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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: helix

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  • The Double Helix - 787 words
    The Double Helix One of the most important discoveries ever in biology has to be that of the structure of DNA. In The Double Helix, James tells the story, both funny and serious, of all his trials and tribulations leading up to the famous discovery. James starts out with his fantasy of someday solving the great mystery surrounding the structure of DNA. He realizes from the very beginning his competitors in this great race: Maurice Wilkins (x-ray diffraction expert), Rosy Franklin (Information expert on crystallography and soon to be Maurices new enemy), Linus Pauling (very intelligent scientist), and Francis Crick (outspoken scientist often compared to Rutherford or Bohr). With all of these ...
    Related: double, double helix, helix, nobel prize, cambridge university
  • Aging Theories - 1,709 words
    Aging Theories This report outlines the main theories of how the process of aging works. Since researchers have not discovered a universally-accepted theory of aging, the theories discussed are potential explanations of how we age. The likelihood of each hypothesis is considered roughly equal. The different theories discussed focus on the workings of different parts of the body, from the molecular level of DNA mutations and replication, to the organism level of becoming "worn out." Aging is a very complex and gradual process, and its ongoing operation is present to some degree in all individuals. It is a journey to the maturity, as well as to the degeneration of the body. Because aging affec ...
    Related: aging, aging process, cell division, free radicals, gradual
  • Aids And Retroviruses - 1,241 words
    AIDS And Retroviruses Today, tens of millions of people around the world are going to die young because they are infected by HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The primary AIDS virus is HIV-1, which can be spread via sexual intercourse or drug use (activities, which result in body fluid exchange like blood and semen). HIV can also be passed from mother to child and can also be acquired during blood transfusions. AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, is a virus that causes a loss of protection against disease causing microorganisms. People who are infected by AIDS usually have a decline in the number of T-cells that are responsible for their immune system. Because the virus reproduces by a ...
    Related: aids, immune system, deficiency syndrome, fact sheet, mediate
  • Alzheimers Disease Is A Progressive And Irreversible Brain Disease That Destroys Mental And Physical Functioning In Human Bei - 725 words
    Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive and irreversible brain disease that destroys mental and physical functioning in human beings, and invariably leads to death. It is the fourth leading cause of adult death in the United States. Alzheimer's creates emotional and financial catastrophe for many American families every year. Fortunately, a large amount of progress is being made to combat Alzheimer's disease every year. To fully be able to comprehend and combat Alzheimer's disease, one must know what it does to the brain, the part of the human body it most greatly affects. Many Alzheimer's disease sufferers had their brains examined. A large number of differences were present when comparing the ...
    Related: alzheimer's disease, alzheimers disease, brain, functioning, human beings, human body, parkinson's disease
  • Anatomy Of A Muscle Cell - 1,017 words
    Anatomy Of A Muscle Cell John Centore1 Anatomy and Physiology Dr. Jain Anatomy of Muscle Cells There are three types of muscle tissue in the human body. These muscle tissues are skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and cardiac muscles. Each of these muscle tissues has it very own anatomical makeup, which vary from muscle to muscle. The muscle cells in a muscle are referred to as muscle fibers, these fibers are skeletal muscle fibers, smooth muscle fibers and cardiac muscle fibers. The anatomy of a skeletal muscle fiber is formed during embryonic development. Skeletal muscle fibers arise from a hundred or more small mesodermal cells called myoblasts. The mature skeletal muscle fiber has a hundred ...
    Related: anatomy, anatomy physiology, cell, cell division, muscle, muscle growth
  • Antisense Theory - 586 words
    Antisense Theory It is estimated that cancer affects three out of four families in the United States alone the disease and its treatments cause substantial mortality and morbidity, prompting intense interest in cancer prevention. Most available treatments for cancers are non-specific; meaning that they target all rapidly growing cells, both normal and cancerous. Consequences of these treatments include side effects towards the normal cells. In addition, cancer is a genetically unstable disease. Cancer cells can develop drug resistance through repeated rounds of mutation and selection. This may render a particular non-specific chemotherapeutic treatment ineffective so that new drugs must be a ...
    Related: human genome, side effects, gene expression, render, bound
  • Bio Outline - 2,483 words
    ... lecule of glucose requires (1) 18 ATP 7.3 kcal/mole x 18 = 131.4 kcal (2) 12 NADPH 53 kcal/mole x 12 = 636 kcal (a) Note 53 kcal/mole - ref: Campbell pg. 178 for NADH to O2 H2 O (3) Takes 767.4 kcal to make 1 molecule of glucose (686 kcal) (a) 686/767.4 = 89% efficiency. F. PHOTORESPIRATION (Use Study Sheet) 1. Rubisco prefers O2 to CO2 2. If rubisco binds O2 a. Process uses 6 additional ATP b. Regenerates RuBP c. Produces a 2-C compound (instead of 3-C) d. This compound is sent to peroxisome and mitochondrion (1) converted to Glycerate (3C) (2) transported back to chloroplast (3) Uses ATP to convert to 3-PGAL 3. NET LOSS OF ENERGY 4. Some plants waste as much as 50% of the energy they ...
