of past philosophers were presented and how dissimilar and unsystematic each was. Breaking free of the custom of merely reworking prior philosophical doctrines Descartes took a fresh approach to discovering knowledge, truth, and understanding. He disregarded the classic texts in favor of what he called "the great book of the world." In his travels though he found ...
    Related: descartes, descartes meditations, first philosophy, public sector, grave
  • Descartes On First Philosophy - 717 words
    Descartes On First Philosophy Rene Descartes Meditations in the First Philosophy is a skeptics speculation on certain inalienable truths. Descartes meditations are based on the epistemological theory of rationalism: that is if someone truly knows something then they could not possibly be mistaken. He provides solid arguments for what his six meditations stand for, and how he obtained a clear and distinct perception of "innate" ideas. In Meditations he comes to terms with three certainties: the existence of the mind as the thing that thinks, the body as an extension, and God as the supreme being. He attests that he came to these conclusions by doubting all that had been taught to him in his f ...
    Related: descartes, descartes meditations, first philosophy, modern philosophy, philosophy, rene descartes
  • Faa Human Resource - 495 words
    Faa Human Resource HAMPTON UNIVERSITY HAMPTON, VIRGINIA HUMANITIES PROGRAM Exploring Realism, and Romanticism A SHORT PAPER PRESENTED TO MR. OMPOFO & MR. LYONS FOR HUMANITIES 202-05 ENDURING HUMAN VALUES AND CULTURAL CONNECTIONS April 15, 2000 Realism and Romanticism Romanticism dominated the art and culture of the West until almost the last decade of the nineteenth century. The Realist point of view began to form as early as the 1850's. As a start, realism called for an objective and unidealized assessment of everyday life. The word realism is often used in both philosophy and the arts, though in each field the meaning is quite different. In philosophy realism had a different meaning in the ...
    Related: human history, human values, resource, ancient world, modern philosophy
  • How Does Descartes Try To Extricate Himself From The Sceptical Doubts That He Has Raised Does He Succeed - 2,342 words
    ... llows: "If a conviction is so firm that that it is impossible for us ever to have any reason for doubting what we are convinced of, then there are no further questions for us to ask; we have everything we could reasonably want." Under my interpretation, this is what it is about the cogito that makes it so important for Descartes, so we cannot have any argument with the principle expressed by him in the above passage. But can it help break the circle? When we clearly and distinctly perceive something, Descartes says, fairly I think, that this perception compels our assent, that we cannot but believe it. God's rle in the system, to these commentators, is as a guarantor of our memory regard ...
    Related: descartes, succeed, make sense, western philosophy, grant
  • John Locke - 789 words
    John Locke John Locke, born on Aug. 29, 1632, in Somerset, England, was an English philosopher and political theorist. Locke was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where he followed the traditional classical curriculum and then turned to the study of medicine and science, receiving a medical degree, but his interest in philosophy was reawakened by the study of Descartes. He then joined the household of Anthony Ashley Cooper, later the earl of Shaftesbury, as a personal physician at first, becoming a close friend and advisor. Shaftesbury secured for Locke a series of minor government appointments. In 1669, in one of his official capacities, Locke wrote a constitution for the proprietors of th ...
    Related: john locke, locke, north america, charles ii, oxford
  • Kant - 1,618 words
    Kant How does one label Kant as a philosopher? Is he a rationalist or an empiricist? Kant makes a distinction between appearances and things in themselves. He also says that things in themselves exist, and that we have no knowledge of things in themselves. This could be labeled CLOSE TO NONSENSE, but we know Kant better than that. No matter how many laps on the track of metaphysics Kant takes us through, he is still widely held as one of the greatest modern philosophers of our time. Let us explore the schools of rationalism and empiricism and compare his views with that of other rationalists and empiricists (mainly Hume), and see where he ends up on the finish line towards the nature of huma ...
    Related: kant, finish line, innate ideas, primary sources, ideology
  • Robin Yamaguchi - 1,581 words
    Robin Yamaguchi Math 13 March 21, 1999 Rene Descartes In the recent hit movie The Net, the character played by Sandra Bullock has her identity erased. Everyone doubted her existence. This was not, however, the first time someone's existence was questioned. In the early 17th century a philosopher, who is named Descartes, questioned his own existence. His life was dedicated to the founding of a philosophical and mathematical system in which all sciences were coherent. Descartes was born in 1596 in Touraine, France. His education consisted of attendance to a Jesuit school of La Fleche. He studied a liberal arts program which emphasized philosophy, the humanities, science, and math. He then went ...
