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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: cognitive

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  • Cognitive Development - 1,091 words
    Cognitive Development Cognitive development is very crucial in the development of a child. A friend of mine, Julie just recently had a perfect baby boy. Since Julie found out she was pregnant she has been reading book after book, each book that she has read talks about cognitive development, but never really explains what cognitive development is or how to improve ones development. Julie has asked me to help her to understand what she can do to give Hunter the best optimal cognitive development though out his life. I'm going to start by telling Julie exactly what cognitive development is, the four stages of cognitive development and what kinds of activities to do together as he gets older. I ...
    Related: cognitive, cognitive development, cognitive learning, motor skills, social interaction
  • Cognitive Dissonance - 549 words
    Cognitive Dissonance According to cognitive dissonance theory, there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (beliefs, expectations, or opinions of a particular individual). When inconsistency does exist between these beliefs or attitudes, psychological tension (dissonance) occurs and must be resolved through some action. This tension most often results when an individual must choose between two incompatible beliefs or actions and is heightened when alternatives are equally attractive to the individual. This tension state has drive-like properties. If dissonance is experienced as an unpleasant drive state, the individual is motivated to reduce it. However, it ...
    Related: cognitive, cognitive dissonance, dissonance, dissonance theory
  • Cognitive Dissonance - 1,050 words
    Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance How do human beings make decisions? What triggers a person to take action at any given point? These are allquestions that I will attempt to answer with my theoretical research into Leon Festingers theory of cognitive dissonance, as well as many of the other related theories. We often do not realize the psychological events that take place in our everyday lives. It is important to take notice of theories, such as the balance theory, the congruency theory and the cognitive dissonance theory so that ones self-persuasion occurs knowingly. As psychologist and theorist gain a better understanding of Festingers cognitive dissonance theory manipulation could ...
    Related: cognitive, cognitive dissonance, dissonance, dissonance theory, value systems
  • Cognitive Dissonance - 1,077 words
    ... earch paper. Either myself and/or my friends would be active participants in the persuasion process. The basic premise of the cognitive-dissonance theory is that when two pieces of information do not follow each other we will experience some form of psychological tension, which we will attempt to reduce in some way. Often times, according to Leon Festinger, people attempt to reduce cognitive dissonance whenever possible (Gleitman, 1983, p.12). I noticed many times that my friends were very interested in the topic of quitting their habit, and some at times took the issue personally. When people are personally involved with an issue, much like the use of tobacco, they are much more attenti ...
    Related: cognitive, cognitive dissonance, dissonance, dissonance theory, developmental psychology
  • Cognitive Dissonance And The Movie 2001 - 268 words
    Cognitive Dissonance And The Movie 2001 The argument that the paper states is that a persons wants and desires influence more than just behavior. They influence his/her thinking and even his/her power of perception. The most important point made is that when a person is confronted by ideas or facts that are against their pre-existing notions and ideas, what results is cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is referred to as a sort of static in the human psyche. This static caused by cognitive dissonance has the power to distort or even block perception. When disturbing information creates cognitive dissonance, the static discredits the information, so that a person does not feel compelle ...
    Related: cognitive, cognitive dissonance, dissonance, culture shock, widespread
  • Cognitive Science, In The Study Of How Organisms Process Information As Well Carry Out Life Functions The Study Of Cognitive - 369 words
    Cognitive science, in the study of how organisms process information as well carry out life functions. The study of Cognitive science is said to have been originated in the 1940's and 1950's when researchers in various fields of science began to develop theories on the mind based on complex representations and computational procedures (Thagard, Cognitive Science). There are numerous branches of science whose theories contributed to the development of Coginitive Science. These subdivisions include cybernetics, theoretical computer science, linguistics, experimental pyschology, and neuroscience. Cybernetics, a term used by Norbert Wiener is the study of control and communication in animals as ...
    Related: cognitive, cognitive science, organisms, scientific study, social systems
  • Descartes Was A Jack Of All Trades, Making Major Contributions To The Areas Of Anatomy, Cognitive - 262 words
    Descartes was a "jack of all trades", making major contributions to the areas of anatomy, cognitive science, optics, mathematics and philosophy. Underlying his methodology is the belief that all science is based on mathematics. This is manifested in his unification of ancient geometry and his new alegbra based on the Cartesian coodinate system. For Descartes, certainty in philosphy and in mathematics is gained through understanding. We may know that two apples and two apples makes four apples, but Descartes believes that matematics transcends the senses, contributing to an overall mathematical order to the universe that is independent of senses. Senses were at the center of his Meditations o ...