    Related: outline, compare and contrast, citric acid cycle, krebs cycle, acid
  • Biology Molecule - 1,108 words
    ... covalent bond or a glycosiolic link -bond is angular and forms a spiral called an alpha helix -if it branches, amylopectin is formed -cellulose is a 1-4 linkage of beta glucose -this creates a straight strand and not a helix -these bonds are rigid and require special enzymes (cellulase) to break them -the position of the beta glucose molecules alternates Lipids: -humans rarely eat pure lipids -cell membranes are primarily lipid and lipids can easily enter cells, carrying a foods flavor with them -a diet should have less than 30% fat, 55-65% carbs, and 10-15% protein -lipids are important as a source of energy, insulation (adipose tissue), cushions for the internal organs, as a lubricant, ...
    Related: biology, molecule, heart disease, boiling point, blood
  • Chemistry Research - 2,013 words
    ... ng; use tissue rich in Mit/blood supply and Thermogenin. COLD vs HOT- Fig. 37.21 THERMAL INSULATION AND RATE OF HEAT LOSS = Thermal energy is release by body to it's environment = Muscle contraction or change blood flow to skin; WOLF-constrict Blood vessel in its feet at above 0 C = Elephant, Rhinos, water Buffaloes have thick layer of fur; so they wallow in water = Sweating, panting are last resort use bu animals in hot climate or habitat (H2O evaporate quickly) THE VERTEBRATE THERMOSTAT- Fig 37.22/37.23 = All animals that thermoregulate must have a regulatory system; Info get from Hypothalamus-integration center In Humans: If glands is cool BT rises (constriction of Blood vessels and i ...
    Related: chemistry, body weight, biological clock, genetic diversity, orange
  • Day - 1,483 words
    ... t of the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, plans to embark on a human-embryo-cloning project aimed at developing therapies for treating conditions such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease. . Cloning, once the most controversial issue in the world, was going to bring out the argument again. People get really confused in which side they would take. Me too. In the very beginning, I felt horrible even though I just thought about cloning human. Its totally disrespect to Mother Nature and the God. Nature would surely punish those tried to change the nature should be. Later, when some scientist stand up for cloning technique, I began to waver. They said that the purpose of cloning tech i ...
    Related: good communication, political history, double helix, visual
  • Descartes Applied To Biology - 683 words
    Descartes Applied To Biology Descartes method of questioning what is real is a very important aspect of the world of science. I will show how this method of philosophy is crucial to the studies of biology. Descartes said that the only time that something is not doubted is when it is clear and distinctly true. This is the difference in science between theory and fact. In order for something to be clear and distinct it must be a fact. DNA was discovered on April 25,1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick. They discovered that it was a double helix made up of 5 carbon sugars, phosphates, and 4 different nitrogenous bases. This is where Descartes comes in to play. There was much questioning wheth ...
    Related: biology, descartes, james watson, double helix, watson
  • Dna - 685 words
    Dna What is DNA? Nucleic acid is a complex molecule found in all cells. There are two types of nucleic acids, deoxyribononucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA is found mainly in the nucleus of cells. RNA may be found throughout the cell. Even bacterial cells which do not have a nucleus, contain both DNA and RNA. Viruses, however, have only RNA or only DNA. DNA plays a vital role in heredity and cell development. It is the substance in genes, the hereditary material that determines an organisms characteristics. Genes are located in chromosomes, the threadlike structures in the nucleus. When a cell divides, its chromosomes and genes are duplicated exactly and passed on to the two ...
    Related: cell division, double helix, invasion of privacy, properly
  • Dna And Forensics - 1,198 words
    Dna And Forensics What is DNA? DNA (noun) [deoxyribonucleic acid] First appeared 1944 : any of various nucleic acids that are usually the molecular basis of heredity, are localized especially in cell nuclei, and are constructed of a double helix held together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine bases which project inward from two chains containing alternate links of deoxyribose and phosphate. What is forensics? fo*ren*sic [1] (adjective) First appeared 1659 1 : belonging to, used in, or suitable to courts of judicature or to public discussion and debate. 2 : ARGUMENTATIVE, RHETORICAL. 3 : relating to or dealing with the application of scientific knowledge to legal problems *~ med ...
