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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: framework

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• A Risk Neutral Framework For The Pricing Of Credit Derivatives - 1,476 words
A Risk Neutral Framework For The Pricing Of Credit Derivatives 1. INTRODUCTION Considerable research effort has gone into Credit Derivatives since the early 1990s. The roots of credit derivatives can be traced back to the notion that the credit risk of a firm can be captured by the credit rating ascribed to it. This premise is also the cornerstone of loan pricing and credit risk management models the world over, including J.P. Morgans CreditMetricsTM. Empirical research enables the predictability of the event of default as well as the Loss in the Event of Default (LIED). This information is expressed in terms of a transition matrix - a matrix that traces out the probabilities the migration o ...
Related: credit, credit risk, derivatives, framework, neutral, pricing, risk management
• A Risk Neutral Framework For The Pricing Of Credit Derivatives - 1,578 words
... A or B (6) The probabilities of transition from period 2 to period 3 are obtained as: {RN}02 {RN}23 = {RN}03 Where {RN}ij is the risk-neutral transition matrix from period i to period j Thus, {RN}23 = {RN}-102 {RN}03 Table -6 shows the risk neutral probabilities of transition from period 2 to period 3. From this table, it can be seen that P (F / EA ) = 0.074 and P (F / EB ) = 0.176. In addition, we know that P(EA) = 0.181 and P(EB) = 0.530 (refer Table -5a). Thus, the risk-neutral probability that Rs. 100 is received in period 3 is 0.074 x 0.181 + 0.176 x 0.530 = 0.107 The value of the derivative is obtained as 20.76 Table-6 Risk neutral probabilities of transition from period 2 to perio ...
Related: credit, credit risk, derivatives, framework, neutral, pricing, rate risk
• Although At First Sight The Dsmiv Classification System Appears To Provide Clinicians With A Useful Framework Of Which To Vie - 1,974 words
Although at first sight the DSM-IV classification system appears to provide clinicians with a useful framework of which to view their clients, on closer inspection however, the picture is somewhat less satisfactory. Criticisms of the system range from Wakefield's (1997) analysis that psychological presentation ranges from problems of living to harmful dysfunction; through to Livesley, Schroeder & Jang's (1994) counter-argument that evidence of discontinuity between different diagnoses and normality would support the DSM's proposal of distinct diagnostic categories. Since these issues involved are quite distinct, both these points of view are presented in relation to a cause and consequence d ...
Related: classification, framework, university press, mental disorder, application
• Russian Economic Framework - 1,984 words
Russian Economic Framework Country Analysis Framework Looking at the Russian Economy Focus of a country framework A country framework for these medium-term considerations should yield results useful for investment planning, policy choice, and financial reimbursement where appropriate. This is the focus of the framework outlined in this paper. This framework does not explicitly cover longer term and global level assessments, although one could use an essentially similar framework for those as well. This paper outlines a framework, not a methodology. It is compatible with many different specific methods. The reason for preserving this flexibility is that there are many methods, reflecting some ...
Related: economic analysis, framework, russian, russian economy, russian federation, russian government
• The Political Framework Of Islam - 1,333 words
The Political Framework Of Islam The Political Framework Of Islam The political system of Islam is based on the three principles of towhid (Oneness with Allah), risala ( Prophethood), and khilifa ( Caliphate). Towhid means that one Allah alone is the Creator, Sustainer, and Master of the universe and of all that exists in it- organic or inorganic. He alone has the right to command or forbid, and worship and obedience are due to him alone. The Islamics believe that it is not for them to decide the aim or purpose of our existence or to set the limits of our worldly authority; nor does anyone else have the rights to make these decisions for them. These rights rest only with Allah. This principl ...
Related: framework, islam, political system, men and women, islamic state
• 22399 - 1,303 words
2/23/99 The Hindenburg Disaster Count Ferdinand Von Zeppelin and his crew operated their first airship nearly one hundred years ago. Airships are big controllable balloons, also known as dirigibles. There are three classes of airships, rigid, nonrigid and semirigid. Rigid airships (zeppelins) use framework in the interior to keep their shape. Semirigid airships are a combination of framework and gas pressure to maintain their shape. Nonrigid airships (blimps) rely solely on air pressure to keep their form. They are all propelled with engines, use rudders and elevator flaps for steering and have a gondola where passengers travel. The pride of the zeppelin works was a rigid airship which was o ...
