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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: epistemology

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  • Epistemology Plato Vs Aristotle - 1,137 words
    Epistemology - Plato Vs Aristotle Epistemology Plato vs. Aristotle In Republic, Plato defines the ideal government to be one that is set up and run by a philosopher king. This person, having a completely just soul, would be able to organize and run a government that was also completely just. Aristotle also believes that this monarchy run by the perfect ruler that Plato describes would be ideal, if it were possible. However, Aristotle doesnt believe that a perfectly just person exists. On page 81 of The Politics Aristotle says that if such a perfectly just person did exist he would be a God among men, and there are no gods among men. So, Aristotle discounts the possibility of the existence of ...
    Related: aristotle, epistemology, knowledge plato, plato, greek civilization
  • Epistemology Plato Vs Aristotle - 1,086 words
    ... uably caused the civil war. If everyone (in the north and the south) held a similar epistemological view (either Platos or Aristotles) then the civil war wouldnt have taken place. It seems possible that this could happen if nobody broke free from his chains to conceive of a new idea. In this case, everyone would hold a view based on Aristotles epistemology, and there would be no conflict. It seems impossible, however, for everyone to hold a view based on a Platonic epistemology. There will always be people who gain in some way from a current situation, or, because of habituation, simply cant break from their chains to see past the shadows. It seems then, that one problem with Platos epis ...
    Related: aristotle, epistemology, plato, america after, human knowledge
  • A Universal Perspective On Belief: - 1,897 words
    A Universal Perspective On Belief: A Universal Perspective on Belief: A Response to Pragmatic and Cartesian Approaches to Epistemology By Britta Rempel (*note to reader:I hope this gives all of you struggling with some concepts in Intro to Philosophy a clearer view on how to approach your own paper, please do not plagerise) The approaches given by Pierce and Nagel to the epistemological questions of doubt and belief, though diverse in that they are strictly pragmatist and Cartesian, contain a similar underlying principle. They both serve to show that belief cannot come from any source that appeals to one's feelings or purposes, experiences or impressions. Beliefs must arise from a non-person ...
    Related: fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol syndrome, illegal drug, empiricism, stability
  • Anna Karenina - 1,545 words
    ... else's thoughts, whether occasioned by chalk marks on a leather table cover or by the subtlest nuance in someone's eyes, in contrast to the falsehoods of social language that obscure and separate people, create a few brief and sometime ecstatic moments of penetration between usually separate conciousnesses, a transcending of interpersonal space. And yet words are still the tools by which, literally, men live or die. Levin's search for structure, as mentioned above, may be considered a struggle to find a language of truth. Nowhere is this more evident than in Levin's observation of the sky that occurs first at the end of the mowing scene and then much later in Part VIII, an example both ...
    Related: anna, anna karenina, karenina, tragic hero, cause and effect
  • Aristotle - 1,197 words
    Aristotle Aristotle was born in 384 BC.; with him came the birth of Western realism. He was a student of Plato and a tutor to Alexander the Great (Founders, 1991). It is difficult to discuss the philosophies of Aristotle without bringing up those of his former tutor, Plato. Aristotle's philosophies diverted from Plato's, and led to Aristotle forming his own school, the Lyceum. After tutoring Alexander the Great for about five years, he founded the Lyceum in Athens, Greece (Wheelwright, 1983). The Lyceum was a philosophical school that dealt in matters such as metaphysics, logic, ethics, and natural sciences. When teaching at the Lyceum, Aristotle had a habit of walking about as he discoursed ...
    Related: aristotle, state university, human experience, athens greece, attempting
  • Cloning Debate - 1,094 words
    Cloning Debate Cloning is a process that has been debated for decades, and all the arguments are now coming to a head. The thought of cloning has been around since the turn of the century, but was not given much publication until the genre of science fiction pursued it in novels, comics, magazines and television shows in the mid-1950s. When Dolly, a sheep, was cloned, many people, including scientists, religious leaders, politicians, and common people, were held in fascination as the cloning process was explained to them on every major network television channel. People watched as the theory was put to use in certain stages of sheep and frogs being cloned. Many people also came to the realiz ...
    Related: cloning, debate, world leaders, short term, comprehension
  • Constitutional Interpretation - 1,307 words
    Constitutional Interpretation Introduction In this essay I will try to explain and critique the two dominant methods of constitutional interpretation. Which are originalism and non-originalism. I will do this by taking help from "How to Read the Constitution" by Christopher Wolfe, and different source's from Internet. I will start by giving what Wolfe says originalism is, and then I will give some background to other ways to interpret the constitution, and the founders and interpretation and I will finish up with my view on originalism and non-originalism and the critics to that. Wolfe on Originalism Wolfe says that originalism is a two-fold doctrine. First, it holds that the constitution is ...
