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Research paper topic: Alexander The Great - 5132 words
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.. 120 and the minimum 60. After the Battle 25 Macedonians fell"in the first charge. Alexander had a statue made of each of them. He then erected each statue somewhere near Granicus.
He also erected a statue of himself, although he did not even die, let alone in first charge. This was a strange gesture that would never be repeated again. 2,000 of Memnon's mercenaries survived. After the battle they were chained like lions and sent back to forced labor, probably in the mines. This was not a very placatory gesture by Alexander. The reason he gave for it was that "they had violated Greek public opinion by fighting with the Orientals against the Greeks." After his victory, Alexander went across the rocky, volcanic islands of Cappadocia. His victory was the start of a long campaign in Persia.
It opened Asia-Minor to Alexander. The Battle of Issus Background Information The Battle of Issus was, like Granicus, a battle against Persia. It took place in September or October 333 B.C. Alexander, as in about all of his major battles, led his troops. I am not sure who led the Persians, although Darius was there. This battle was important because it was the only way for Alexander to get to the coastal plain of Asia.
The numbers for both sides at this time are uncertain. Before the Battle Alexander was separated from the coastal plain of Asia by the Tarsus Mountains, and the only pass through these mountains was a deep twisting canyon. There were gates to this canyon, and Alexander anticipated trouble there, but there was no other feasible route. Arsames, who was the Persian governor of Cilicia, unintentionally saved Alexander a lot of trouble. Arsames was bent on immitating Memnon's scorched earth policy-strategy and avoiding a head-on collision. Because of this, he only left a small force at the Gates and spent much time and energy destroying the Cilician plain.
Because of this, the entire Macedonian army could and did go through the defile, four abreast, and down into the plains. Alexander crossed into the plain, and then learned that Arsames, in accordance to his plan, intended to loot the city of Tarsus of its treasure and then burn it. Because of this information, he sent Parmenio ahead with cavalry and lightly armed troops. When Arsames learned Alexander's troops were coming, they fled in haste. The city and its treasures were left intact. Alexander entered Tarsus on September 3, 333 B.C.
He was sweating, hot, and exhausted after the rapid forced march from the foothills of Tarsus. The River Cydnus ran through Tarsus, and Alexander plunged into it almost immediately after getting there. He almost immediately had an attack of such a severe cramp that those watching took it as a convulsion. When his aids saw what had happened, they rushed into the water and pulled Alexander out. Alexander was ashy white and chilled to the bones.
Before he had gone into the water it seemed he had some kind of bronchial infection, which, because of the water, quickly turned into acute pneumonia. For days Alexander lay helpless with a raging fever. His physicians were so pessimistic about his recovery they withheld their services for fear that they would be accused of neglegance or, even worse, murder if Alexander died under their care. The only physician willing to treat Alexander was Philip of Acarmenia, Alexander's confidential physician. Philip told Alexander that there were certain quick-acting drugs but they involved an element of risk.
Alexander had no objection to these drugs because he was worried about Darius' advancements. These drugs worked, but they had side effects. Alexander lost his voice, began to have a difficulty breathing, and soon lapsed into a semi-coma. When the semi-coma began, Philip massaged Alexander and put hot substances on him. Finally, Alexander got out of his semi-coma. Three days after his recovery Alexander was well enough to show himself to his anxious troops.
Once he had seen his troops, Alexander sent Parmenio, his allied infantry, Greek mercenaries, and Thracian and Thessalian cavalry to report on Darius' movements and to block passes that Darius could go through. While they were doing this, Alexander took over a major mint. He used it to strike his own coins, which was a very significant innovation. When Parmenio came back, he brought encouraging news. Because of this, Alexander visited Anchilles, one day's march west of Tarsus. He then visited the nearby city of Soli, and then returned to Tarsus.
The reason he made this visits were probably to gain the favor of the inhabitants of these cities. Alexander then sent his General Philotas and some cavalry as far as to the Pyramus River, on the west side of the Gulf of Alexandretta. Alexander, his Royal Squadron, and infantry followed. Less than two days after he sends Philotas away Alexander arrived in Castabala. Parmenio was in Castabala at that time, and gives Alexander the latest news on Darius and his army.
