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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: double helix

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  • The Double Helix - 787 words
    The Double Helix One of the most important discoveries ever in biology has to be that of the structure of DNA. In The Double Helix, James tells the story, both funny and serious, of all his trials and tribulations leading up to the famous discovery. James starts out with his fantasy of someday solving the great mystery surrounding the structure of DNA. He realizes from the very beginning his competitors in this great race: Maurice Wilkins (x-ray diffraction expert), Rosy Franklin (Information expert on crystallography and soon to be Maurices new enemy), Linus Pauling (very intelligent scientist), and Francis Crick (outspoken scientist often compared to Rutherford or Bohr). With all of these ...
    Related: double, double helix, helix, nobel prize, cambridge university
  • Aging Theories - 1,709 words
    Aging Theories This report outlines the main theories of how the process of aging works. Since researchers have not discovered a universally-accepted theory of aging, the theories discussed are potential explanations of how we age. The likelihood of each hypothesis is considered roughly equal. The different theories discussed focus on the workings of different parts of the body, from the molecular level of DNA mutations and replication, to the organism level of becoming "worn out." Aging is a very complex and gradual process, and its ongoing operation is present to some degree in all individuals. It is a journey to the maturity, as well as to the degeneration of the body. Because aging affec ...
    Related: aging, aging process, cell division, free radicals, gradual
  • Antisense Theory - 586 words
    Antisense Theory It is estimated that cancer affects three out of four families in the United States alone the disease and its treatments cause substantial mortality and morbidity, prompting intense interest in cancer prevention. Most available treatments for cancers are non-specific; meaning that they target all rapidly growing cells, both normal and cancerous. Consequences of these treatments include side effects towards the normal cells. In addition, cancer is a genetically unstable disease. Cancer cells can develop drug resistance through repeated rounds of mutation and selection. This may render a particular non-specific chemotherapeutic treatment ineffective so that new drugs must be a ...
    Related: human genome, side effects, gene expression, render, bound
  • Bio Outline - 2,483 words
    ... lecule of glucose requires (1) 18 ATP 7.3 kcal/mole x 18 = 131.4 kcal (2) 12 NADPH 53 kcal/mole x 12 = 636 kcal (a) Note 53 kcal/mole - ref: Campbell pg. 178 for NADH to O2 H2 O (3) Takes 767.4 kcal to make 1 molecule of glucose (686 kcal) (a) 686/767.4 = 89% efficiency. F. PHOTORESPIRATION (Use Study Sheet) 1. Rubisco prefers O2 to CO2 2. If rubisco binds O2 a. Process uses 6 additional ATP b. Regenerates RuBP c. Produces a 2-C compound (instead of 3-C) d. This compound is sent to peroxisome and mitochondrion (1) converted to Glycerate (3C) (2) transported back to chloroplast (3) Uses ATP to convert to 3-PGAL 3. NET LOSS OF ENERGY 4. Some plants waste as much as 50% of the energy they ...
    Related: outline, compare and contrast, citric acid cycle, krebs cycle, acid
  • Day - 1,483 words
    ... t of the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, plans to embark on a human-embryo-cloning project aimed at developing therapies for treating conditions such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease. . Cloning, once the most controversial issue in the world, was going to bring out the argument again. People get really confused in which side they would take. Me too. In the very beginning, I felt horrible even though I just thought about cloning human. Its totally disrespect to Mother Nature and the God. Nature would surely punish those tried to change the nature should be. Later, when some scientist stand up for cloning technique, I began to waver. They said that the purpose of cloning tech i ...
    Related: good communication, political history, double helix, visual
  • Descartes Applied To Biology - 683 words
    Descartes Applied To Biology Descartes method of questioning what is real is a very important aspect of the world of science. I will show how this method of philosophy is crucial to the studies of biology. Descartes said that the only time that something is not doubted is when it is clear and distinctly true. This is the difference in science between theory and fact. In order for something to be clear and distinct it must be a fact. DNA was discovered on April 25,1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick. They discovered that it was a double helix made up of 5 carbon sugars, phosphates, and 4 different nitrogenous bases. This is where Descartes comes in to play. There was much questioning wheth ...
    Related: biology, descartes, james watson, double helix, watson
  • Dna - 685 words
    Dna What is DNA? Nucleic acid is a complex molecule found in all cells. There are two types of nucleic acids, deoxyribononucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA is found mainly in the nucleus of cells. RNA may be found throughout the cell. Even bacterial cells which do not have a nucleus, contain both DNA and RNA. Viruses, however, have only RNA or only DNA. DNA plays a vital role in heredity and cell development. It is the substance in genes, the hereditary material that determines an organisms characteristics. Genes are located in chromosomes, the threadlike structures in the nucleus. When a cell divides, its chromosomes and genes are duplicated exactly and passed on to the two ...