    Related: constitutional, constitutional interpretation, interpretation, free speech, judicial review
  • Could Gambling Save Science: Encouraging An Honest Consensus - 4,785 words
    Could Gambling Save Science: Encouraging an Honest Consensus To appear in Social Epistemology, 1992. (version appeared: in Proc. Eighth Intl. Conf. on Risk and Gambling, London, 7/90.) C O U L D G A M B L I N G S A V E S C I E N C E? Encouraging an Honest Consensus by Robin Hanson Visiting Researcher, The Foresight Institute P.O. Box 61058, Palo Alto, CA 94306 USA 510-651-7483 The pace of scientific progress may be hindered by the tendency of our academic institutions to reward being popular, rather than being right. A market-based alternative, where scientists can more formally "stake their reputation", is presented here. It offers clear incentives to be careful and honest while contributi ...
    Related: consensus, encouraging, gambling, honest, peanut butter
  • David Hume - 1,044 words
    David Hume What Came First: The Chicken or the Egg? David Hume moves through a logical progression of the ideas behind cause and effect. He critically analyzes the reasons behind those generally accepted ideas. Though the relation of cause and effect seems to be completely logical and based on common sense, he discusses our impressions and ideas and why they are believed. Hume's progression, starting with his initial definition of cause, to his final conclusion in his doctrine on causality. As a result, it proves how Hume's argument on causality follows the same path as his epistemology, with the two ideas complimenting each other so that it is rationally impossible to accept the epistemolog ...
    Related: david, david hume, hume, cause and effect, generally accepted
  • David Hume - 1,013 words
    ... " (165). There are two ultimate definitions of causality that Hume finally reaches. He sees them as either an object precedent and contiguous to another, where all the objects resembling the former are placed in a like relation of priority and contiguity to those objects that resemble the latter. The other definition can be seen as an object precedent and contiguous to another, and so united with it in the imagination, that the idea of the one determines the mind to form the idea of the other, and the impression of the one to form a more lively idea of the other. Hume sees the second definition of cause as being more accurate. The precedent and contiguous object seems to cause the effect ...
    Related: david, david hume, hume, cause and effect, precedes
  • Discourse Analysis - 1,627 words
    Discourse Analysis DISCOURSE ANALYSIS This discourse analysis attempts to answer several questions regarding Chairman Hyde's speech against the president. Firstly an attempt has been made to uncover some of the more prevalent themes and discourses in the hope that they will give some kind of enlightenment of American society and culture. Secondly, this analysis describes the many ways in which Chairman Hyde attempts to persuade his audience of his cause. The portrayed image of President Clinton is then focused on, and finally there is a discussion relating to the various social codes implied within Hyde's speech. It has been found that many of these areas overlap to a greater or lesser degre ...
    Related: discourse, american culture, equal justice, higher level, heroism
  • Education Is Inevitable It Is All Around Us Because We Can Learn From Virtually Anything When You Are Cooking, Dancing, Talki - 1,669 words
    Education is inevitable. It is all around us because we can learn from virtually anything. When you are cooking, dancing, talking or any other activity you have actually had to learn several things to be able to do them. In the educational perspective, I am a pragmatist and I tend to follow after Dewey's footsteps. The concept of Pragmatism is one that developed in the 20th century. My philosophy is based on the idea that learning should involve real-life situations. Learning becomes more concrete to a student when they apply it to real-life situations, as where learning things that do not connect to them has more of an abstract sense. Personally, I would have to agree with Dewey when he sai ...
    Related: inevitable, virtually, language arts, ice cream, illustrating
  • Explanation And Analysis Of Stoic Philosophy - 1,984 words
    Explanation And Analysis Of Stoic Philosophy Stefano R. Mugnaini Dr. Ralph Gilmore Introduction to Philosophy 26 April 1999 Explanation and Analysis of Stoic Philosophy Stoicism is, without a doubt, one of the most widely misunderstood schools of Philosophy ever established and followed by a wide number of people. The common opinion of Stoic adherents is that they are merely cold, somber individuals dedicated to the idea that happiness is evil, emotion is to be avoided at all costs and pleasure is wicked. Although they do stress control over strong emotions and that pleasure is not the sole end of life, this is a gross misunderstanding of Stoicism. According to Dr. Zeno Breuninger, Stoics be ...