    Related: cognitive, cognitive science, descartes, jack, cartesian dualism
  • During The 1920s, A Biologist Named Jean Piaget Proposed A Theory Of Cognitive Development Of Children He Caused A New Revolu - 1,646 words
    During the 1920s, a biologist named Jean Piaget proposed a theory of cognitive development of children. He caused a new revolution in thinking about how thinking develops. In 1984, Piaget observed that children understand concepts and reason differently at different stages. Piaget stated children's cognitive strategies which are used to solve problems, reflect an interaction BETWEEN THE CHILD'S CURRENT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE AND experience in the world. Research on cognitive development has provided science educators with constructive information regarding student capacities for meeting science curricular goals. Students which demonstrate concrete operational thinking on Piagetian tasks seem to ...
    Related: cognitive, cognitive development, jean, jean piaget, piaget
  • Piaget Theory Of Cognitive Developement - 868 words
    Piaget Theory Of Cognitive Developement There are two classical theories of cognitive development. The one that I will focus on is Piagets theory of cognitive development. Jean Piaget, a Swiss, educated, mollusk biologist lived from 1896 to 1980. He hypothesized that learning is a physical, biological function of dealing with successfully with the environment. (Phillips, 1998) This is the basis for his theory. Looking at Piagets theory of cognitive development in more detail we find that he based it on two biological tendencies. The two tendencies are organization, and adaption. Organization as Piaget saw it said that humans are designed to organize their observations and experiences into co ...
    Related: cognitive, cognitive development, developement, jean piaget, piaget
  • Physical Development - 886 words
    1.) There are 4 types of development. Physical development covers the learning of the ability to walk. It also encompasses all muscle development, and the idea that the person generally becomes more physically efficient over time. Cognitive development deals with the development of a way to think. For example, an infant tends to over generalize information. If he sees an animal and is told that it is a dog, any furry animal with 4 legs and a tale will be considered a dog. As cognitive development progresses, a person learns to be specific. We also build a sense of problem solving. Personal development refers to the changes in an individual's personality. As time progresses, and people learn ...
    Related: cognitive development, personal development, physical development, social development, building blocks
  • 1984 - 1,219 words
    ... statements that change every day. The other reason for the diary is so that in the future, people will be able to read what really, and to inform them about beliefs on the party. Like Winston, I believe George Orwell wrote 1984 in order to allow a communist country to be revealed, the Soviet Union. Orwells goal was to expose the falsehoods of the Soviet Union as the model of a socialist state. He also wanted to reveal the dangers of totalitarianism, the deterioration of objective truth, and the well thought-out manipulation of Oceanias common peoples through propaganda. The Ministry of Truth is where history and facts both significant and insignificant are rewritten to reflect the party' ...
    Related: 1984, critical essays, power over, winston smith, scare
  • A Universal Perspective On Belief: - 1,897 words
    A Universal Perspective On Belief: A Universal Perspective on Belief: A Response to Pragmatic and Cartesian Approaches to Epistemology By Britta Rempel (*note to reader:I hope this gives all of you struggling with some concepts in Intro to Philosophy a clearer view on how to approach your own paper, please do not plagerise) The approaches given by Pierce and Nagel to the epistemological questions of doubt and belief, though diverse in that they are strictly pragmatist and Cartesian, contain a similar underlying principle. They both serve to show that belief cannot come from any source that appeals to one's feelings or purposes, experiences or impressions. Beliefs must arise from a non-person ...
    Related: fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol syndrome, illegal drug, empiricism, stability
  • Abstract - 316 words
    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The development of patient classification systems (PCS) in fields other than acute medicine raises the question if the principle of using existing data (i.e. diagnoses; procedures where available) is sufficent to describe the products of hospital care. METHODS/MATERIAL: The essence of a PCS (type "iso-cost") is to estimate costs of treatment needed in a defined setting by means of a description of the patient status (conditions) and the treatment goals. Two hypotheses guided our research into PCS development: (1) The description of patient status and treatment goals has to include multiple aspects which ideally are coded by using scales to show changes during the cours ...