    Related: forensics, double helix, home office, american population, conventional
  • Dna Replication - 667 words
    Dna Replication DNA replication is a complex cellular function that is necessary in order to sustain life and achieve growth. Many enzymes, proteins, and other molecules work together to ensure that genetic information is replicated efficiently, quickly, and accurately. Without any one of these components, replication would be very limited in its efficacy. DNA is comprised of two strands of complementary nitrogenous bases (adenine & thymine, guanine & cytosine), five-carbon sugars (either ribose or deoxyribose), and phosphate groups. The strands of DNA are arranged in a double-helix array and are held together with hydrogen bonds. The semiconservative replication model is used to depict repl ...
    Related: replication, genetic information, double helix, accurately, polymerase
  • Dna Structure - 268 words
    DNA Structure DNA is a double stranded molecule twisted into a helix. Each spiraling strand is comprised of a sugar phosphate backbone and attached bases connected to a complimentary strand. The complimentary strand is connected by non-covalent hydrogen bonding between paired bases. The bases are adenine, thymine, ctyosine, and gaunine. The fundamental building block of DNA is the nucleotide. The nucleotide has three parts. A nitrogen-containing pyrimidine or purine base, a deoxyribose sugar, and a phosphate group that acts as a bridge between the deoxyribose sugars that are adjacent to it. Each deoxyribose sugar contains five carbon atoms joined to an oxygen atom. The carbon atoms are seque ...
    Related: double helix, national laboratory, pacific northwest, bridge, fundamental
  • Francis Crick - 999 words
    Francis Crick In 1953, Dr. Francis Crick and James Watson discovered the structure of the DNA molecule. This is the molecule which we now know stores the genetic information for all life. Many scientists have claimed the discovery to be the single most important development in biology during the 20th century. Watson and Crick's investigation into the nature of the genetic code and the passing of information from generation to generation has redefined the study of genetics. Also, it has basically created the science of molecular biology. For their outstanding work, James Watson and Dr. Francis Crick were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize. As a youth, Francis Crick attended Northhampton Grammar Sch ...
    Related: crick, francis, francis crick, double helix, research council
  • Genetic Engineering: The Frontier - 1,041 words
    Genetic Engineering: The Frontier Genetic Engineering: The Frontier Science is a still somewhat obscure creature that continues to evolve, radically changing the face of mankind perhaps faster than its creator. The magnificent world of science has witnessed many profound breakthroughs and advances in this past century, but none as noteworthy as genetic engineering. As a subset of the more general subject of biotechnology, genetic engineering is the process of altering genetic material by purposeful manipulation of DNA (Wallace 339). To some, this field illustrates malicious scientists playing God, while to others it is a treasure chest of knowledge that holds the key to solving problems such ...
    Related: frontier, genetic, genetic engineering, genetic screening, genetic testing
  • Genetics - 2,024 words
    ... gument in the Western societies is that parents who have large families want a mixture of sons and daughters, and most patients attending sex/gender selection clinics already have children of the same sex/gender and seek another of the opposite. Once a male child has been born, parents are less concerned about the sex/gender of any later siblings. Statham et al (1993) conducted a survey of British women and was asked in the early stages of pregnancy if they minded what the sex/gender of their baby would be. Fifty eight percent said no and among those who expressed a strong preference six percent wanted a boy and an equal percentage wanted a girl. There was also only a hint of male bias i ...
    Related: genetic disease, genetic engineering, genetic information, genetic screening, genetics, human genetics
  • Genetics Engineering - 1,487 words
    Genetics Engineering Genetic engineering is an umbrella term that can cover a wide range of ways of changing the genetic material -- the DNA code -- in a living organism. This code contains all the information, stored in a long chain chemical molecule, which determines the nature of the organism. Apart from identical twins, genetic make-up is unique to each individual. Individual genes are particular sections of this chain, spaced out along it, which determine the characteristics and functions of our body. Defects of individual genes can cause a malfunction in the metabolism of the body, and are the roots of many "genetic" diseases. In a sense, man has been using genetic engineering for thou ...
    Related: engineering, genetic code, genetic engineering, genetic information, genetics
  • Hereditary - 977 words
    Hereditary Introduction: My topic is "hereditary." I have always been interested in genetics, and this is a large branch of genetics. In this report I also plan to speak about evolution. I would like to learn more about what causes specific traits and what the future might bring. Body: A person gets his or her traits from their parents. These traits include everything from the person's sex to their mental abilities or problems. These traits are hereditary because they are passed on through genes. They get these genes from their parents and grandparents. They may inherit innate abilities of their parents, such as an affinity for music. Another factor in who you are is the environment you live ...
    Related: hereditary, second edition, physical characteristics, drugs and alcohol, recessive
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