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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: hydrocarbons

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  • Acid - 1,218 words
    Acid Rain Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases. Many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now, and others believe it should be met head on. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact of acid rain effects on wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed. Causes Acid rain is a cancer, eating into the face of Eastern Canada and the North Eastern United States. In Canada, the main sulphuric acid sources are non-ferrous smelters and power generation. On both sides of the border, automobiles are the main sources for nitric acid (about 40% of the total). Power generating plants, industrial com ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, great lakes, disease prevention, bear
  • Acid Rain - 1,731 words
    Acid Rain Introduction: What Causes Acid Rain? One of the main causes of acid rain is sulfur dioxide. Natural sources, which emit this gas, are Volcanoes, sea spray, rotting vegetation and plankton. However, the burning of fossil fuels, such as Coal and oil, are largely to be blamed for approximately half of the emissions of this gas in the world. When sulfur dioxide reaches the atmosphere, it oxidizes to first form a sulfate ion. It then Becomes sulfuric acid as it joins with hydrogen atoms in the air and falls back down to earth. Oxidation occurs the most in clouds and especially in heavily polluted air where other compounds such as ammonia and ozone help to catalyze the reaction, changing ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, rain, case study, ohio river
  • Agent Orange - 502 words
    Agent Orange Just saying the name Agent Orange gets the attention of every Vietnam veteran, and I dare say most of the Australian and American public, not to mention the Vietnamese. It has been argued about, written about, researched and debated, published in magazines and newspapers, talked about on radio and television. It was the subject of documentaries, legal battles, and in Australia a Royal Commission that lasted some two years and cost 3.8 million dollars. Agent Orange was the code name for a herbicide developed for the military, primarily for use in tropical climates. Although the genesis of the product goes back to the 1940s, serious testing for military applications did not begin ...
    Related: agent, agent orange, orange, southeast asia, south vietnam
  • Air Pollution - 1,431 words
    Air Pollution Air pollution Introduction With the great concern surrounding the destruction of the earths atmosphere due to air pollution, the immediate and direct harm caused to the human body is often over shadowed. While many are aware that our careless use of hazardous chemicals and fossil fuels may leave the planet uninhabitable in the future, most over look the fact that they are also cause real damage to our bodies at this moment. Such pollutants cause damage to our respiratory system, leading to the fluctuation of the life span of an individual depending on a number of conditions. Amongst these conditions are the individuals specific geographic location, age, and life style. This pap ...
    Related: air pollution, pollution, life span, educational foundation, excessive
  • Air Pollution - 375 words
    Air pollution Heres a little introduction to this project. There are always two ways to look at something. There is the good way, which in this case would mean looking at all the positive effects that human intervention has created, These are very few if there are any at all! Also, there is the other way. This would be the bad way consisting of basic criticism of all the negative effects that human intervention has caused. These are quite a few and therefore we shall talk about them. Fortunately for the Amazonian forest, I am not going to write about every single thing connected to the negative effects on the environment, but I will talk about several cases, all connected some how to polluti ...
    Related: air pollution, pollution, water pollution, carbon monoxide, positive effects
  • Air Pollution In Australia - 1,002 words
    Air Pollution In Australia 1. Identify current trends, scale and likely future sources of carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, particles and photochemical oxidants..... AGA notes that considerable background material is already available on this issue including the State of the Environment Report and other processes being developed through the NEPC. It is important that reporting by the Inquiry take account of existing material. 2. Identify and evaluate management options for each of the identified pollutants, including options which address one or more pollutants together, which will lead to improved urban air quality in the medium (5-10 years) and longer (10-15 years) ...
    Related: air pollution, australia, pollution, federal government, development strategy
  • Air Polution - 390 words
    Air Polution AIR POLLUTION Some causes of air pollution are Smog, Acid Rain and Nuclear Problems. Smog is a word that discribes a mixture of smoke and fog. In some places you are advised to stay indoors when smog is bad. One of these places is Mexico City in Mexico. It has some the worst air pollution in the world. If you were to fly over Mexico City, you would be able to see the smog hanging over the city. As you were landing you would be able to smell and see the smog in side the airplane.Common air pollution is carbon monoxide which is found in most city streets.Carbon monoxide is mostly from cars and is highly poisonous. The combustion of coal, oil, and gasoline accounts for much of the ...
    Related: carbon monoxide, water supply, fossil fuel, sulfur, waste
  • Anesthetics - 915 words
    Anesthetics Introduction Anesthetics are depressant drugs that cause a total or partial loss of the sense of pain. The effect an anesthetic has on the body depends on several factors. What type of anesthetic is used determines the effect along with the dosage and a person (or animal's) body weight. The word anesthesia was first introduced by Oliver Wendell Holmes in 1846 about four weeks after the first demonstration of ether anesthesia at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Ether was the first type of anesthesia used and was demonstrated as a means of allowing a patient to be unconscious and free from surgical pain. Stages of Anesthesia Stage one is known as analgesia and results from an in ...
