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Research paper topic: History Of Corrections - 1783 words
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History Of Corrections Department of Corrections is an agency of the state that is responsible for the supervision and management of convicted felons. The Department of Corrections allows the protection of the community by operating safe, secure facilities that keep offenders under firm, fair practices. There is a wide range of treatment including educational and vocational programs that help the offenders become rehabilitated citizens. Corrections has been around for centuries. The corrections history of New York and of Utah are just a few pieces of a huge puzzle of corrections. That human institutions require periodic redesign, if only because of their tendency to decay is not a minor fact about them, nor easily understood. Taken the span of history, there is no more important lesson to be learned. The history of New Yorks Corrections starts with the Fort Amsterdam Era.
Fort Amsterdam was erected in 1625. Its facilities were dungeon-like. Its prisoners included unruly soldiers, native people that were uncompliant, and debtors. Next came States Huys. It was built in 1642. This Corrections facility also served as a tavern, a court, and a city hall. In 1699 Stats Huys was condemned as unfit and could no longer be used as a jail and judicial center.
Next the New York City Hall was constructed. Many dangerous prisoners were kept in the basement until they had their court proceedings. But in 1700 the basements security was proved to be inadequate, so guards were hired to watch the prisoners. In 1759 the first facility was built specifically for use as a jail. It was named New Goal.
Most of the jail housed civilian lawbreakers except for a few debtors and paupers. 1775 brought about the construction of a workhouse known as Bridewell. It was to be placed in New York City Hall Park but its construction was interrupted by the War for Independence. In 1788 the New York State Legislature enacted a law that named twelve Commissioners to Bridewell and Almshouse, another Corrections facility. This panel of commissioners is almost definitely the administrative beginning of the New York Department of Corrections. New York opened its first state prison in 1788.
It opened on November 28th. It was named the Greenwich State Prison. The structure included Doric columns, huge surrounding walls and four acres of grounds. 1816 brought about New Yorks first penitentiary, named Bellevue City Penitentiary. This penitentiary is the home of a large number of female felons.
Next came Auburn prison which was opened in 1817. In 1821 Auburn prison opened a new wing to their facility. It was built in a cell system to replace the old dormitory housing. Inmates in the sell system are allowed to leave their cells during the day to work in the prison shops. This new system was then deemed the Auburn system and soon after became the standard for American prisons. In 1824 the New York State Legislature incorporates the society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents as a subsidiary of the New York Society for the Prevention of Pauperism.
Authorization was then given to build a house of refuge for delinquent children. An old War of 1812 arsenal was used for the refuge. It was rebuilt as a secure residential institution and was named the New York City House of Refuge. Ossining prison was opened in 1825 to compensate for the overcrowding at Auburn and the Greenwich State Prison. Greenwich State Prison was then destroyed and a prison at Mt.
Pleasant that became known as Sing Sing was reconstructed to hold the inmates that were transferred from Greenwich. Also in 1828, the New York City Commissioners of Bridewell and Almshouse bought The Blackwell Island so that they could have facilities under their jurisdiction. This included the New York City Penitentiary. In 1830 the Provost, a jail that was used when the British were in control, was closed down and was turned into the city Registers office. 1832 brought about the opening of the New York City Penitentiary on Blackwells Island.
The Almshouse Department is also created to operate the Almshouse, Bridewell, and the NYC Penitentiary. Five commissioners are also named to run the Department. The first state prison matron is also hired at Auburn in 1832. In 1836 the Kings County Jail was started. This was before Brooklyn was part of New York City and therefore allowed the jail to be operated under the jurisdiction of the Kings County Sheriff.
In 1838 the Halls of Justice were finished after four years of construction. It was designed as an Egyptian mausoleum, so the structure was very damp and dark. Many other jails were also named after Egyptian influence. Next came the opening of New Yorks Sing Sing prison for women in 1839. Eight years later, in 1847, education programs were started at Sing Sing.
In 1848 a three-member Board of Inspectors was started to be in charge of state prisons. In 1851 the Child Savers, a group of reformers that believed city children would be saved if they were sent to live with farm families, opened the New York Juvenile Asylum. New York then established the nations first institution for insane criminals. It was built on the grounds of the Auburn prison. In 1860 the new York City Department of Public Charities and Correction replaced the Almshouse Department.