He told Alexander that Darius had pitched camp at Sochi, somewhere east of the Syrian Gates. Parmenio wanted Alexander to marshal his forces at Issus and wait there for Darius. Issus was a good place for Alexander because there was a narrow space and thus less danger of being outflanked. Alexander could also anticipate Darius from any place. Alexander, however, paid little heed to this advice. He was convinced that if Darius moved at all it would be through the Syrian Gates.
So instead of waiting at Issus, Alexander took the rest of his army southwest through the Pillar of Jonah to Myriandus. He pitched camp opposite the pass and waited for an enemy that never came. While the Macedonians were there, going to the Myrian Irus and held up by violent thunderstorms, Darius set out north on a dash for the Amanic gates. He got through them unopposed, and then went down from Castabala on the River Issus. Here he captured nearly all of the Macedonian hospital cases.
Darius cut of the hospital cases' hands and seared them with a pitch. He then took them on a tour of the Persian army. Then he turned them loose and told them to report what they had seen to Alexander. This was probably to terrorize the Macedonian army and make them reluctant to face the Persians in battle. Once he had done this, Darius advanced to the Pinarus River and took a defensive position on the northern bank, thus in Alexander's rear and squarely across Alexander's lines of communication. His position forced the Macedonians to fight a reversed-front engagement and make a frontal assault.
They also had to fight in highly unfavorable circumstances. At dawn the Macedonian army began their descent toward Issus. It took three miles to get clear of the Jonah pass, and nine more to get to the Pinarus River. They began the march in column of route, and as the ground opened out they deployed battalion after battalion of infantry into a line, keeping the left flank close to shore and pushing the right flank up to the foothills. Once all the infantry regiments had been brought up Alexander began to feed in the cavalry squadrons.
Most of them, including the Thessalians, went into the right flank, which Alexander commanded. Parmenio commanded the Greek Allies. What Happened in the Battle In the center of the Persian center Darius put his Royal Bodyguard, a crack of Iranian corps 2,000 strong whose spear butts were decorated with golden quinces. He stationed himself directly behind the Royal Bodyguard in his great ornamental chariot. Flanking his Royal Bodyguard on either side were Darius' Greek mercenaries, about 30,000 strong. Darius' Asiatic levies were worse than useless so they were put in the rear. On both wings were two divisions of lightly armed infantry, called Cardaces.
"Cardaces" appeared to be Iranian youth who were or had just finished their training. By the time Darius had moved all of his infantry into this formation, the Macedonians were getting uncomfortably close. Alexander led his troops to Issus at a leisurely pace. They stopped frequently to check their dressing and observe enemy movements. At first while Alexander and his troops were marching, Darius' intentions were not clear. But then the Persian cavalry squadrons that had been acting as the screen were signaled back across the river and dispatched to the final battle stations, and it became clear to Alexander. He realized that instead of massing the Iranian cavalry opposite the Macedonian right, where Alexander had expected it, Darius was going to move all of his best squadrons down to shore, against Parmenio.
When this realization was made, Alexander reorganized his troops. He put the Thessalians across to their left as reinforcements, and ordered them to ride behind the phalanx so that the phalanx's movements would remain unobserved. Then reports came in that the Persians up on the ridge of the mountain had occupied a projecting spur of it, and were now actually behind the Macedonian right flank. When he heard this, Alexander sent mixed force of lightly armed troops to deal with them. He then pushed forward his cavalry, and brought two squadrons across from the center to strengthen the right flank.
He then left 300 cavalry to watch the Persians' movements. Then the Macedonian army, deployed on a three mile front, continued to advance. Once they were just beyond the Persian bow range they halted, hoping the Persians would charge. Unfortunately for Alexander, they didn't. After a final check on his troops, Alexander led them until they came into the range of the Persian archers. It was late afternoon.
The Persian archers immediately sent a volley of arrows. There were so many of them that some collided in flight. Then a trumpet rang out, and the Macedonian army, led by Alexander, charged across the river. They scattered Darius' archers and drove them back among the light infantry. This strategy worked very well. The battle on the right flank was won in the first few moments.
It did not go so well, however, in the center and left flank. In the center, the Macedonian phalanx had great difficulty in getting across the river. For a while, neither the Macedonians nor the Persians could advance more then a few feet. Then a dangerous gap formed in the right flank of the Macedonian phalanx, and the Persian mercenaries tried to fill it. While this was happening, Alexander, who had rolled up the Persian left flank, swung his wedge of cavalry inward against the rear files of the mercenaries and the Royal Bodyguard.
