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Research paper topic: Israeliarab Antagonism - 1338 words
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.. n the resolution of the General Assembly of 29 November in order to make them more equitable, workable and consistent with existing realities in Palestine. A. The area known as the Negeb, south of a line running from the sea near Majdal east southeast to Faluja (both of which places would be in Arab territory), should be defined as Arab territory; B. The frontier should run from Faluja northeast to Ramla and Lydda (both of which places would be in Arab territory), the frontier at Lydda then following the line established in the General Assembly resolution of 29 November.
C. Galilee should be defined as Jewish territory. 3) The disposition of the territory of Palestine not included within the boundaries of the Jewish State should be left to the Governments of the Arab States in full consultation with the Arab inhabitants of Palestine, with the recommendation, however, that in view of the historical connection and common interests of Transjordan and Palestine, there would be compelling reasons for the merging of the Arab territories of Palestine with the territory of Transjordan, subject to such frontier realignment regarding other Arab States as may be found practicable and desirable. 4) The United Nations, by declaration or other appropriate means, should undertake to provide special assurance that the boundaries between the Arab and Jewish territories shall be respected and maintained subject only to such modifications as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties concerned. 5) The port of Haifa, including the oil refineries and terminals, and without prejudice to their inclusion in the sovereign territory of the Jewish State or the administration of the city of Haifa, should be declared a free port, with assurances of free access for interested Arab countries and an undertaking on their part to place no obstacle in the way of oil deliveries by pipeline to the Haifa refineries, whose distribution would continue on the basis of the historical pattern.
6) The airport of Lydda should be declared a free airport with assurance of access to it and employment of its facilities for Jerusalem and interested Arab countries. 7) The City of Jerusalem, which should be understood as covering the area defined in the resolution of the General Assembly of 29 November, should be treated separately and should be placed under effective United Nations control with maximum feasible local autonomy for its Arab and Jewish communities. In addition, there must be unconditional agreement on the protection of the Holy Places and sites, their free access and right to religious worship, irregardless of denomination 8) The right of unimpeded access to Jerusalem, by road, rail or air, should be fully respected by all parties. 9) The right of the Arab refugees to return to their homes in Jewish controlled territory at the earliest possible date should be affirmed by the United Nations, and their repatriation, resettlement and economic and social rehabilitation, and payment of adequate compensation for the property of those choosing not to return. This should be supervised and assisted by the United Nations conciliation commission described in paragraph (k) below.
10) The political, economic, social and religious rights of all Arabs in the Jewish territory of Palestine and of all Jews in the Arab territory of Palestine should be fully guaranteed and respected by the authorities. Bernadotte's conclusions may have provided a basis for solution to the conflict. They were not seriously discussed. Israel eventually won the war and expanded its territory. The expansion, which is detailed in the following two maps indicates that Israel did not entirely fight a defensive war. It cant be coincidence that Israel closed the gaps in the territory awarded to it by the UN proclamation, and linked Jerusalem and its territory.
The Zionists emptied several hundred Arab villages of their unarmed inhabitants. They took the offensive and seized territory that increased Israel's size by 50%, giving themselves more than 75% of the original Palestinian lands. The Refugee problem and its significance The war created 700,000 Palestinian refugees, many of whom had lived in the areas that Israel absorbed. Almost all of them wanted to return to their towns, homes, factories, land and businesses. The refugees insisted that fear, violence, and destruction forced them to temporarily vacate their homes.
Israel stated that the refugees had left their homes due to a message from the other Arab nations. The message affirmed that they should leave, and after the Arabs punished the Zionists, the refugees would be able to return. This statement seems absurd, especially when considering that 1948 communications were still relatively primitive. The fact that Israel did not permit the refugees to return and also destroyed entire villages, erasing them from their maps, confirms that the scenario is not believable. This refugee problem created a disturbing history that exposed distinctive and troubling features: 1.
People from other lands have contributed finances, propaganda and assistance that have fueled a conflict which many perceive as oppression. Financial and other aid given to Israel have gained it a military advantage, allowed it to develop sophisticated weapons, and enabled it to create a force that serves to enforce the perceived oppression. Although settlements have been declared illegal in several UN resolutions, economic assistance has been provided to Israel for creating settlements and infrastructure in the West Bank. 2. People have been transported over great distances from foreign lands to the Holy Land with the eventual result of replacing Palestinians and forcing them from their homes. Several nations have tacitly supported and refused to counter this catastrophic policy.
3. People who had not been previously displaced, who already had homes, had established lives, and weren't refugees, have, with support of other nations, displaced Palestinian people, made them homeless, ruined their lives and turned them into refugees. Bernard Avishai, in The Tragedy of Zionism, quotes Baruch Nadel, a journalist, in his definition of the Zionist approach: A movement of Western Jews to save Eastern Jews that built homes for Oriental Jews. 4. Unlike previous human tragedies, that occurred hidden and at a time of much less effective mass communication, this tragedy is occurring in full view of the entire world and at a time when anybody can obtain the facts.
A UNRWA report states: In 1967, another 300,000 Palestinians fled from the West Bank and Gaza, to Jordan (200,000), Syria, Egypt and elsewhere. Of these, approximately 180,000 were first-time refugees ("displaced persons"), while the remainder were 1948 refugees uprooted for the second time. Estimates put the Palestinian population at approximately 6.6 million in 1995. In 1995, UNRWA data showed some 3,172,641 registered refugees in its "area of operation" (West Bank, Gaza, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon), plus an estimated 335,000 non-registered "displaced persons". An official UNRWA table describes the Palestinian exodus from the years 1948 to the present. TABLE 1:UNRWA Registered Refugees (June 1995) COUNTRY IN CAMPS NOT IN CAMPS TOTAL Jordan 238,188 1,050,009 1,288,197 Gaza 362,626 320,934 683,560 West Bank 131,705 385,707 517,412 Lebanon 175,747 170,417 346,164 Syria 83,311 253,997 337,308 TOTAL 991,577 2,181,064 3,172,641 Did the Palestinians forfeit an opportunity in 1948 to recognize the UN partition plan and establish a state of their own? 1.
The Palestinian community owned the land for centuries and refused to recognize that an organization had a right to take it from them and give it to others. They had a valid reason not to do anything that might legitimatize the partition plan. 2. The Palestinians organized themselves in communities and didn't have a strong central administration to coordinate their activities and agree to any plan. 3. The King of Jordan controlled the West Bank and the Palestinians had no opportunity to organize a central government for themselves.
4. The UN Resolution awarded Israel the most valuable territory, fertile lands along the coast and the major seaport of Haifa. Although the Zionists owned only about 8% of the land and constituted 1/3 of the population, they received 50% of Palestinian land. The shifts in the refugee population and social stresses on adjacent Arab countries, caused dislocations throughout the Mid-East, and havoc in Lebanon and Jordan. To the Arab countries, a part of the Mid-East that had been totally Arab for centuries, had been converted by Israel from an Arab land with some minor Western influence to a Western land with little Arab influence.
The refugee problem became the principal impediment to a solution of the Mid-East conflict.
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