This department now had control over the citys public welfare and correctional institutions. In June of 1862 the New York County jail was opened. It was also known as the Ludlow Street Jail. It was the replacement for the Eldridge Street Jail. In 1863 New York Citys Fourth District Prison was built in Manhattan.
It became known as the 57th Street jail which was also part of a court complex. In 1865 New York Citys Seventh District Prison was built on the citys west side. Corporal punishment was outlawed by the state legislature. In March of 1869 on of Sing Sings prison keepers was killed. He was said to be the first New York correctional officer to be killed on the job. In 1871 the Queens County jail was built in Long Island City. In 1873 the State Legislature mandated New York City to separate the Department of Public Charities and Correction.
Now Public Charities was one division and Correction was one division. 1875 brought about the first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children which then prohibited the confinement of children at Almshouse. In 1876 the Elmira Reformatory was opened. This facility based its practices on the theory of reform rather than punishment. Then in 1878 Louis D.
Pilsbury became the first Superintendent of Prison. He had complete responsibility and control of state prisons. In 1881 the House of Refuge for Women was established. The Penal Code was also enacted. This Code amends childrens law.
In 1885 New York Citys Fifth District Prison was opened in East Harlem. This was a multi-tiered structure. It included forty double-occupancy and a dormitory that could hold fifty criminals. Next in New Yorks corrections history was in 1884 when the Department of Public Charities and Correction acquired Rikers Island. A womens reformatory was then opened at Hudson. It was influenced by the Elmira Reformatory for males.
In 1890 Auburn prison electrocuted the first state inmate. In 1892 a statute was enacted allowing juvenile case segregation and specialization. In 1893 the State Use System was started to eliminate profiteering from inmate labor. In 1895 a new Queens County Jail was built. It later becomes known as the City Prison of Queens.
It has a main building and a annex. The main building consisted of five tiers of cells looking down a central corridor. The annex was used as a womens prison for a long period of time. In 1895 and 1896 the Department of Charities became the Welfare Department. In 1900 Eastern prison opened.
Its actual construction began in 1894. In 1921 Eastern became the Institute for Defective Delinquents Then some years later it went back to its original function as a reformatory for young inmates. In more modern days it turned into a maximum-security prison for male felons and also a medium-security prison that housed 180 inmates. There is also much history of corrections all over the nation dating back to the 1700s. It seems that until the late 1700s prisons were horrible places.
They were unclean and unsafe. Prisoners received improper food and care, corporal punishment and physical torture were used on a regular basis. The 19th century brought about many new developments in America. America was the first nation to hold convicted criminals areas away from those awaiting trial. America also outlawed torture and corporal punishment, which was mentioned earlier in New Yorks history. Americans brought about two main developments.
The first was the Pennsylvania System. This included the Walnut street Jail which housed one inmate per call. It was also based on the plan for housing monks in a monastery. The Pennsylvania system also started the idea of constant solitary confinement. This idea was not very popular. The prisons took up too much space and did not house enough prisoners.
They also did not allow for group work or living. Next was the Auburn system, started by the Auburn prison in New York. This system is known for its tier or congregate system. The prisoners were all in the same areas for meals, exercise, and work. The philosophy of this system was based on fear of punishment and silent confinement.
Silence was always required and punishment was the result if the rule was broken. This system was preferred over the Pennsylvania system because it allowed for prison labor. The Auburn system was cheaper because more prisoners could be held in less space. One building could hold ten to fifteen times the number of prisoners than was ever possible under the Pennsylvania system. The 20th century held a part in the changing world of corrections. Reformers thought that it would be helpful to bring the good parts of society into the jails and prisons.
They believed that education, religion, work, and self-governance would help change how criminals were rehabilitated. Incorporating these ideas led to prison industries, education programs, and vocational programs. They also helped bring the use of corporal punishment to an end. Specialized prisons were also another idea that came from the 20th century. Many prisons were based on the level of security needed and the types of inmates each place held.
One prison might have housed inmates that could be rehabilitated and another housed inmates that were to far gone to be rehabilitated. Prisons stopped making money from prison labor in the 20th century. Prisons could not use their products for interstate commerce of goods made for private use. This led to inmates doing make-work jobs like pressing license plates. By 1940 prisons had also gotten rid of using solitary confinement as a form of punishment. They code of silence was broken so prisoners were actually allowed to talk to other prisoners during exercise time.
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