From this moment on he and his men strained every nerve to kill Darius, because if he died the Persian cause would be crippled. The moment Alexander sighted Darius' chariot he charged for it. Orxathres, Darius' brother, who led the Royal Household Cavalry, tried to protect his brother. Alexander was wounded in his thigh. Then a new chariot, lighter than Darius' original one, was somehow found and Darius jumped into it and fled. His rout of escape, it seems, was through the mountains to Dortyol and Hassa.
By this time Alexander's center and left were both seriously threatened. Because of this, Alexander had to postpone his pursuit of Darius. Instead, he swung his entire right flank around in a wedge against the mercenaries' flanks, and got them out of the river, killing many of them. This was basically the end of the battle. After the Battle When the Macedonian Nabarzanes' heavy cavalry saw the Persian center being cut up, and heard of Darius' fleeing, they wheeled their horses around. They followed Darius' rout, trying to capture him, but they had a half-mile start ahead of them.
They went on 25 miles. Alexander only turned back when it was completely dark. While he was trying to capture Darius, Alexander found several things. He found Darius' royal mantel, some insignia by which he might be recognized, Darius' shield and bow, and his chariot. Alexander kept these as trophies. Just after Alexander returned from his attempt to capture Darius, at about midnight, there came a sound of wailing from a nearby tent.
Alexander realized it came from Darius' mother, wife, and children. Upon seeing Darius' things that Alexander found they thought Darius was dead. To comfort and reassure Darius' family, Alexander told them that Darius was alive. He also told them that Alexander had not fought against Darius out of personal enemy but"had made legitimate battle for the sovereign of Asia". He granted them to keep all titles, ceremonial and insignia befitting their status as a royal family, and that they would receive any allowances granted by Darius. Despite this placatory gesture, Alexander took Darius' family hostage, including his mother, wife, two daughters, and six year old son. Alexander's victory in Issus brought good and bad. A good thing about it was that it enabled Alexander to get out of a very dangerous position and brought welcome spoils.
It also could be good propaganda. However, 1,000 Greek mercenaries from the Persian army got away, in good order, to form the heart of another Persian army. Another problem was that Eastern provinces such as Bactria were left intact, and as long as Darius was around and in power there was no question that the war would go on. The Battle of Guagamela Background Information Like the previous two battles, this battle was in Persia. It was the last major battle in Persia, although there may have been a few minor skirmishes in Persia after it.
The exact location of this battle was the Persian village of Guagamela. It was perhaps the most famous and important of Alexander's battles. It took place on September 30, 331 B.C. Part of it may have happened on October 1, 331 B.C. Alexander led the Macedonians.
The Persians were led by Mazaeus. The Persians outnumbered the Macedonians overwhelmingly. Alexander's army was quite large, at 47,000 troops, with 1,100 of them cavalry. The Persians, however, had an even larger army, somewhere around 235,000 troops total. They outnumbered the Macedonians five to one.
Because of these numbers, it would be hard for the Macedonians to achieve victory. Before the Battle In early summer 331 B.C., Alexander took his entire army north-east through Syria, reaching the Thapsacus on the Euphrates no early than July 10. His objective was to take Babylon, and Darius knew it. He could tell because Babylon was the economic center of the Persian empire and it had a strategic bastion protecting Susa, Persepolis, and the eastern provinces. Darius was pretty sure about how Alexander was planning to take Babylon, too. He thought that Alexander would go straight down the eastern bank of the Euphrates, just as Cyrus did.
Darius hoped to defeat him at Cunaxa, a city near the bank of the Euphrates. He thought that Alexander would go this way because he knew Alexander stuck hard, fast, and with maximum economy. Darius planned to repeat the battle of Cunaxa in detail. Alexander's troops, he assumed, would reach Cunaxa hot and exhausted. Darius would order the general Mazaeus advancing force simply retreat before the invader, and burn all of the crops and fodder as he went.
Between this scorched earth policy and the blazing Mesepotamian sun, the Macedonians would be easily defeated, just like what happened to Cyrus and Cunaxa. But instead of marching downstream like Darius had expected, Alexander went in a north-east direction across the Mesepotamian plain. Mazaeus watched, horror struck. He then rode the 440 miles back to Babylon with the news. All hope of a second Cunaxa was shattered.
