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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: antigen

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  • Aids And Retroviruses - 1,241 words
    AIDS And Retroviruses Today, tens of millions of people around the world are going to die young because they are infected by HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The primary AIDS virus is HIV-1, which can be spread via sexual intercourse or drug use (activities, which result in body fluid exchange like blood and semen). HIV can also be passed from mother to child and can also be acquired during blood transfusions. AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, is a virus that causes a loss of protection against disease causing microorganisms. People who are infected by AIDS usually have a decline in the number of T-cells that are responsible for their immune system. Because the virus reproduces by a ...
    Related: aids, immune system, deficiency syndrome, fact sheet, mediate
  • Biological Viruses: All Time Enemies - 1,132 words
    ... a rash of fluid-filled blisters that begin as red spots covering most of the body and the inside of the mouth. The disease is dangerous to newborns, to people first infected in adulthood, and to those in whom the virus remains dormant in nerve cells, erupting as the more painful and sometimes chronic zoster (shingles) later in life. VZV is a member of the Herpes virus family, which also includes the causative agents of infectious mononucleosis, roseola, and oral and genital herpes (Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia). An extremely contagious viral disease, chiefly of children, characterized by early fever, an eruption of papules and vesicles, and mild constitutional disturbances. In most ...
    Related: biological, hepatitis b, drinking water, microsoft corporation, tube
  • Chemistry Research - 2,013 words
    ... ng; use tissue rich in Mit/blood supply and Thermogenin. COLD vs HOT- Fig. 37.21 THERMAL INSULATION AND RATE OF HEAT LOSS = Thermal energy is release by body to it's environment = Muscle contraction or change blood flow to skin; WOLF-constrict Blood vessel in its feet at above 0 C = Elephant, Rhinos, water Buffaloes have thick layer of fur; so they wallow in water = Sweating, panting are last resort use bu animals in hot climate or habitat (H2O evaporate quickly) THE VERTEBRATE THERMOSTAT- Fig 37.22/37.23 = All animals that thermoregulate must have a regulatory system; Info get from Hypothalamus-integration center In Humans: If glands is cool BT rises (constriction of Blood vessels and i ...
    Related: chemistry, body weight, biological clock, genetic diversity, orange
  • Cryptococcus Neoformans - 1,879 words
    Cryptococcus Neoformans BackgroundThe organism C neoformans is an encapsulated yeast; its environmental niche has not been completely defined, although outbreaks of disease have been associated in particular with pigeon roosts and other large contaminated sites. There are two varieties of C neoformans, distinguished by antigenic differences in the outer capsule of the organism: serotypes A and D (C neoformans var neoformans, the most common strain) and serotypes B and C (C neoformans var gatti). Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans is the principal pathogen in patients with AIDS. Cryptococcus neoformans var gatti, which is found predominantly in Australia, Asia, and Southern California, ha ...
    Related: nervous system, sub-saharan africa, immunodeficiency syndrome, implicated, organ
  • Current Status Of Malaria Vaccinology - 1,113 words
    Current Status of Malaria Vaccinology annon In order to assess the current status of malaria vaccinology one must first take an overview of the whole of the whole disease. One must understand the disease and its enormity on a global basis. Malaria is a protozoan disease of which over 150 million cases are reported per annum. In tropical Africa alone more than 1 million children under the age of fourteen die each year from Malaria. From these figures it is easy to see that eradication of this disease is of the utmost importance. The disease is caused by one of four species of Plasmodium These four are P. falciparium, P .malariae, P .vivax and P .ovale. Malaria does not only effect humans, but ...
    Related: current status, malaria, tropical africa, article published, caucasian
  • Has Gallo Proven The Role Of Hiv In Aids - 2,768 words
    Has Gallo Proven The Role Of Hiv In Aids? Introduction In 1982, Robert Gallo from the National Cancer Institute in the USA, put forward the hypothesis that the cause of AIDS is a retrovirus. One year later, Myron Essex and his colleagues (1) found that AIDS patients had antibodies to the Human T-cell Leukemia virus Type-1 (HTLV-I), a virus discovered by Gallo a few years earlier. At the same time, Gallo and his colleagues (2) reported the isolation of HTLV-I from AIDS patients and advocated a role for this retrovirus in the pathogenesis of AIDS. This hypothesis however, was not without a few problems: 1. While HTLV-I was accepted to induce T4-cell proliferation and cause adult T-cell leukaem ...
    Related: aids, aids research, gallo, national cancer institute, second paper
  • Has Gallo Proven The Role Of Hiv In Aids - 2,802 words
    ... al features similar to retroviruses does not constitute sufficient proof that they are retroviruses, that they are infectious particles, even if they are found to band at 1.16 gm/ml.(18) In 1976 Gallo himself pointed out that in human leukemic tissue virus-like particles morphologically and biochemically resembling type-C virus but apparently lacking the ability to replicate, have been frequently observed.(28) Particles with the morphological characteristics of retroviruses were reported in milk, cultures of embryonic tissues and in the majority, if not all, human placentas.(29,30,31) However, they were considered to be an intriguing and important problem that remains to be solved.(32) E ...