    Related: cell division, double helix, invasion of privacy, properly
  • Dna And Forensics - 1,198 words
    Dna And Forensics What is DNA? DNA (noun) [deoxyribonucleic acid] First appeared 1944 : any of various nucleic acids that are usually the molecular basis of heredity, are localized especially in cell nuclei, and are constructed of a double helix held together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine bases which project inward from two chains containing alternate links of deoxyribose and phosphate. What is forensics? fo*ren*sic [1] (adjective) First appeared 1659 1 : belonging to, used in, or suitable to courts of judicature or to public discussion and debate. 2 : ARGUMENTATIVE, RHETORICAL. 3 : relating to or dealing with the application of scientific knowledge to legal problems *~ med ...
    Related: forensics, double helix, home office, american population, conventional
  • Dna Replication - 667 words
    Dna Replication DNA replication is a complex cellular function that is necessary in order to sustain life and achieve growth. Many enzymes, proteins, and other molecules work together to ensure that genetic information is replicated efficiently, quickly, and accurately. Without any one of these components, replication would be very limited in its efficacy. DNA is comprised of two strands of complementary nitrogenous bases (adenine & thymine, guanine & cytosine), five-carbon sugars (either ribose or deoxyribose), and phosphate groups. The strands of DNA are arranged in a double-helix array and are held together with hydrogen bonds. The semiconservative replication model is used to depict repl ...
    Related: replication, genetic information, double helix, accurately, polymerase
  • Dna Structure - 268 words
    DNA Structure DNA is a double stranded molecule twisted into a helix. Each spiraling strand is comprised of a sugar phosphate backbone and attached bases connected to a complimentary strand. The complimentary strand is connected by non-covalent hydrogen bonding between paired bases. The bases are adenine, thymine, ctyosine, and gaunine. The fundamental building block of DNA is the nucleotide. The nucleotide has three parts. A nitrogen-containing pyrimidine or purine base, a deoxyribose sugar, and a phosphate group that acts as a bridge between the deoxyribose sugars that are adjacent to it. Each deoxyribose sugar contains five carbon atoms joined to an oxygen atom. The carbon atoms are seque ...
    Related: double helix, national laboratory, pacific northwest, bridge, fundamental
  • Francis Crick - 999 words
    Francis Crick In 1953, Dr. Francis Crick and James Watson discovered the structure of the DNA molecule. This is the molecule which we now know stores the genetic information for all life. Many scientists have claimed the discovery to be the single most important development in biology during the 20th century. Watson and Crick's investigation into the nature of the genetic code and the passing of information from generation to generation has redefined the study of genetics. Also, it has basically created the science of molecular biology. For their outstanding work, James Watson and Dr. Francis Crick were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize. As a youth, Francis Crick attended Northhampton Grammar Sch ...
    Related: crick, francis, francis crick, double helix, research council
  • Genetic Engineering: The Frontier - 1,041 words
    Genetic Engineering: The Frontier Genetic Engineering: The Frontier Science is a still somewhat obscure creature that continues to evolve, radically changing the face of mankind perhaps faster than its creator. The magnificent world of science has witnessed many profound breakthroughs and advances in this past century, but none as noteworthy as genetic engineering. As a subset of the more general subject of biotechnology, genetic engineering is the process of altering genetic material by purposeful manipulation of DNA (Wallace 339). To some, this field illustrates malicious scientists playing God, while to others it is a treasure chest of knowledge that holds the key to solving problems such ...
    Related: frontier, genetic, genetic engineering, genetic screening, genetic testing
  • Genetics Engineering - 1,487 words
    Genetics Engineering Genetic engineering is an umbrella term that can cover a wide range of ways of changing the genetic material -- the DNA code -- in a living organism. This code contains all the information, stored in a long chain chemical molecule, which determines the nature of the organism. Apart from identical twins, genetic make-up is unique to each individual. Individual genes are particular sections of this chain, spaced out along it, which determine the characteristics and functions of our body. Defects of individual genes can cause a malfunction in the metabolism of the body, and are the roots of many "genetic" diseases. In a sense, man has been using genetic engineering for thou ...
    Related: engineering, genetic code, genetic engineering, genetic information, genetics
  • Hereditary - 977 words
    Hereditary Introduction: My topic is "hereditary." I have always been interested in genetics, and this is a large branch of genetics. In this report I also plan to speak about evolution. I would like to learn more about what causes specific traits and what the future might bring. Body: A person gets his or her traits from their parents. These traits include everything from the person's sex to their mental abilities or problems. These traits are hereditary because they are passed on through genes. They get these genes from their parents and grandparents. They may inherit innate abilities of their parents, such as an affinity for music. Another factor in who you are is the environment you live ...