    Related: robin, rene descartes, coordinate system, evolutionary theory, axis
  • Sartres Existentialism - 1,654 words
    Sartre`s Existentialism The word philosophy comes from Greek and literally means "love of wisdom." The Merriam- Webster dictionary defines philosophy as "a critical study of fundamental beliefs and the grounds for them." Because of the diversity of positions associated with existentialism, the term is impossible to define precisely. However, existentialism is a philosophical movement of the 19th and 20th century that centers on the analysis of individual existence and the given situation of the individual who must assume complete responsibility for his acts of free will without any certain knowledge of what is right or wrong or good or bad. Existentialism was started in the late 19th century ...
    Related: existentialism, jean paul sartre, jean-paul sartre, paul sartre, human nature
  • Sartres Existentialism - 1,260 words
    Sartre`s Existentialism Jean-Paul Sartre . . . the name is one of the most popular in modern philosophy. But who was he? What did he write and what were his works about? What was his role with regard to Existentialism? What is Existentialism, really? What life influences affected the person as whom he became famous? How would Sartre assess various social topics that we face today? What are the problems with Sartre's view of Existentialism and existence in general? These are the questions addressed in the following pages of this brief dissertation. His life Upon reviewing several sources, it is apparent that Sartre was a very disorganized and inconsistent individual. Sartre was obsessed with ...
    Related: existentialism, jean paul sartre, jean-paul sartre, paul sartre, world war ii
  • Self Of Damasio And Descartes - 1,005 words
    Self Of Damasio And Descartes 1. Explain Damasios view as to what Descartes error is, and why he thinks Descartes is "in error"? How do Descartes and Damasio differ as to what the"self" is? Damasio and Descartes differ greatly as to what the "self" is all about. They have different answers to the philosophical question of what makes up the self, and determines who a person is. A persons identity is more than just the body they both agree, but have different reasons why. Descartes is also known as " the founder of modern philosophy" he is most known for his cogito argument of "I think therefore I am". He thinks that one cannot doubt their own existence because something must be doing the doub ...
    Related: descartes, modern philosophy, ontological argument, free will, circular
  • Socrates - 1,043 words
    ... s of punishment other than death to satisfy his crime. Instead of proposing a reasonable penalty, Socrates suggested ridiculous ones which angered the jury; causing them to vote on the death penalty once again. Socrates did not seem to mind at all. He was sent to prison and lived their surrounded by his friends and disciples for his last few days. His life ended by drinking hemlock as his friends cried at his bedside. Only after this scandalous death, did all of Greece realize what they had done; that they had killed one of the greatest philosophers of all time. Socrates life achievements were vast. He introduced new ideas and theories into the philosophical world. His pupil, Plato, went ...
    Related: socrates, after life, death penalty, historical figures, mine
  • Summary Of Kants Life - 1,387 words
    Summary Of Kant's Life Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) spent all of his life in Knigsberg, a small German town on the Baltic Sea in East Prussia. (After World War II, Germany's border was pushed west, so Knigsberg is now called Kaliningrad and is part of Russia.) At the age of fifty-five, Kant appeared to be a washout. He had taught at Knigsberg University for over twenty years, yet had not published any works of significance. During the last twenty-five years of his life, however, Kant left a mark on the history of philosophy that is rivaled only by such towering giants as Plato and Aristotle. Kant's three major works are often considered to be the starting points for different branches of modern ...
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  • Thomas Stearns Eliot - 816 words
    Thomas Stearns Eliot Thomas Stearns Eliot was born to a very distinguished New England family on September 26, 1888, in St. Louis, Missouri. His father, Henry Ware, was a very successful businessman and his mother, Charlotte Stearns Eliot, was a poetess. His paternal grandfather established and presided over Washington University. While visiting Great Britain in 1915, World War I started and Eliot took up a permanent residency there. In 1927, he became a British citizen. While living in Britain, Eliot met and married Vivienne Haigh-Wood and at first everything was wonderful between them. Then he found out that Vivienne was very ill, both physically and mentally. In 1930, Vivienne had a ment ...
    Related: eliot, stearns, t. s. eliot, thomas becket, thomas stearns eliot
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