    Related: aids, aids research, gallo, polymerase chain reaction, acquired immune deficiency
  • Hepatitis B - 349 words
    Hepatitis B The disease known as Hepatitis B is caused by the infectuous Hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV alone has infected about 400 million people in the world, which makes HBV one of the most common pathogens. Almost 700 million U.S. Dollars are spent every year for treating Hepatitis patients. Structure: HBV is a 42 nm doubleshelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus of the class Hepadnaviridae. The outer surface membrane contains Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which also circulates in blood as 22 nm spherical and tubular particles. The inner core of the virus contains Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAG), Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), a single molecule of partially doublestranded DNA, an ...
    Related: hepatitis, hepatitis b, deoxyribonucleic acid dna, addison wesley, blood
  • Hiv - 1,302 words
    Hiv Today, our world is faced with many diseases. Some havent been discovered and some have no cures. The immune system fights off many of these diseases, but what happens when it fails us? One of the most deadly, incurable disease the world is faced with today is the Human Immunodeficency Virus (HIV). There is no none cure yet. Viruses cause colds and the flu. Viruses are microscopic particles that invade the cells of plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. They often destroy the cells they invade. How do viruses reproduce? A virus first enters a cell in one of three ways: direct penetration, endocytosis, or membrane fusion. The virus takes over the cells machinery and is thus forced to make ...
    Related: life expectancy, life cycle, breast feeding, wound
  • Human Disease And Their Control Follow Up Questions 1a When People Refer To Pathogens, They Are Talking About Bacteria That C - 1,108 words
    Human Disease and Their Control follow up questions 1a) When people refer to pathogens, they are talking about bacteria that cause disease. 1b)The toxins actually excreted by the pathogens are the main cause of diseases although thetoxins are only by-products of the pathogen's metabolism. 2a)In most cases, the toxins excreted by the pathogens find there way into the circulatory system. Thus, sometimes, the infection is caused somewhere else from where the toxins were excreted. An example of this would be Rheumatic fever. The toxins that ca Yet another example of where the disease is in a different location then where the toxin was released is Dipheria. The pathogen that causes Diptheria is u ...
    Related: bacteria, human body, human disease, refer, blood cells
  • Human Disease Research - 2,361 words
    ... ical retardation. Abnormal development of any body part in a fetus may produce a congenital defect; for example, if walls that separate the chambers of the heart fail to form completely, the baby is born with congenital heart disease. BImmunological Diseases Immunological diseases occur when the immune system, which normally protects against infections, malfunctions. The most common types of immunological diseases are allergies, autoimmune diseases, and immune deficiencies. An allergy is an abnormal reaction of the immune system to foreign substances, such as plant pollen, fungal spores, animal danders, medications, and foods. Rhus dermatitis is an allergy caused by contact with urushiol ...
    Related: cardiovascular disease, disease research, heart disease, human body, human disease, human history, human population
  • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthriris - 678 words
    Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthriris A chronic, inflammatory disease that may cause joint or connective tissue damage. The onset occurs before Age 16. Causes, incidence, and risk factors: JRA is thought to belong to the collagen classes of disease (those diseases that involve connective tissue). It is a complicated disease. The primary manifestation is arthritis, but the disease may involve other body systems such as the heart and lining around the heart (pericardium), lungs and lining around the lungs (pleura), eyes, and skin. Systemic arthritis affects 20% of those with juvenile arthritis and includes fever, rash, and enlarged spleen (splenomegaly) in addition to joint inflammation. JRA is genera ...
    Related: juvenile, rheumatoid, rheumatoid arthritis, health care, chronic illness
  • Medical Ethics - 1,445 words
    ... conditions or not, but that is the problem with written guidelines, they work on paper, but not necessarily in life (Levine 173). Must we experiment on human beings? If so, what human experiment categories are ethically correct? Human experimentation falls into three divisions, the first of which is, ? Experiments that the researcher carries out on him or herself ? (Weiss 34). A traditionally excepted example of this was conducted over one-hundred years ago by a scientist set on disproving the fact germs cause disease, The way he decided to prove his idea was to swallow a beakerful of cholera germs. However, he had a natural immunity to cholera; he did not become ill. It was concluded t ...
