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Research paper topic: Computer Fundermentals - 1721 words
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Computer Fundermentals The society in which we live is complex and sophisticated. As consumers we demand a variety of goods and services to enable us to maintain the quality of life we enjoy. In order to satisfy these demands, suppliers must produce the goods and services, which the consumer wants by combining factors of production such as land, labour and capital in the most efficient manner. To do this the hiring of workers, rent or purchase of the appropriate premises, and maybe, even investing in plant and machinery, as well as the raw materials needed to produce the final product. These are just some of the factors that have to be considered before the final product is produced at a profit.
This is achieved under commercial organisations. In short, an organisation is a group of people working together to achieve a goal of supplying a demand. In Britain, the economy is made up of the Public Sector and the Private Sector. THE PUBLIC SECTOR The Public Sector Company provides goods and services through the state in much the same way as commercial organisations. This sector also employs staff, occupy premises and raise capital.
The public sector seeks to fulfil a service such as education, hospitals, police, etc. These services are necessary to provide society with order, in which individuals are free to express their demands and producers are able to meet such wants. THE PRIVATE SECTOR The prime objective of the private sector is to make a profit. These organisations are made up of several different sectors. They are a mixture of large and small business. For example: - Banks, Railtrack, Imperial Chemical Industries, Solicitors, Accountants.
THE SOLE TRADER Sole traders are normally owners of small businesses such as the newsagent or the local cafe. The sole trader has unlimited liability and has a greater risk than a partnership. However, he has total control of his business and is alone in the making of all decisions relating to his business. The sole trader keeps all profits but in the majority of cases works very long hours, it is also very hard to find the time for things such as holidays. PARTENERSHIPS Partnerships has a minimum of two people and no more than twenty partners, who have made an agreement to work together and to provide capital for the benefit of the company. Their aim is to make a profit.
These businesses are normally on a larger scale. Sleeping partners in the business i.e. profit share partners do not play an active role in the organisation. A Deed of Partnership is normally drawn up when setting up a partnership. This sets out the terms and conditions such as the objectives, profits, transfer of ownership, individual salaries, decision-making, etc.
THE PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY (LTD) Private Limited Companies have certain legal binding restrictions before it can trade, these are: The Memorandum of Association This consists of the company relating to the outside world i.e.: name and rules, address of the business, the names of the directors and the purpose of the organisation. The Article of Association This relates to the internal matters of the organisation. When the Article of Association form in completed it is then registered and permits the company to trade. THE PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY (PLC) A Public Limited Company has similar rules to limited companies with the exceptions: Shares can be openly bought and sold A vast amount of capital can be made available through the issue of extra shares. The minimum share capital required is 50,000.
No limits to the amount of shares a shareholder can have. FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF A MUSIC VENUE The functional areas of an organisation such as a music venue can be vast. Therefore, the areas that will be dealt with will be limited. Marketing The marketing department is responsible for all publicity that the organisation needs to make public awareness and the events available. They also can organise suppliers, as well as the delivery of these items.
This department is in charge of all venue publicity and public awareness. Accounts The accounts department is responsible for the payment of all bills/invoices. When an invoice is presented for payment, the manager concerned first checks it against the appropriate delivery note. Only then, will this department approve payment automatic and regular payments such as, standing orders and direct debits are also done through this department. These systems of payments are required to pay bills like gas, electric and other suppliers used on a regular basis. Wages This department is responsible for the wages and salaries of all personnel working for the venue. It includes wage payments for company directors, full and part-time staff to the artists and musicians working on an evening event.
They also supply wage slips that supply information such as number of hours worked, overtime, bonus, holidays etc. The required tax deducted and payment is made through the BACS system directly into the employees bank account in most cases. Personnel This department is responsible for the welfare of all employees within the organisation. Personnel are responsible for recruitment, training and development of all staff. They also ensure that the venue and bar managers carry out the required company training. They hold all of the organisations staff records. To keep their files updated these departments regularly liaise with the wages department over staff sickness, holiday entitlements etc.
IT Services All incoming areas i.e. bar and entrance fees are linked to a computerised system, therefore the IT services department even though small plays a vital role in this organisation. This department is divided into two, the Operations and the Programming. FUNCTIONAL AREAS WITHIN A MUSIC VENUE This diagram shows the flow of information between departments . FLOWCHART 1. All information to and from the board of Directors is communicated through the general manager and heads of departments. 2.
The General Manager is the main information link between the Directors and the other departments. 3. The Bar manager communicates with the promotion department regarding any new products to come on line. 4. The bar manager communicates with the bar staff regarding working hours etc.
5. The Accounts department communicates constantly with the general manager to keep an eye on the performance of each week performance. 6. The promotion department communicates with the general manager regarding what has been programmed over the months, this dictates the amount of staff needed on each night 7. The Personnel Department communicates with the general manager and the accounts department.
8. The IT department communicates with the accounts department, general Manager and the Directors. Data storage refers to the various filing systems of the storage of data or documents. Retrieval is the accessing of the stored information quickly. This can be achieved in two ways, manual and computerised.
In the music industry, both the manual and computerised format of data storage and retrieval can be found. MANUAL There are four basic physical methods of holding paper-based files: vertical filing, horizontal filing, lateral filing and rotary filing, paper base filing is still fairly popular and efficient but can be time consuming. This form of filing allows data and documents to be arranged alphabetically, by date, category, numerically etc. Filing cabinets are one of the main forms of manual filing. Vertical filing This is a cabinet, which contains file drawers with suspended files that has pockets.
Horizontal filing These are drawers that are shallow and wide. This is used mainly for storing drawing and plans. Lateral or open shelf filing Similar to bookcases, where files are placed side by side along the shelves. Rotary filing This varies in height and circumference and is rotated to gain quick and easy access to the required file. COMPUTERISED FILING SYSTEM This form of filing system is increasing, because of its versatility and cost effective way of storing data. The modern computer is not only capable of dealing with the use of words and numbers for storage or retrieval, but a wide range of data such as drawings and graphs. This system can be split into two categories. Logical file organisation and the physical file organisation.
Logical file organisation The computer file storage area can be organised into several smaller areas. This allows the files to be organised more effectively, allowing the locations of the relevant details more quickly. The creation and use of the file storage area can be used in an efficient way. Files can also be created, copied and deleted very quickly. Indices are another way of logically organising files.
Index allows records to be arranged sequentially, according to particular criteria, e.g. date order. When new records are added all the data would be renumbered automatically. Physical file organisation All stored data information can be done in several ways. The main ones are listed below.
Magnetic Disks This is a very important backing storage medium. It provides the computer application with quick, direct access to individual records within a file. There are two popular types of magnetic disks. Hard disks This disk is often made of aluminum with a coating, which allows data to be recorded magnetically. It has a large storage capacity and is able to store over 20GB.
Large organisations file server would probably have over four hard drive. The disks read from the outside to the inside. This form of data storage is widely used within large organisation Floppy disks The surface of these disks consists of rings. These rings are split into sectors, which holds numerous tracks (disks can hold several hundred tracks). The Floppy disk has a storage capacity of 1.5MB. A file will have a location associated with it, this is known as the address.
The file location can be found at this address and consists of a tract and sector. Larger program will run on a single track through a number of sectors rather than running on numerous tracks within one sector. Compact disk This is an optical disk, which uses laser beams technology to record and read data. It has a greater storage capacity than the magnetic disk, with a single disk capable of storing 650MB. The surface is made up of spiral rings, which is split into sectors.
The CD changes speed depending on the part of the disk it is reading/writing, to/from at the time of use. E.g. the speed is faster if it is being read ...
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