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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: cultural evolution

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  • From Unilineal Cultural Evolution To Functionalism - 1,037 words
    From Unilineal Cultural Evolution To Functionalism Several anthropological theories emerged during the early twentieth century. Arguably, the most important of these was Functionalism. Bronislaw Malinowski was a prominent anthropologist in Britain during that time and had great influence on the development of this theory. Malinowski suggested that individuals have certain physiological needs and that cultures develop to meet those needs. Malinowski saw those needs as being nutrition, reproduction, shelter, and protection from enemies. He also proposed that there were other basic, culturally derived needs and he saw these as being economics, social control, education, and political organizati ...
    Related: cultural evolution, evolution, functionalism, ruth benedict, social environment
  • Birth Of A New Era - 1,903 words
    Birth Of A New Era Despite the problems of the fourteenth century, it marked the beginnings of extraordinary changes in numerous facets of fifteenth century society. This astonishing revolution was coined the Renaissance, which meant "rebirth." The Renaissance led to such literary pioneers as Niccol Machiavelli. His work, The Prince, gave detailed instructions as to what qualities a perfect leader must possess and how to use these qualities. Machiavelli presented a thorough account of a perfect prince and how he achieved and maintained power. Machiavelli's The Prince is a classic literary example of Renaissance writing in the ideas it conveys and how it conveys them. The Renaissance, a time ...
    Related: most effective, main theme, medieval period, personality, leisure
  • Creativity: Beer Can Theory - 4,904 words
    Creativity: Beer Can Theory LEARNING MORE ABOUT THE KEY CONCEPTS Attribute listing The decision maker isolates the major characteristics of traditional alternatives. Each major attribute of the alternative is then considered in turn and is changed in every conceivable way. No ideas are rejected, no matter how ridiculous they may seem. Once this extensive list is completed the constraints of the problem are imposed in order to eliminate all but the viable alternatives. Creativity The ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual associations between ideas. Entrepreneurship The process of initiating a business venture, organizing the necessary resources, and assuming the associat ...
    Related: beer, human experience, ottawa citizen, bottom line, strictly
  • Creativity: Beer Can Theory - 4,998 words
    ... how discrete memories become woven into a worldview. Although this account focuses on integration of the worldview through the emergence of deeper, more general concepts, the principles apply equally to integration of the psyche through the purification of intentions and emotions. A detailed account of the proposal can be found in [Gabora 1998], and elaborations in [Gabora 1999, 2000], but the basic line of reasoning goes as follows. Much as catalysis increases the number of different polymers, which in turn increases the frequency of catalysis, reminding events increase concept density by triggering abstraction - the formation of abstract concepts or categories such as 'tree' or 'big' ...
    Related: beer, cognitive dissonance, love songs, information processing, consciousness
  • Cultural Comparisons Ethnocentrism - 1,035 words
    ... ermine culture change. The Fuegians living at the southern tip of South America, as viewed by Charles Darwin on his voyage on the Beagle, lived in a very cold, harsh environment but were virtually without both clothing and dwellings. Diffusion Culture is contagious, as a prominent anthropologist once remarked, meaning that customs, beliefs, tools, techniques, folktales, ornaments, and so on may diffuse from one people or region to another. To be sure, a culture trait must offer some advantage, some utility or pleasure, to be sought and accepted by a people. (Some anthropologists have assumed that basic features of social structure, such as clan organization, may diffuse, but a sounder vi ...
    Related: cultural development, cultural evolution, ethnocentrism, modern europe, ancient egypt
  • Neanderthalhomo Sapiens Hybrid - 1,068 words
    Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens Hybrid Implications of Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens Hybrid from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) In a recent excavation at Abrigo do Lagar Velho in Portugal, Duarte et al (1999) unearthed what was later to be recognized as early human skeletal remains which pointed to interbreeding between Neanderthal and Modern Humans during the mid - upper Palaeolithic transition. The morphology of the remains, belonging to a child of approximately 3-4 years old, indicates a Neanderthal typology in post-cranial features, and more modern cranial features. The find has been cited as evidence of hybridization between the two traditionally separate human lines, and offers an explanatio ...
    Related: homo sapiens, hybrid, sapiens, middle east, genetic research
  • Person And Environment - 804 words
    Person And Environment Humans possess a repertoire of unique gifts which enable them to shape the environment. The most prominent gifts associated with man include adaptation, which is furthermore broken into sub-categories, the conquering of fire, and the ability to foresee thoughts of the future. All of these capabilities of man have had a significant effect on the environment. These main gifts correlated with man are the basis to our physical and cultural evolution. Man is a singular creature which maintains a unique set of gifts for shaping the environment. The most significant of these gifts, adaptation, covers a broad area of topics. Stereoscopic vision, opposable thumbs, the formation ...
    Related: cultural evolution, forming, possesses, protecting
  • Sociobiology - 1,081 words
    Sociobiology In the middle of this century, bot biological and cultural anthropology experiences a major change in theory. In biological anthropology, biological anthropologists adopted an approach which focused on the gene. They saw the human evolution as the process of genetic adaptation to the environment. In the mean time, there were also cultural analogies to evolution. Cultural evolution also followed a process of adaptation. In the field of anthropology, a very important theory is that of the sociobiologists. Sociobiologists focus on adaptation and reproductive success rather than progress toward perfection. Edward O. Wilson was one of the most important of them. He adopted an approac ...
    Related: sociobiology, human race, family structure, chicago press, behavioral
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