When Darius heard this news he decided to try to hold Alexander at the Tigris. This was a very bold and risky plan because no one could be sure where Alexander might turn up. The entire plan depended on perfect coordination between Mazaeus, his scouts, and the command headquarters. After he had made this plan, Darius got his forces to Arbela and prepared to go to Mosul. While the Persians prepared for this new strategy, Alexander captured a few of Darius' men. Under interrogation they told the entire Persian plan and the size and composition of Persia's army.
When he found out this information, Alexander turned into the direction of Abu Wajnam, 40 miles to the north. The Macedonians reached Abu Wajnam on September 18 without opposition. A few scouts fled to tell Darius, who was across the Greater Zab and approaching Mosul. When Darius learned that the Tigris was no longer separated his army and Alexander's he once again changed his plans. He decided to have the battle at the village of Guagamela between the Khazir River and the ruins of Nineveh. It was a good place for cavalry and chariot maneuvers, Darius' strongest unit.
The cavalry sector outflanked Alexander's left flank. Darius brought his troops to Guagamela and sent sappers to clear the plain. He did not, however, occupy the low hills some three miles to the north-west. This was a big mistake on Darius' part because from these hills Alexander's scouts could observe everything the Persians did. After he had crossed the Tigris, Alexander made contact with a regiment of Mazaeus' camp. Mounted soldiers under the command of Paeoniar were sent to deal with the Persian fleet.
The Persian Ariston speared a Macedonian colonels head and presented it to Darius. Four days after this, Ariston's cavalry was spotted again. Alexander made a quick cavalry raid on the Persians, getting a few prisoners. Alexander interrogated them and received the information he needed. After this, he gave his troops another four days to rest because he wanted them to be fresh for the coming battle. There camp was guarded by sentries, ditches, and a palisade(a fence of pickets).
While the troops were resting, Darius' agents tried to sneak in notes telling the troops that they would do well to kill Alexander. These notes were intercepted and destroyed. Alexander spent most of the daytime in September 29 331 B.C. around Darius' lines with a huge cavalry escort examining Darius' forces. The Persian's let him do this unopposed. That night, while his men ate and slept, Alexander stayed in his tent drawing up tactic after tactic. He finally drew up a master plan and went to bed.
The next morning, Alexander kept on sleeping. He slept through breakfast. Finally, after breakfast, someone woke him. When this man inquired why Alexander had slept so late, Alexander merely said that he had been tired. What Happened in the Battle Because of Guagamela's geographic conditions and the numeric difference between his army and Darius', Alexander made sure to protect his rear and flanks and make his cavalry look weaker than it really was.
Alexander stationed a powerful force of mercenaries on the right flank and masked them with cavalry squadrons. He pushed his left flank 45 from his main battle line. His lead infantry and remaining Greek mercenaries were stationed to cover the rear. To reduce the odds against him and make an opening for his charge, Alexander planned to get as much of Darius' cavalry away from the center and into his flank guards. When the flanks were committed he would strike the center.
This was an excellent plan and would be used centuries later by another great conqueror, Napoleon. The Persians' left outflanked Alexander's so much that the Persian cavalry was almost opposite the Persian headquarters post. Because of the Persians' numerical superiority, this would be a hard battle. Neither side wanted to act first, but Darius finally did. Trying to halt the drift of his left to dangerous ground he ordered an attack on Alexander's right flank. The Macedonians advanced with their left flank back, trying to get the Persian right into a premature flank engagement.
Soon after the Persians had attacked, Alexander added some rangers to the battle. Just then, he saw a gap in Darius' center. Because of this, he gathered his forces in a wedge formation and charged. In two or three minutes, the whole course of the battle was changed. While this was happening, Bessus, still completely engaged with Alexander's right, found his flank dangerously exposed by Alexander's charge. By then Bessus had completely lost contact with Darius and was afraid that at any moment Alexander's wedge could come to his right side and take his rear guard.
Because of this fear, he sounded retreat and began to withdraw. To stop this increasing pressure, Darius' cavalry commander brought up more men to roll up Alexander's right flank. He was probably still unaware of the 6,000 Macedonian mercenaries behind the cavalry. This was just the move Alexander was waiting for, and once the Persian cavalry was engaged Alexander fed in further units from his flank guard. Around this time, Alexander's cavalry, which, as was stated earlier, was about 1,100 strong, held nearly ten times its own strength.