    Related: explanation, moral philosophy, philosophy, stoic, bertrand russell
  • Ford Essay - 1,687 words
    Ford Essay The Good Soldier, utilises a variety of literary techniques to construct meaning and propel imaginative power. Ford uses figurative language to initiate the polarity of "Convention and Passion"(1) and a divergent narrative style and structure to present cultural issues such as the quest for human knowledge and the imprisonment of society. "The long afternoon wore on" commences in the context of Nancy's revelations. She has read the account of the Brand divorce case in the newspapers and is apprehending the manifestations of recently discovered phenomena. Ford employs a vocabulary that is mournful and dull to conjure up images of shadow and anguish. He uses words like "frightened," ...
    Related: ford, point of view, the narrator, literary techniques, diary
  • George Berkley: His View Of God - 1,262 words
    George Berkley: His View Of God George Berkeley: His View of God As man progressed through the various stages of evolution, it is assumed that at a certain point he began to ponder the world around him. Of course, these first attempts fell short of being scholarly, probably consisting of a few grunts and snorts at best. As time passed on, though, these ideas persisted and were eventually tackled by the more intellectual, so-called philosophers. Thus, excavation of the external world began. As the authoritarinism of the ancients gave way to the more liberal views of the modernists, two main positions concerning epistemology and the nature of the world arose. The first view was exemplified by ...
    Related: george berkeley, john locke, david hume, david, perception
  • Greek Roman Godstructures - 2,192 words
    Greek +Roman God-Structures Wherever we run across a morality we find an assessment and ranking of human drives and actions. These assessments and rankings always express the needs of a community and herd: whatever profits it in the first place-and in the second and third-is also the supreme measure of the value of all individuals. By means of morality, individuals are led to be functions of the herd and to attribute value to themselves as merely functionsmorality is herd instinct in the individual. (Pg.130, Nietzsche) Nietzsche, in this quote, is saying that humans will tend to see things in a specific way due to their shared heritage and historical formation. When Nietzsche says, God is de ...
    Related: greek, greek / roman, greek roman, roman, scientific community
  • Greek Roman Godstructures - 2,034 words
    ... ence -- but in a mode that differs fundamentally from ordinary experience. According to Husserl, true positivism does not reduce phenomenon to a physical perspective, but instead places the emphasis on consciousness itself. In his original conception of phenomenology, Husserl's idea of a presuppositionless science amounted to rejecting all antecedent commitments to theories of knowledge, both those formally developed as philosophical systems and those which pervade our ordinary thinking. Identifying any previous knowledge, ideas, or beliefs about phenomenon under investigation, allowed the examiner to be impartial. He intended by this bracketing of scientific or cultural presuppositions ...
    Related: greek, greek / roman, greek roman, roman, edmund husserl
  • How Does Descartes Try To Extricate Himself From The Sceptical Doubts That He Has Raised Does He Succeed - 2,315 words
    How does Descartes try to extricate himself from the sceptical doubts that he has raised? Does he succeed? [All page references and quotations from the Meditations are taken from the 1995 Everyman edition] In the Meditations, Descartes embarks upon what Bernard Williams has called the project of 'Pure Enquiry' to discover certain, indubitable foundations for knowledge. By subjecting everything to doubt Descartes hoped to discover whatever was immune to it. In order to best understand how and why Descartes builds his epistemological system up from his foundations in the way that he does, it is helpful to gain an understanding of the intellectual background of the 17th century that provided th ...
    Related: descartes, succeed, human error, ontological argument, strongest
  • Jean Piaget - 1,182 words
    Jean Piaget This paper revolves around developmental psychologist Jean Piaget and his work. While swaying from the personal to the professional sides of the Swiss psychologist, the research touches on key influences that inspired young Piaget to become such a driven and well respected psychologist. However, the most extensive part of this paper is the explanation of his cognitive development theory and how it evolved. The three main pieces to Piaget`s puzzle of cognitive development that are discussed are schemes, assimilation and accommodation, and the stages of cognitive growth. In addition to the material on the man and his theory, there is the most important component of the paper, the w ...
    Related: jean, jean piaget, piaget, alfred binet, reference list
  • John Locke - 762 words
    John Locke John Locke John Locke was an English philosopher and political theorist during the 1600s. He was also the founder of British empiricism. He is known for his great contribution to the Enlightenment period, in which he gave people the idea of natural rights and a government that protects those rights. John Locke also wrote a famous essay called Concerning Human Understanding and attacked the theory of divine right of kings in Two Treatises of Government. John Locke was a very important philosopher and his ideas effected many people. John Locke was born in Wrinlington, Somerset on August 29,1632. He lived from 1632 to 1704. He was the son of a puritan lawyer who fought for Cromwell i ...
    Related: john locke, locke, concerning human, human understanding, philosophy
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