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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: conductivity
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- Super Conductivity Is A Natural Phenomenon In Which Certain Materials Such As Metals, Alloys, And Ceramics, Can Conduct Elect - 519 words
Super conductivity is a natural phenomenon in which certain materials such as metals, alloys, and ceramics, can conduct electricity without resistance. These materials are what we call superconductors. In a superconductor, once the flow of electrons begins, it essentially goes on forever, making it an important material to humans. Superconductivity was discovered by a Dutch scientist by the name of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911. While researching properties of materials at absolute zero, this man found out that certain materials lost its resistance to the flow of electrons. For years to come, his discovery was at the head of theoretical interest. The only problem though, was that people at ...
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- Albert Einstein - 603 words
ALBERT EINSTEIN Does the word quantum mechanics mean anything to you, well it should. What about E=MC2, all of this are very important to you but you may not know it. These theories were all developed by a very intellectual person, Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein is very important to the development of our country and the world. Albert Einstein started his life in Ulm, Germany, march 14, 1879. Einstein's parents were nonobservant Jews. They moved from Ulm to Munich when Albert was an infant. They had a family business of the manufacture of electrical apparatus. The company failed in 1894. So the family moved to Milan, Italy. At this time Albert had decided to give up his German citizenship. ...
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- Brisbane River - 1,955 words
Brisbane River 1.0 INTRODUCTION The Brisbane River has flowed for over 400 million years. The catchment of the Brisbane River has overcome phases of flood and drought while its origins altered as the surrounding land changed overtime. In 1823, John Oxley entered the river for the first time. At the time the river appeared clean and unpolluted. Oxley immediately recognised the river's potential as a site for new settlement, through his recommendation the city of Brisbane was established in 1825. The Brisbane River extends inland for 300km reaching its source at the foothills of the Great Dividing Range. The river's catchment occupies an area of approximately 30,000km2 and releases it waters i ...
Related: brisbane, river basin, central business, water quality, improving
- Corrosion And Rusting - 1,057 words
... Fe2+ (aq) + 2OH- Fe(OH)2 (s) The precipitate is rapidly oxidized by dissolved oxygen to form iron (III) hydroxide. 4Fe(OH)2 (s) + O2 (aq) + 2H2O (l) 4Fe(OH)3 (s) On standing, this changes to rust, a reddish brown solid. Rust is in fact hydrated iron (III) oxide with variable composition (Fe2O3 nH2O). Factors that speed up rusting 1) Presence of electrolytes Acid solutions make rusting go faster. In industrial areas where air is seriously polluted, there are high concentrations of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. These gases dissolve in rain water to give "acid rain", which makes iron objects rust faster. Sodium chloride also makes iron rust more quickly. For exampl ...
Related: corrosion, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, acid rain, terminal
- Cryogenics - 1,034 words
Cryogenics Cryogenics is a largely growing field, relatively innovative in the field of science and research. It deals with freezing temperatures below - 150 degrees Celsius (-238 degrees Fahrenheit) using oxygen, helium I, helium II (which are both are chemically identical), and nitrogen. These are cooled to the point of liquidation and used to freeze diverse materials and substances. "At these extreme conditions, such properties of materials as strength, thermal conductivity, ductility and electrical resistance are altered ... materials at cryogenic temperatures are as close to a static and highly ordered state as possible." Cryogenics is more than the term for freezing, but more precisely ...
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- Cryogenics And The Future - 1,202 words
Cryogenics And The Future Cryogenics is a study that is of great importance to the human race and has been a major project for engineers for the last 100 years. Cryogenics, which is derived from the Greek word kryos meaning Icy Cold, is the study of matter at low temperatures. However low is not even the right word for the temperatures involved in cryogenics, seeing as the highest temperature dealt with in cryogenics is 100 (C (-148 (F) and the lowest temperature used, is the unattainable temperature -273.15 (C (-459.67 (F). Also, when speaking of cryogenics, the terms Celsius and Fahrenheit are rarely used. Instead scientists use a different temperature measurement scale called the Kelvin ( ...
Related: magnetic resonance, energy storage, boiling point, origin, transmission
- Fiber Optics - 2,211 words
Fiber Optics Fiber optics produced by special methods from silica glass and quartz which replaced copper wire is very useful in telecommunications, long distance telephone lines and in examining internal parts of the body (endoscopy). Equipment for photography is available with all current fiber-optic endoscopes. Through a process known as total internal reflection, light rays beamed into the fiber can propagate within the core for great distances with remarkably little attenuation or reduction in intensity. In general, the methods of fiber production fall into three categories; (a) the extrusion method for synthetic fibers; (b) hot drawing of fibers from molten bulk material through an orif ...
Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, sedimentary rocks, different kinds
- Fiber Optics - 585 words
Fiber Optics Fiber optics is a branch of optics concerning the transmission of light by means of optical fibers, which are thin strands of glass or other optically transparent materials. Optical fibers can be used to guide light--which is electromagnetic radiation in a certain frequency range--in much the same way that metal wave guides or coaxial cables can be used to guide lower-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Optical Fiber An optical fiber is usually circular in cross section and consists of a core and cladding. An optical fiber for communication applications is typically between about 0.1 and 0.2mm (0.004 and 0.008 in) in diameter. In order that the light waves be guided by the fibe ...
Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, communication channels, electric power
- Geothermal Energy - 553 words
Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy represents the inner heat of the earth, produced largely by the decay of radioactive elements in the mantle and center. The three ways that the heat is found is both wet and dry steam (wet steam has drops of water in it), hot water and dry volcanic rocks. We know that the temperature of the earth at depths of 25 to 50 km range from 200`C to 1000`C. There are areas of the earth where local concentrations of heat occur, just as mineral concentrations do. Most of these are located along oceanic ridges and continental rifts, such as the Ring of Fire. Geothermal energy is not free from environmental problems. The steam contains large amounts of hydrogen sulphid ...
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- Lightning And Static - 1,694 words
Lightning And Static Lightning is a discharge of static electricity in the atmosphere, which causes a bright flash of light. When lighting goes through the air, it heats the air to degrees hotter than the sun's surface about 50,000 degrees fahrenheit. This heating causes the air to expand and contract. This causes the sound called thunder. Lightning is caused by a build up of negative ions in the atmosphere which discharges into the ground causing the negative ions to go with the positive ions in the ground. Static electricity is negatively and positively charged atoms. A static charge on the other hand is a individual atom with a negative or positive charge. There are three types of charges ...
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- Plane Crash - 2,221 words
... brace was the only one that was found broken. The outboard portion of the pin was cocked within the underwing fitting. The inboard piece of this fuse pin was recovered on the ground near the aft portion of the pylon. The fractures on the fuse pin and retainer bolt appeared typical of overstress separations. The investigation found that all of the remaining fractures and buckling of the structure were consistent with deformation of the pylon structure in an outboard and upward direction. Examination of the other fracture surfaces disclosed no evidence of pre-accident damage or cracking. All separations appeared typical of overstress separations. Selected sections from the primary structu ...
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- Svante August Arrhenius - 940 words
Svante August Arrhenius Svante August Arrhenius was born at Uppalsa, Sweden, on February 19, 1859 His intelligence and creativity were apperent nt from an early age--he taught himself to read when he was three Although credi ted with many scientific innovations, he remains best known for his ionic theory of solutions, For which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1903 Arrhenius henius died in Stockholm on October 2, 1927 Science is a human endeavor subject to human frailties and governed by personalities, politics, and prejudice ces. One of the best illustrations of the often bumpy path of the advancement of scientific knowledge is the story of Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius. Wh ...
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- The Boer War - 1,338 words
The Boer War The Boer War of 1899 was a dirty little conflict. It started a result of cultural resentment between the Boers (Dutch settlers) and immigrating British. At first, the war was fought with the honor typically associated with the British, but, in the end, it turned nasty. South Africa's Cape of Good Hope was colonized in the 17th century by Dutch Boers (farmers). The Boers used African slaves on their farms. Britain occupied the Cape during the Napoleonic wars and took complete control after the Congress of Vienna. Slavery was abolished throughout the British Empire in 1833. Many of the Boers then decided that they could no longer live under British rule. They began moving northwar ...
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- Thomas Edison - 2,300 words
... , Edison's mind would wander even into calligraphy or poetry, which he recorded with his notes. To limit distractions and noise from big cities, Edison conceived the idea of "invention factories." By keeping a well-stocked laboratory, Edison was able to provide the proper work environment for his employees and assistants. By having a chemistry lab, machine shop, and brilliant group under one roof, Edison was able to produce hundreds of inventions at his laboratory. Edison's core group of handpicked assistants included "university-educated men specially chosen because of their expertise in fields in which Edison felt himself to be deficient. " From his work, Edison formed intimate relatio ...
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- Transition Elements - 406 words
Transition Elements Transition Elements, series of chemical elements that share similar electron orbital structures and hence similar chemical properties. The transition elements are commonly defined as the 30 elements with atomic numbers 21 to 30, 39 to 48, and 71 to 80. The transition elements exhibit multiple valences or oxidation states typically ranging from +1 to +8 in compounds. In organometallic compounds, consisting of metals bonded to organic species, transition metals sometimes take on negative oxidation states. The transition elements have such typical metallic properties as malleability, ductility, high conductivity of heat and electricity, and metallic luster. They tend to act ...
Related: chemical elements, transition, different levels, negatively, separating
- Use Of Haptics For The Enhanced Musuem Websiteusc - 1,745 words
... weden, Sjostrom (Sjostrom, 1997) and his colleagues have created a painting application in which the PHANToM can be used by the visually impaired; line thickness varies with the user's force on the fingertip thimble and colors are discriminated by their tactual profile. Marcy, Temkin, Gorman, and Krummel (1998) have developed the Tactile Max, a PHANToM plug-in for 3D Studio Max. Dynasculpt, a prototype from Interval Research Corporation (Snibbe, Anderson, and Verplank, 1998) permits sculpting in three dimensions by attaching a virtual mass to the PHANToM position and constructing a ribbon through the mass's path through the 3D space. Gutierrez, Barbero, Aizpitarte, Carrillo, and Eguidazu ...
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- Zinc By Jason Gomez - 895 words
ZINC by JASON GOMEZ Zinc is a chemical element with the symbol Zn. It is a low-melting metal that belongs to Group IIb (zinc group) of the periodic table. The atomic number of zinc is 30. With an atomic weight of 65.39, zinc makes up an average of 65 grams of every ton of Earth's crust, which makes it a little more abundant than copper. The melting point of zinc is 420 degrees Celsius and its boiling point is 907 degrees Celsius (Britannica Online). Zinc is the second most common trace metal, after iron, that is found naturally in the human body. It is also the third most used nonferrous metal (after aluminum and copper), of which the U.S. consumes more than one million metric tons annually ...
Related: jason, zinc, geological survey, century china, quantity
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