While this was happening, Darius launched his chariots. They were highly ineffective. Alexander's screen of lightly armored troops in front of the main line slaughtered the horses with javelins and stabbed the drivers as they rode past. The well drilled ranks of Alexander's rear phalanx opened, and the survivors of the chariot slaughter were rounded up. By the time this slaughter was done, almost all of the Persian army was engaged in the battle.
Parmenio was fighting a defensive against Mazaeus on the left while on the right Alexander had just added more rangers to hold Bessus. Then Bessus and the rest of the army began to withdraw. Darius, as he often did, fled. He was barely able to before he was sucked further into the battle, and rushed toward Arbela, dust clouds swirling behind his chariot. Mazaeus, on the Persian right, saw him and broke off.
Bessus was already withdrawing, and the entire Persian line was chopped to bits. After the Battle After his defeat in this battle, Darius made a few attempts to reorganize and rearm his troops. He also sent a few nervous notes to his governors and generals in Bactria urging them to remain loyal. After Guagamela, though, Darius lost his nerve and never recovered it. While Parmenio rounded the Persian luggage up with its animals and supplies, Alexander rode on, hoping to overtake Darius' party.
He rested an hour or two, and resumed the chase at midnight. When he reached Arbela at dawn he found Darius gone after they had gone some 75 miles during the night's chase. Alexander managed to figure out how Darius had managed to escape from Guagamela. He and his followers fled headlong into Arbela, not even bothering to break river bridges as they went. At Arbela they were joined by Bessus, a few survivors from the Royal Guard, the Bactrian cavalry, and 2,000 Greek mercenaries. Soon after midnight he set out, taking the eastern road through the Armenian mountains.
They eventually hit Ecbatana from the north. They stopped here for a while. After fleeing from the battle, Darius left behind his chariot, bow, and about 4,000 talents in coined money. This was a substantial amount of money, equal to about 7.5 million dollars today. After Alexander's victory, the entire Persian empire was split in two. The ruler's authority was ripped to shreds. The people of the empire were no longer united behind the Persian cause.
Because of this, Alexander could proclaim himself the king of the empire in place of Darius, and no one could stop him. From Arbela, Alexander went to Babylon, which was acquired because of his victory in the battle of Guagamela. The Battle of Jhelum Background on the Battle The battle of Jhelum was one of the major battles in Alexander's campaign in India and Bactria. It took place at the River Jhelum. It took place in 326 B.C.
Alexander, as usual, led his troops. The Indians were led by Porus, the monarch in Paurava who's domain stretched as far as beyond the Hydaspes River and a great military leader. India, the site of this battle, was not well known about by foreigners in this time. All the foreigners were ignorant about it and had misconceptions. To the Greeks, the land across the Indus was a shallow peninsula, bound on the north by the Hindu Kush and on the east by a great world.
There was a stream, which was actually the ocean, that ran at no great distance beyond the Sind Desert. They knew nothing about the India sub-continent. In general, Alexander stayed pretty ignorant about India. His entire strategy was based on false assumptions, and when enlightenment came it was to late. The Great Ganges Plain, about which Alexander made one of the most lethal assumptions of all, shattered Alexander's dream more effectively than any army every would or could.
It was almost impossible to even estimate the size of Alexander's army at the time of this battle. He had no more than 15,000 Macedonians in his army, of which 2,000 were cavalry. The total amount of cavalry has been estimated to be anywhere between 6,500 and 15,000. The total amount of infantry is even more uncertain, with estimates varying from 20,000 to 120,000. Intelligence reports gave more certain amounts of men for Porus' army. They said that Porus had 3,000-4,000 cavalry, up to 50,000 infantry, 200 elephants, and 300 war chariots. They also expected reinforcements from Abisares in this battle.
Before the Battle The passage to Jhelum was very rough. Most of the walled towns attacked by Alexander gave violent resistance. For retaliation, when the cities fell Alexander butchered the inhabitants wholesale. One example of this slaughter was at Masaga. Here he massacred 7,000 Indian mercenaries along with their wives and children.