Related: major general, sporting events, imbalance, nose
• The Question Of Being: What It Is, Why It Matters - 1,317 words
"The Question Of Being": What It Is, Why It Matters. Martin Heidegger attempts to answer the "question of Being" by appealing to the terminology and methodology of Dasein, most commonly defined as existence. Dasein is not simply any kind of existence, however, but an existence that is unique from all other existences in that it asks the question of existence while existing in the existence itself. In other words, one must first understand Dasein in order to understand Being because Dasein is a kind of being that is concerned about its very Being. Contrary to the popular opinion that in order to truly and clearly comprehend any phenomenon, the subject which interrogates must necessarily stand ...
Related: thomas aquinas, martin heidegger, true meaning, reflective, disclosure
• Towards Innovation - 1,518 words
"Towards Innovation" The world today is experiencing the most rapid pace of change in its history. The purpose of this essay is to discuss what organizational structure is suitable in the business circumstances of today. This essay will argue that 'the environment of the 21st century is such, that to be effective, organizations are tending towards less formalized structures than used in the past'. To support this argument, firstly organizations will be defined, and then the properties that make an organization effective will be identified. Next organizational structure will be appraised, and what constitutes business environment will be established. Finally the influences globalisation and t ...
Related: innovation, information exchange, work activities, business environment, workforce
• A Birth Of A Nation The Bicycle Thieves - 1,300 words
A Birth Of A Nation - The Bicycle Thieves In that paper, I will try to compare two films which are A Birth of a Nation directed by D.W.Griffith and The Bicycle Thieves directed by De Sica. After giving the story of the films, I will try to explain their technical features and their similarities. A Birth of a Nation by D. W. Griffith Griffith can be seen as the first 'modern' director, his greatest achievements being the historical epics The Birth Of A Nation. When it was released, it was one of the longest films ever made, over three hours in length. The prologue depicts the introduction of slavery to America in the seventeenth century and the beginnings of the abolitionist movement. The maj ...
Related: bicycle, thieves, civil rights, ku klux klan, sequence
• A Postmodern Age - 1,423 words
A Post-Modern Age? A Post-Modern Age? Introduction: Post-Modernism can be described as a particular style of thought. It is a concept that correlates the emergence of new features and types of social life and economic order in a culture; often called modernization, post-industrial, consumer, media, or multinational capitalistic societies. In Modernity, we have the sense or idea that the present is discontinuous with the past, that through a process of social, technological, and cultural change (either through improvement, that is, progress, or through decline) life in the present is fundamentally different from life in the past. This sense or idea as a world view contrasts with what is commo ...
Related: postmodern, american market, european history, post modern, depot
• A Practical Approach To Television Violence - 1,290 words
A Practical Approach To Television Violence As difficult as this issue is, I believe it can be addressed. My report shows that some progress has already begun in several areas. Attention needs to be focused on how and why some programming has begun to move in the right direction and why the rest has not. What this issue needs, more than anything else, is cool heads on all sides of the problem: the network executives, the creative community, the government, researchers and advocacy groups. All sides need to worry less about how each development affects only them and instead look at the needs of everyone.(U.C.L.A. 5) In the broadcast world, the four television networks, ABC, CBS, FOX, and NBC, ...
Related: practical, television, television programming, television violence, violence, violence on television
• A Rough Man - 1,341 words
A Rough Man Rough, vigorous, hot-tempered and rich is what Mark Twain grew up to be. Born 1835 in Missouri, Florida he always did what he needed to in order for him to reach his goal. Even though he dropped out of school at the age of twelve, when his father died, he accomplished numerous things. Mark began writing when he took the job of a journalist. The tale 'The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County' was his first success. After a trip by boat to Palestine, he wrote The Innocents Abroad. As his writing career blossomed, he also became successful as a lecturer. In 1870 got married, and a few years later he and his wife settled in Hartford, Connecticut. Huckleberry Finn is Twain's ma ...
Related: rough, mysterious stranger, gilded age, point of view, imagination
• Abortion - 2,032 words
Abortion Abortion in today's society has become very political. You are either pro-choice or pro-life, and there doesn't seem to be a happy medium. As we look at abortion and research its history, should it remain legal in the United States, or should it be outlawed to reduce the ever growing rate of abortion. A choice should continue to exist but the emphasis needs to be placed on education of the parties involved. James C. Mohr takes a good look at abortion in his book Abortion in America. He takes us back in history to the 1800s so we can understand how the practice and legalization of abortion has changed over the year. In the absence of any legislation whatsoever on the subject of abort ...