    Related: hereditary, second edition, physical characteristics, drugs and alcohol, recessive
  • James D Watson - 610 words
    James D. Watson James watson was born in Chicago, Illinois on april 6th, 1928. he went to school for eight years and went to high school for two years. Then he received a tuition scholarship to the university of chicago , and went there for four years . in 1947 , he received a b.s.c DEGREE IN ZOOLOGY. HIS INTEREST WAS IN BIRDWATCHING , BUT LATER , HE GOT MORE INTERESTED IN GENETICS . AFTER HE HAD EARNED MANY EDUCATION RELATED DEGREES IN DIFFERENT SUBJECTS , HE STUDIED THE EFFECT OD X-RAYS ON BACTERIOPHAGE MULTIPLICATION . FROM 1950 TO 1951 , HE WORKED IN COPENHAGEN AS A MERCK FELLOW . HE LATER MET MAURICE WILKINS AND SAW THE X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERN OF CRYSTALLINE DNA . THIS MADE HIM VERY I ...
    Related: james watson, watson, chicago illinois, high school, diffraction
  • Kornberg - 1,217 words
    ... verturned a cylinder, which had a domino effect that destroyed the entire experiment. Returning the next morning, Kornberg noticed one vile in the centrifuge. The remains had separated, and he collected the solid material. This fraction had the bulk of the enzyme activity and was several-fold purer than the best of all previous preparations. This step (without the cylinder breakage) became part of the published procedure on enzyme purification. During his time spent with Severo Ochoa at New York University School of Medicine in 1946, and time spent with Carl and Gerty Cori at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis in 1947, Kornberg refined his knowledge of enzyme produ ...
    Related: nobel prize, professor emeritus, stanford university, escherichia, chairman
  • Men And Women Were Created Equal - 693 words
    Men and Women were Created Equal Men are not superior to women, they are equal in every way. Although it is true that society has stereotyped women into traditional roles, this preconceived notion, is totally false. Action to promote the concept of equality in our society needs to be taken. Women have been fighting for equality for many decades. As a result of this battle, some amazing transformations have taken place amongst the female gender. Women have become educated and over the last few decades have started to take active roles and their rightful place in society. They have made major inroads in working opportunities, including government, science and even the military. They are reshap ...
    Related: created equal, equal rights, men and women, successful women, nobel prize
  • Morality And The Human Genome Project Mwf 11:00 Bibliography Congress Of The United States, Office Of Technology Assessment, - 1,353 words
    Morality and the Human Genome Project MWF 11:00 Bibliography Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment, Mapping Our Genes: Genome Projects: How Big, How Fast?, Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore,1988. Gert, Bernard, Morality and the New Genetics: A Guide for Students and Health Care Providers, Jones and Bartlett: Sudbury, Massachusetts,1996. Lee, Thomas F., The Human Genome Project: Cracking the Genetic Code of Life, Plenum Press: New York, 1991. Murphy, Timothy F., and Lappe, Marc, ed., Justice and the Human Genome Project, University of California Press: Berkeley, 1994. Does the Human Genome Project affect the moral standards of society? Can the information prod ...
    Related: congress, genome, genome project, human body, human genome, morality, technology
  • Nucleotides - 307 words
    Nucleotides I. nucleotides: sub units DNA A. Phosphate group B. 5-carbon sugar molecule (deoxyribose) C. nitrogen base 1. Adenine 2. Guanine 3. Thymine 4. Cytosine Chargaff base pairing rule: 1 = 3 and 2 = 4 II. Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Frankilin X-ray diffraction photos of DNA molecule - DNA molecules: tightly coiled helix and composed of two or three chains of nucleotides III. Chargaff builds a model of the double helix: a spiral staircase of 2 strands of nucleotides twisting around a central axis. A. alternating sugar and phosphate units B. purine and pyrimidines paired up - A can only form hydrogen bonds with T - C can only for with G. 2 strands that are complementary to each oth ...
    Related: nucleotides, double helix, amino acids, fetal, hydrogen
  • Nucleotides - 1,580 words
    Nucleotides The foundation of life as we know it is composed of nucleic acids. Researchers believe that these fundamental building blocks were first formed three billion years ago when the first forms of elementary life began to appear on earth. Nucleic acids have at least two functions. The first of these functions is to serve as a means of passing on hereditary characteristics, and the second is to instruct the cells in the production of specific proteins. Nucleic acids by nature are rather complex and in large numbers, with the help of other types of compounds, create DNA. Nucleotides, often called mononucleotides, are units of repeating nucleic acids. Thusly we know that nucleotides part ...
    Related: nucleotides, genetic code, large numbers, amino acids, precious
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