In March 325 B.C., Alexander gave his troops one month to rest. He ended this break with athletic contests. Then Alexander gave sacrifices, crossed the Indus, and went toward Taxila. Alexander, jumpy after his campaign, thought there was a dangerous plot in Taxila. On his way to Taxila, he passed through Clitorial. Here he ordered his patrols to interrogate the natives and get information about elephants, of which Alexander had none.
Most of the elephants, he found out, had fled across the river. Alexander rounded up 13 abandoned elephants and attached them to the column. He built a raft and they all went downstream. When Alexander was near Taxila the rajah's army was five miles away. Alexander, with only a small cavalry, went to Taxila.
The rajah there guessed Alexander's cause and surrendered. Alexander became Taxila's new rajah for a while until he found a suitable person to govern it. In Taxila Alexander and his army spent two or three months resting. This was a fatal mistake for Alexander because when they resumed their march it was June, the beginning of the monsoon season. During the monsoons, Alexander wanted to negotiate accommodations with Porus and Abisares, the rajahs of Kashmir.
Once the ambassadors from Abisares returned Alexander sent his own envoy to Porus. By doing this, Alexander lost no time. The Macedonians then went over the Kushan Pass to Alexandria-of-the- Caucasus in ten days. While he was still in Bactria, Alexander was joined by an Indian rajah, Sasigupta, who warned Alexander about dangers in the Khyber pass. After hearing about this, Alexander sent envoys to see Alexander's Persian rajah at Taxila, the Indian Ambhi, and some Indians west of the Indus river. He asked them to meet with him, at their convenience, in the Kabul Valley.
Finally Ambhi and other Indian princes arrived bearing gifts of welcome and 25 elephants. Alexander's eyes caught the elephants, and eventually Ambhi made a gift of them. Ambhi had good reason to side with the Macedonians. The reason was that Ambhi wanted the Macedonian army's support in defeating his arch-enemy, Porus, who you might remember ruled past the Hydaspes River. Some days after the meeting, Porus requested to see Alexander at the River Jhelum and to pay tribute in a token of vesselage.
Alexander knew Porus would go there with a full military force, ready to use it. Alexander, at the River Jhelum, desperately needed a transport flotilla. Unfortunately, it would take to long to build the ships and Taxila was miles from the nearest navigable river. Because of this problem, Alexander sent Coenus back to Inudes with orders to dismantle Alexander's pontoon bridge, cut up boats, and load them onto carts. Then they would be carried over land for reassembling at the Jhelum. About at the beginning of June in 336 B.C. a monsoon broke and a few days later Alexander lead his army southward to meet Porus through streaming, torrential rains that continued for two months.
He got to the place he was to meet Porus at by going through Chakaval and Ava, both in the Salt Range, went through the Madana Pass, turned south-west and reached Jhelum Haranpur, having marched 110 miles since Taxila. He went to Haranpur because he knew it was one of the few places he could ford. But when he reached Haranpur he found the opposite bank held by a large force with archers, chariots, and 85 elephants. The elephants kept guard, stamping and trumpeting to and fro. The river itself was swollen by the monsoons, a good one-third of a mile wide.
It would not be an easy crossing. At Jhelum, with the two opposing forces at opposite sides of the river bank, it looked like a stalemate. Alexander encouraged this impression by having endless wagon loads of corn and other stuff brought to his camp in full site of Porus and his army. The reason for this was to convince Porus that the Macedonians would wait until the river was fordable. At the same time Macedonian troop activities continued, to signal the possibility of an immediate attack. But as time passed, Porus became less and less distracted by the possibility of an attack by Alexander.
This was just what Alexander wanted. When Porus was paying little attention, the Macedonian cavalry was discreetly exploring higher reaches of the Jhelum and going as far as to the city of Jalapur. Here they found just what Alexander wanted:A large wooded island, now called Admana, with only a narrow channel going between it and the sides of it. It also had a nullah, or a deep gully, where Alexander's army could hide. Alexander decided to ford the Jhelum by night. He spent most of his time and ingenuity trying to confuse Porus. Every night fires were lit, with lots of noise and bustle.
Porus took these seriously at first, but soon they were looked upon with disregard. For his assault at Jhelum, Alexander planned to have a larger part of his army stay at the base camps near the place in Haranpur where he was planning to ford. The king's pavilion would be pitched in a conspicuous position near the bank of the Jhelum. A certain officer would wear Alexander's cloak in order to, to quote Alexander,"give an impression that the King himself was encamped on that part of the bank". B.
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