Research paper topics, free example research papers
You are welcome to search thousands of free research papers and essays. Search for your research paper topic now!
Research paper topic: Tall Stories Newscience Picture In Your Mind The Skyline Of Downtown Toronto Theres The Cn Tower, Of Course, And The 72floor - 1100 words
NOTE: The research paper or essay you see on this page is a free essay, available to anyone. You can use any paper as a sample on how to write research papers or as a source of information. We strongly discourage you to directly copy/paste any essay and turn it in for credit. If your school uses any plagiarism detecting software, you might be caught and accused of plagiarism. If you need a custom term paper, research paper or essay, written from scratch exclusively for you, please, use our paid research papers writing service!
.. d the wind moaning and whistling by the elevator -- that's stack effect. In any tall building, the difference in temperature and air pressure between the outside and inside the structure pushes air up the stairwells and elevators, like smoke up a chimney. Strong, cold drafts blowing up the building create heating problems and make it difficult to open doors into stairwells. To control stack effect, buildings must be as airtight as possible, with ventilation ducts extending only part way up the building, and revolving doors at ground level.
The one invention that, above all, has enabled buildings to climb higher is the elevator. As skyscraper populations have grown, elevator manufacturers have handled larger loads with double-decker cars -- one car piggybacking another, with each one stopping at alternative floors. Another innovation is the sky lobby system, in which passengers take one car to a floor part way up the building, and then transfer the next flight up to another car in the same elevator shaft for the rest of the journey. Elevators will probably never move any faster than they do today, since the human ear can only endure a descent speed of 600 m per minute. So, an elevator ride in a superskyscraper might be comparable to a subway trip, with several transfer points and extended waits between cars. Which brings designers to the inevitable question: Will office staffs and tenants stand for such long rides? Indeed, will they tolerate all the other shortcomings of skyscrapers -- the feelings of entrapment inside them, the dark, windy canyons between them, and the congested traffic below -- made worse by higher heights.
Developers now claim they've worked most design bugs out of the new megastructures Whether or not people will actually want to occupy them should prove if the sky is really the limit. Don Valley -- loose deposits of sand and silt overlying deep deposits of cllay. Soft deposits. -- or is sand cover on top of clay. terms: loose sand, loose silt, soft clay. Increase surface area of piles. Perhaps the most critical servicing job is protecting the building's occupants from fire and smoke.
Today's skyscrapers are equipped with ultra-sophistated fire-control systems: automatic sprinklers help douse the fire while exhaust fans suck out the smoke from burning areas, preventing it from escaping into other floors and stairwells. Feeding the sprinkler systems are huge water storage tanks that sit on the top floor or roof. These are the same tanks that Paul Newman blew up to douse the rampaging fire in "The Towering Inferno". Exploding tanks undoubtedly made for exciting climax, but they could never contain that much water to put out a skyscraper fire. Built in the early Seventies by I.M.
Pei, one of America's foremost architects, the "John Hancock" towers majestically over the Back Bay area of Boston. Over time, it developed the bad habit of letting its windows fall out on windy days. This problem grew so serious, that police had to cordon off the leeward side of the skyscraper to keep unsuspecting pedestrians from getting beaned by falling glass. In fact, the situation became so dangerous that doormen were escorting workers in and out of the building during the daily invasion and exodus, keeping a wet finger to the wind and an eye peeled for falling glass. And what was the foundation of this perplexing and disturbing window-popping habit? As it turned out, the foundation was to blame; it and what is known as Bernoulli's Principle, ( which states that the pressure of a gas falls as its velocity increases.) What happens is this: a light wind comes along and has to get around a large slab of building.
It pushes against the front of the tower, and then speeds up to get to the edges of the building so it can keep up with the rest of the wind, (this is why the areas around tall buildings and groups of tall buildings become very windy). The back side of the skyscraper, because of all the fast air on its sides, develops an area of low pressure, as predicted by Bernoulli's Principle, and because the air pressure inside the wall is suddenly higher than that outside, there is the potential for windows blowing out This is obviously what was happening to Mr. Pei's building; but why was it happening with such frequency? After all, this building was becoming a lethal weapon! The search for the solution would have to start from the ground up, and the design team began with the history of the site.. As is the case with many cities built beside a body of water, Boston's downtown area expanded rapidly during the last century, and its bay was filled in to provide more building space. Because this land was built on more or less right away, it didn't have the chance to compact and provide as much support as land that had been settling for thousands of years.
The design of the "John Hancock" took into consideration the condition of the soil on which it was built, and the engineers did their best to allow for settling. What they couldn't accurately predict was how the building would settle, so they planned for a uniform settling of the building. Instead, they found that the building had settled unevenly! The result of this settling caused an unequal surface tension on the curtain wall, which, as all curtain walls are, had been designed only to serve as an envelope for the building, and to support no weight other than its own. This meant that it was nearing its maximum strength limit even without any wind blowing on it. The suction of the low pressure area on the leeward side of the building caused the wall to billow out and pop windows like buttons.
The mechanical engineers, realizing that the negative air pressure was too much for the wall, decided to fight that negative pressure with negative air pressure of their own. Using the fact that all skyscrapers are completely sealed, the perimeter air supply system of the whole building was monitored with regards to the exterior air pressure, and then air was supplied or removed to balance the tension on the curtain wall. Quite literally, they would make the building suck in its billowing stomach to keep from popping buttons. Simple, huh? This tale ends with a moral and with a warning: the moral of the story is to look up when you're around tall buildings on very windy days ; the warning (for local folks) is that all the land south of Front Street is infill!.
Research paper topics, free term papers, essays, sample research papers on Tall Stories Newscience Picture In Your Mind The Skyline Of Downtown Toronto Theres The Cn Tower, Of Course, And The 72floor