    Related: general hospital, nuclear weapons, cardiac arrest, neural, tone
  • Automobile Emissions - 1,899 words
    Automobile Emissions Pollution from automobile emissions has become over the past few decades an issue of great concern. With a growing number of motor vehicles on our roads great concern has been attributed to the effects of these emissions to our health and to the environment. Several of the gases emitted, which when present in certain concentrations in our atmosphere can be toxic, therefor these ultimate concentrations must never be achieved. Strict legislation as well as sophisticated control technology has been implemented in the automotive industry in order to limit the pollution caused. These aspects of automotive pollution shall be further discussed in this paper. KEYWORDS: Pollution ...
    Related: automobile, emission control, term effects, health effects, hemoglobin
  • Automobile Emissions - 1,846 words
    ... uction in carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxide emissions. Figure 3.1 illustrates the percentage of these pollutant resulting from automobile emissions. POLLUTANT TOTAL AMOUNT VEHICLE EMISSIONS Amount Percentage NITROGEN OXIDES 36 019 17 012 47 HYDROCARBONS 33 869 13 239 39 CARBON MONOXIDE 119 148 78 227 66 Table 3-1 Pollution Accounted by Automobile Emissions in 1989 (1000 tons) The 1970 amendment requirements were so stringent for that period that they could not be met with available engine technology. New technology has since been developed and the requirements have been met. However, more rigid standards are continuously being proposed to improve emissions. While significa ...
    Related: automobile, automobile industry, emission control, internal combustion engine, automotive industry
  • Bio Outline - 2,398 words
    Bio Outline BIOLOGY 220 OUTLINE SECTION II Text: Essential Cell Biology I. Opening Comments (Chapter 3) A. Life creates order out of disorder through a never-ending series of chemical reactions B. This is Metabolism and the ability to Metabolize C. Most of the chemical reactions required by the cell would not occur at physiological conditions D. Control of these reactions is achieved by specialized protein, ENZYMES. II. Basic Principles of Energy A. Energy - Basics Principles 1. Define Energy - ability to do work 2. Define Work - the ability to change the way matter is arranged 3. Define Kinetic Energy 4. Define Potential energy - energy of position 5. FIRST LAW of THERMODYNAMICS Energy can ...
    Related: outline, energy level, carbon dioxide, basic principles, storage
  • Biology Molecule - 1,080 words
    Biology Molecule Unit 1 -man is high 50s to 60% water -distribution in body divided into 3 compartments: 1) intracellular - 28 litres 2) intercellular/interstitial fluid - 11 litres - 80% 3) blood plasma - 3 litres - 20% -women contain less water than men -organisms can contain 60-80% water -bacteria have lots of water -fat cells have little -waters properties result from its structure and molecular interactions -water is polar -polar covalent bonds and asymmetrical shape give it opposite charges on opposite sides -electrons spend more time around O giving H a slight positive charge -hydrogen bonds form between the oxygen of one molecule and the hydrogen of another -cohesion: substance being ...
    Related: biology, molecule, nucleic acids, human body, atom
  • Business Industry Analysis - 1,899 words
    ... is considered an innovator in its field. It has the leading edge on new product development in an ever-changing transportation industry. It has set standards for alternative fuels, next generation transportation power, new alloys, new product safety design, and other emerging technology. Job opportunities were listed on Blue Bird's web site. A Senior Planner and a Programmer/Analyst are two that were mentioned. They work a four-day workweek, forty hours Monday through Thursday. Experience in material requirement planning, E-business application, inventory reduction, vendor delivery, lean manufacturing experience and Just in Time (JIT), as well as supervisory experience are among the req ...
    Related: business industry, industry analysis, transportation industry, inventory turnover, product safety
  • Car Pollution - 333 words
    Car Pollution Air Pollution "According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, driving a car is the single most polluting thing that most of us do." This is not a new problem. In the 1950's the Los Angeles smog made head-line news. Car exhaust causes health problems. There are many solutions to the problem. Laws were enacted as long as twenty years ago to control pollution caused by cars. Since then laws have been made, such as special nozzles on gas pumps that prevent vapor from getting into the air. We also have more tests on cars to make sure cars are maintained in a way that protects our environment. In cities, laws ask that more people ride on buses, and employees that dri ...
