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Research paper topic: Sports And Agression - 1361 words
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Sports And Agression Sports and Aggression A Research Paper Presented to -------- at -------------------------------------- In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for English 12A By ------------------------ Period 1 March 27, 2000 Do sports create aggressive behavior, or simply attract people who are already aggressive? Aggression and sport have gone together as long as sports have been around, be it the players themselves, to the parents, coaches, or spectators, they just seem to be an inseparable part of each other. The term violence is defined as physical assault based on total disregard for the well being of self and others, or the intent to injure another person ( 2. Coakley). Intimidation usually does not cause physical harm, but often is designed to produce psychological consequences, enabling one person to physically over power or dominate another. These statements as defined by the author, Jay J. Coakley, is what people today have made a must part on sport. Pleasure and participation sports absolutely cannot be grouped with power and performance sports when in relation to aggression.Pleasure sports are simply played for pleasure.
Score is usually not kept. The athletes participating are usually on occasion doing it for fun and exercise. A majority of athletes who have been playing sports since they were little, have probably been pounded into their heads that to be successful in sport, you need to be aggressive, and at some times, unnecessary. Also that to get what you want, you have to go at it with all force. Not that this is wrong but, this attitude in today's society has been a major problem factor to the athletes when they get older, to get into trouble with the law. Those long-term effects of so called discipline, patterns develops these destructive behaviors.
(9. Montague) Although some people are still in belief that aggressive behaviors in all forms, are grounded into instincts, but they also relate these actions to sports. Their parents played, who were known for their aggressive behavior, so the child feels that they have to live up to that expectation.( 6. Storr) Athletes do have to be aggressive to a point, so that the team can form a strategy to win. There is also a limit to aggression when it turns into violence. People might say that it's not aggression or violence, it's just adrenaline pumping.
Adrenaline isn't even similar to violence. Aggression, maybe, but nothing that would be harmful to anyone else. This might be a factor to why contact sports are so popular. For example, football, hockey, rugby, wrestling, and boxing. Contrary to predictions of instinct theory, several studies show that contact sports exist and thrive in the same societies that have high rates of aggression and violence. Unfortunately, another belief is that contact sports teach discipline, self-respect, and self-defense. (8.
May ) Contact sports aren't a positive way to teach these things. Being physically tough helps, but it also needs to be left on the field when the game is over. This can also lead to the abuse of family, girlfriends, boyfriends, friends, and any other person who gets in their "way", because athletes use these sports as a way to get their aggression and angers out. ( 10. Hauser, Powers, Noam ) Other's might argue that it's skill, and not in the least way violent. Although we really can't give a straight and to the point answer to the question "Is aggression an Instinct?" We can say that in man, as in other animals, there exists a physiological mechanism, when stimulated, it rises both subjective feelings of anger and to physical changes, which relate to fighting.
This is easily set off, and like other emotional responses, it is very stereotyped, and instinctive. Just like one person is like a very angry person; they resemble one another at the psychological level. The way in which humans adapt to and control their feelings of rage. ( 5. Toch) The mechanisms in which these body changes, the functions that come about is still completely misunderstood.
( 5. Toch) Experiments from animal's show that it appears that there is a small area from the base of the brain in which the feeling of anger starts. This, from which is sent to the nervous impulses that cause the blood pressure to rise. This area is called the hypothalamus. Its function is to coordinate responses like anger.
( 3 Diamond) The relationship between anger, rage, and violence, and psychopathology that is abnormal, or unnatural in human behavior and experience. People demonstrate their anger reactions in different ways. Similar to most human behavior, violence has a meaning that it only seems "senseless" or "meaningless" to the extent that we are unable to understand it. Most violence starts the fiery human emotions of anger and rage. Not all violent behavior has its origins in anger and rage; some of it is learned, as mentioned before.
Some violence is driven primarily by as Friedrich Nietzsche referred as "the will to power". In other words, rage. ( 3. Diamond) Rage is an instinctual and defensive reaction to severe stress, or physical threat. This is an automatic reflex that people share with animals.
This response to serious threat is referred to by Walter Cannon as the "fight or flight" response. It's the first defense for the survival of the species. Any other threat to the continued physical existence, a person would have the instinct to try to leave, or if they can't, then physically defend them by attacking the source of the threat. ( 7 . Hawkins, Fredman ) Relating to the fact that men are more aggressive than women are, studies shown in several cases those testosterone levels in young men especially are. The high levels of endogenous testosterone seem to encourage behavior apparently intended to dominate, to enhance one's status over other people. ( 9.
Montague) Sometimes aggressive behavior is aggressive, it's apparent intent being to inflict harm on another person, but often dominance is expressed nonaggressively. Measurement of testosterone at a single point in time presumably indicator of a man's basal testosterone level, predicts many of these dominant behaviors. Numerous animal experiments, this one particular to rodents, show that raising testosterone increases aggressiveness. This is in relation to the dominance and antisocial behavior related to the individuals. An individual can be said to act dominantly if it's apparent intent is to achieve or maintain high status, to obtain power influence, or valued prerogatives. Rodents do typically dominate aggressively, but it isn't true of humans.
Much of interpersonal behavior is overtly or subtly concerned with managing dominance and subordination without causing physical harm. It is harder to identify instances of aggression of a dominating motives, things related to religious sacrifices. It is understood that motivations are different from different situations for dominance and aggression. ( 1. Felson, Tedeschi) Clinical science assumes that all men are capable of bloody destructiveness. It maintains that image with most people who do away with their hatreds and, and although There are some instances where this effort fails.
Some people are so shy about their aggressiveness that when they are provoked in the least little way, they become so violent that they are unbearable. Even a slight review of violent conduct suggests that violence isn't blind, and random. Members of fighting gangs are frequently nonviolent when separated from their members. Many extremely dangerous people seem to specialize in certain areas of victims. This is in relation to taking the aggressiveness off the field. There is sometimes a relationship between being violent and being socially improper.
Violence usually takes place in certain circles, certain settings, and on certain occasions. If violence is really blind and random, it's hard to understand why we should find so much in specific situations. Does a man assault his wife rather than the athlete who messed up simply because she's available? Violence can't be associated with angry explosions. There is shape and form to violence. Patterns of destructiveness show consistently, and they relay from person to person.
As for each of us, violence seems to be tied to a restricted range of life situations. It seems to reflect purpose, and implies the presence of hidden meanings. So, how do we satisfy it? How is it provoked? How do violent people function? (4. Stepansky) The level of testosterone circulating in the bloodstream may affect dominat ...
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