    Related: ethics, medical ethics, medical profession, medical science, medical technology
  • Multiple Sclerosis - 2,166 words
    Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that randomly attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The progress, severity and specific symptoms of the disease can not be predicted; symptoms may range from tingling and numbness to paralysis and blindness. MS is a devastating disease because people live with its unpredictable physical and emotional effects for the rest of their lives. MS is a well-known disease, but poorly understood. In the United States there are approximately 200 new cases diagnosed each week; MS is a common disease and not always caused by genetics. Therefore, I feel we all need to have a better understanding of this ...
    Related: multiple, multiple sclerosis, sclerosis, cystic fibrosis, central nervous
  • Multiple Sclerosis - 2,054 words
    ... cians believe that the earlier MS is diagnosed and treatment begun, the better the outcome will be. Symptoms of MS may be mild or severe, of long duration or short, and may appear in various combinations, depending on the area of the nervous system affected. Complete or partial remission of symptoms, especially in the early stages of the disease, occurs in approximately 70 percent of MS patients. "The initial symptom of MS is often blurred or double vision, red-green color distortion, or even blindness in one eye." (Brunnscheiler) Inexplicably, visual problems tend to clear up in the later stages of MS. Inflammatory problems of the optic nerve may be diagnosed as retrobulbar or optic neu ...
    Related: multiple, multiple sclerosis, sclerosis, food and drug administration, mayo clinic
  • Ovarian Cancer - 2,095 words
    ... of segments of chromosomes (particularly 3p and 6q) in some tumors is consistent with a role for loss of tumor suppressor genes. Recently, a genetic linkage study of familial breast/ovary cancer suggested linkage of disease susceptibility with the RH blood group locus on chromosome 1p. Allele loss involving chromosomes 3p and 6q as well as chromosomes 11p, 13q, and 17 have been frequently observed in ovarian cancers. Besides allele loss, point mutations have been identified in the tumor suppressor gene p53 located on chromosome17p13. Deletions of chromosome 17q have been reported in sporadic ovarian tumors suggesting a general involvement of this region in ovarian tumor biology. Allelic ...
    Related: cancer, ovarian, ovarian cancer, lymph node, treatment programs
  • Parasitic Flatworms - 1,561 words
    Parasitic Flatworms INTRODUCTION Imagine going to the doctor for a simple check up. Sure you've had some minor problems- indigestion, lack of energy, weight loss, and a bit of gas- but that's not out of the ordinary....or is it? In most cases you would be correct...but today is your unlucky day. The doctor has just informed you that you have a tapeworm parasite. PARASITIC CHARACTERISTICS By definition, a parasite is an organism that lives either in or on another organism. Infected organisms that are carrying a parasite are called host organisms- or hosts. This parasitic relationship can vary from benign to harmful- and sometimes even fatal. There are two main types of parasites: endoparasite ...
    Related: flatworms, parasitic, life cycle, different stages, meat
  • Parasitic Flatworms - 1,538 words
    ... and in vitro. The host molecules acquired by the schistosomes were in fact surface components of the erythrocyte; A, B, H, And Lewis b+ antigens were acquired by parasitic flatworm. Even more interesting was the fact that A and B antigens could be acquired from the serum of A or B positive donors in the absence of homologous erythrocytes, irrespective of the secretor status of the donor. This provided information that the blood group substances were taken up as glycolipids rather then glycoproteins. This proof was derived from an experiment done by Goldring, Kusel and Smithers ( as cited in Parasitology 1988 ) as mentioned by D. J McLaren. Schistosomula grown in vitro with a megalolipid ...
    Related: flatworms, parasitic, clean water, immune system, immune
  • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa - 1,520 words
    ... nosa can be found on nearly every shower curtain and drain pipe around the world. Functions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were previously unknown have been identified, suggesting new avenues for drugs to treat serious lung infections caused by this bacterium. Researchers now have a better understanding of why Pseudomonas aeruginosa is naturally resistant to most antibiotics. As a result, they have new ideas on how to identify antibiotics that might circumvent some of the bacterium's intrinsic drug resistance mechanisms. The bacterium was sequenced based on one particular organism, or isolate, that is the standard in laboratories. Variations are now being examined that occur when the org ...
    Related: gender race, risk factor, cystic fibrosis, circumvent, epidemiology
  • The Effects Of Hiv Mutations On The Immune System Science Cj Stimson Introduction The Topic Of This Paper Is The Human Immuno - 1,046 words
    The Effects of HIV Mutations on the Immune System Science C.J. Stimson INTRODUCTION The topic of this paper is the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, and whether or not mutations undergone by the virus allow it to survive in the immune system. The cost of treating all persons with AIDS in 1993 in the United States was $7.8 billion, and it is estimated that 20,000 new cases of AIDS are reported every 3 months to the CDC. This question dealing with how HIV survives in the immune system is of critical importance, not only in the search for a cure for the virus and its inevitable syndrome, AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), but also so that over 500,000 Americans already infected with th ...
    Related: human immunodeficiency, immune, immune system, lymphatic system, science, stimson
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