    Related: air pollution, pollution, united states environmental protection agency, los angeles, newer
  • Chemistry Notes - 1,462 words
    Chemistry Notes LECTURE 6 NOTES, CHM 101, SEC. 01 SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS THE ACTUAL WEIGHING OF REACTANTS OFTEN PROVES IMPRACTICAL OR INCONVENIENT. THIS IS ESPECIALLY TRUE IF REACTANTS ARE GASES, LIQUIDS, OR VERY REACTIVE. HOW CAN WE DELIVER KNOWN WEIGHTS OF REACTANTS WITHOUT WEIGHING THEM FIRST? CONSIDER: HNO3 + NaOH = NaNO3 + H2O NEITHER NITRIC ACID, NOR SODIUM HYDROXIDE CAN BE WEIGHED EASILY. WHY? HOWEVER, SOLUTIONS OF KNOWN AMOUNT OF SOLUTE PER UNIT VOLUME CAN BE DELIVERED IN KNOWN VOLUME TO GIVE PRECISELY-KNOWN AMOUNTS OF REACTANTS. WHY? BECAUSE: (MOLES/LITER) X LITERS = MOLES IF YOU KNOW THE NUMBER OF MOLES CONTAINED IN ONE LITER, YOU CAN CALCULATE THE MOLES CONTAINED IN ANY MEASURED ...
    Related: chemistry, notes, carbon dioxide, acid, sodium
  • Co - 410 words
    Co2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) C arbon Dioxide (CO2) is a colorless gas, which was first discovered in 1577 by Van Helmont who detected it in the products of both fermentation and charcoal burning. CO2 is used in solid, liquid, and gas forms in a variety of industrial processes. These include: beverage carbonation, dry ice, welding and chemicals manufacturing. It is produced by the combustion of all carbonaceous fuels and can be recovered in an abundance of ways. It is widely used today as a by-product of synthetic ammonia production, fermentation, and from flue gases by absorption process. CO2 is also a product of animal metabolism and is important in the life cycles of plants and animals. It is ...
    Related: acid rain, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, burning
  • Combustion Carbon Dioxide - 1,146 words
    COMBUSTIOn & carbon Dioxide Research By Rabon Hutcherson II. Combustion and carbon dioxide, what are they? When people think of combustion they probably think of simple just bursting into flames; and for carbon dioxide you probably think of what we breath out and what plants take from the air and turn to oxygen. Even though these thoughts are true there is much more to combustion and carbon dioxide. Things you might not think of about combustion are, mathematical equations, models, solutions and chemical reactions, and for carbon dioxide dry ice, combustion and it being a solid. All of these factors you may not have known are now here for you to see. One of the things that has lead the way f ...
    Related: carbon, carbon dioxide, combustion, dioxide, carried away
  • Electric Cars - 772 words
    electric cars narangerel Privately Owned Gasoline Powered Vehicles Should Be Limited The automobile has become a very important part of today's society. It is a necessity to own or to have access to a car in order to keep up with all of the competition of the business world, and also one's social demands. Most people would not be able to travel around a country or the world without this incredible machine, for it provides freedom and mobility, even for people who do not own a car. Unfortunately, the car has a very destructive nature. Automobiles make a major contribution to air and noise pollution, the depletion of fossil fuels, and the abnormalities in children and adults due to lead poison ...
    Related: cars, electric, electric cars, lead poisoning, human race
  • Exxon Valdez - 1,687 words
    Exxon Valdez On March 24, 1989 at 4 minutes past midnight, the oil tanker ExxonValdez struck a reef in Alaska's breath-taking Prince William Sound. Instantaneously, the quiet waters of the sound became a sea of black. "We've fetched up - ah - hard aground north of Goose Island off Bligh Reef, and - ah - evidently leaking some oil," Joseph Hazelwood, captain of the ship, radioed the Coast Guard Marine Safety Office back in Valdez. That "some oil" turned out to be a total of 11,000,000 gallons of crude oil leaking from the ruptured hull of the ship. By the time a containment effort was put forth, a weather storm had helped to spread the oil as much as three feet thick across 1,400 miles of bea ...
    Related: exxon, exxon valdez, exxon valdez oil spill, valdez, christian science
  • Exxon Valdez - 1,688 words
    Exxon Valdez INTRODUCTION On March 24, 1989 at 4 minutes past midnight, the oil tanker ExxonValdez struck a reef in Alaska's breath-taking Prince William Sound. Instantaneously, the quiet waters of the sound became a sea of black. We've fetched up - ah - hard aground north of Goose Island off Bligh Reef, and - ah - evidently leaking some oil, Joseph Hazelwood, captain of the ship, radioed the Coast Guard Marine Safety Office back in Valdez. That some oil turned out to be a total of 11,000,000 gallons of crude oil leaking from the ruptured hull of the ship. By the time a containment effort was put forth, a weather storm had helped to spread the oil as much as three feet thick across 1,400 mil ...
    Related: exxon, exxon valdez, exxon valdez oil spill, valdez, state parks
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