Related: abortion, induced abortion, court cases, civil war, affluent
• Abortion In Utilitarian Terms - 1,387 words
Abortion In Utilitarian Terms Abortion This essay is an analysis of abortion in utilitarian terms. Compared to some writings on abortion, it is very short. And it is short for good reason: utilitarianism really has very little to say on this issue. Intuitionists will predictably take this as proof of the inadequacy of utilitarianism. The utilitarian, however, after noticing the various muddles produced by the intuitionist - the arguments over whether the fetus is a person, whether one person has the right to the use of another's body and/or whether someone has the right to determine what occurs in their own body (and in the case of both, the interminable debates as to what is to be done abou ...
Related: abortion, utilitarian, animal abuse, high cost, poorer
• Abstract Expressionism - 1,560 words
Abstract Expressionism "What about the reality of the everyday world and the reality of painting? They are not the same realities. What is this creative thing that you have struggled to get and where did it come from? What reference or value does it have, outside of the painting itself?" Ad Reinhardt, in a group discussion at Studio 35, in 1950. My essay starts with the origin and the birth of this great expression in the twentieth century. This movement not only touched painting, it had an affect on various aspects of art- poetry, architecture, theater, film, photography. Vasily Kandinsky, Kazimir Malevich and Piet Mondrian are considered to be the pioneer artists to have achieved a truly a ...
Related: abstract, abstract expressionism, expressionism, german expressionism, modern architecture
• Acid Rain Legislation - 824 words
Acid Rain Legislation Acid Rain Legislation Acid rain is a destructive force as a result of nature and man colliding. It is formed through harmful industrial emissions combining with contents of the earth's atmosphere; a dangerous combination. This prompted governments throughout North America to take action. Many laws and regulations have been implemented, yet the question still remains, Should tougher legislation be implemented to force industries to reduce acid rain emissions? To decide whether tougher legislation should be implemented, one must first understand the details of what exactly acid rain is. Acid rain is a result of mankind's carelessness. It travels a long one of the most eff ...
Related: acid, acid rain, legislation, rain, power plants
• Adam Smith - 803 words
Adam Smith Adam Smith was born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. His exact date of his birth is unknown but he was baptized on June 5, 1723. At the age of fifteen, Smith began attending Glasgow University where he studied moral philosophy. In 1748 he began giving lectures in Edinburgh where he discussed rhetoric and later he began to discuss the economic philosophy of the "simple system of natural liberty" which he later proclaimed in his Inquiry into Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. In 1751, Smith was appointed professor of logic at Glasgow university, transferring in 1752 to the chair of moral philosophy. His lectures covered the field of ethics, rhetoric, jurisprudence and politica ...
• Affirmative Action - 916 words
Affirmative Action Affirmative Action is a policy that is supposed to give minorities ?more? of an equal opportunity. Corporate America and educational institutions claim that they follow the policy of equal opportunity for all, but in reality they don?t. Affirmative Action is just a policy that is not implemented to do what it is supposed to do. I believe Affirmative Action was created to keep people quiet. In Ward Connerly?s essay ?My Fight Against Race Preferences: a Quest Toward ?Creating Equal??, is a clear example of how unequal society is. It also demonstrates how educational institutions do not follow what is preached with Affirmative Action. As a result, not only are blacks and othe ...
Related: affirmative, affirmative action, court cases, foreign policy, ethnicity
• Africanamerican Representation In The Media - 1,845 words
African-American Representation In The Media In Jacqueline Bobo's article, The Color Purple : Black Women as Cultural Readers, she discusses the way in which black women create meaning out of the mainstream text of the film The Color Purple. In Leslie B. Innis and Joe R. Feagin's article, The Cosby Show : The View From the Black Middle Class, they are examining black middle-class responses to the portrayal of black family life on The Cosby Show. In their respective articles, Bobo, and Innis and Feagin are investigating the representation of race, particularly African American race, in the mass media. The chief concerns of their investigations lie in how African Americans deal with the way th ...
Related: mainstream media, mass media, media, representation, working women
• Air Pollution - 1,493 words
... ures have in fact been rising, and the years from 1987 to 1997 were the warmest ten years on record. Most scientists are reluctant to say that global warming has actually begun because climate naturally varies from year to year and decade to decade, and it takes many years of records to be sure of a fundamental change. There is little disagreement, though, that global warming is on its way. Global warming will have different effects in different regions. A warmed world is expected to have more extreme weather, with more rain during wet periods, longer droughts, and more powerful storms. Although the effects of future climate change are unknown, some predict that exaggerated weather condi ...
Related: air pollution, pollution, pollution control, lung disease, more effective
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