    Related: abstract, different aspects, hospital care, diagnoses, grid
  • Add And Learning Strategies - 1,641 words
    Add And Learning Strategies Attention can be defined as the process of selecting certain environmental inputs needed for cognitive processing. Information that we are capable of sensing stays with us in the sensory register for a very brief period of time. From this point the information is cognitively processed. The role of attention can be found in the moving of this information from the sensory register into the working memory. Normal attention span seems to develop in three stages. First, the childs attention is said to be overly exclusive. This is a term used by psychologists to describe attention that is focused on a single object for a long period of time while tuning out all other st ...
    Related: classroom learning, learning environment, learning experience, learning strategies, family history
  • Adjustment Disorder With Depressed Mood - 1,468 words
    Adjustment Disorder With Depressed Mood Running Head: ADJUSTMENT DISORDER WITH DEPRESSED MOOD CAUSE Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Cause and Affect Abstract Research was conducted to investigate Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, and some causes, affects, and treatment approaches. Not all individuals manifest or demonstrate the same depressive symptoms, which can make it difficult for clinicians to diagnose and treat. The American Psychiatric Association has categorized various depressive disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV, 1994). Researchers have investigated the validity of the DSM diagnostic criteria over the year ...
    Related: adjustment, depressed, disorder, mood, treating depression
  • Adlerian Psychotherapy: An Overview Of Theory And Practice - 1,190 words
    ... odify behavior. The goal of the therapy is to stimulate cognitive, affective and behavior change. Although the individual is not always fully aware of their specific goal, through analysis of birth order, repeated coping patterns and earliest memories, the psychotherapist infers the goal as a working hypothesis. The client approaches control of feelings and emotions. First, the client recognizes what kind of feeling he or she is having (angriness, sadness, frustration, etc). Once the client sees and knows the feeling; then he or she will try to imagine or think of something pleasant that had happened to him or her, replacing the bad feeling for a good one. By doing this, the client is in ...
    Related: overview, cognitive behavioral, behavior change, conflict resolution, adler
  • Adolescent Sexuality - 1,525 words
    Adolescent Sexuality Adolescent Sexuality Sexuality is an important aspect of development during adolescence. The ability to identify and communicate with adolescent who may be at high risk of premature activity is important since sexual intercourse at an early age can have serious short and long-term consequences. An emphasis of confidentiality and an honest appraisal of implications of early sexual activity will enhance discussions about sexual issues with adolescents. Some parents are ill prepared for discussions about sexuality. Having conversations with their adolescent on sexuality may be difficult for them. Many adolescents claim both experience and confidence about sexual issues, the ...
    Related: adolescent, adolescent boys, adolescent girls, human sexuality, sexuality
  • Aggressive Behavior - 1,312 words
    Aggressive Behavior Aggression is a behavioral characteristic that refers to forceful actions or procedures (such a deliberate attack) with intentions to dominate or master. It tends to be hostile, injurious, or destructive, and is often motivated by frustration (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 1995). For an individual, aggressive behavior is considered understandable and normal under appropriate circumstances, but when it is frequent, intense, lasting, and pervasive, it is more likely to be a symptom of a mental disorder. Likewise, aggression between groups, can be in the form of healthy competition, but can become harmful when unfair or unjust disadvantage or frustration is perceived, lead ...
    Related: abnormal behavior, aggressive, aggressive behavior, behavioral therapy, social norms
  • Albert Bandura - 1,049 words
    Albert Bandura Albert Bandura was born on December 4, 1925 in the small farming community of Mundare, Canada. He was educated in a small school with minimal resources, yet a remarkable success rate. He received his bachelors degree in Psychology from the University of British Colombia in 1949. Bandura went on to the University of Iowa, where he received his Ph.D. in 1952. It was there that he came under the influence of the behaviorist tradition and learning theory. He has since developed his social learning or cognitive theory and his ideas of observational learning and modeling, for which he made a place for himself in the history of Psychology. Yet his theory is still related to behaviori ...
    Related: albert, albert bandura, bandura, history of psychology, paying attention
  • Albert Bandura - 1,021 words
    ... reproduce it with your own behavior. 3. Reproduction. You have to translate the images or descriptions into actual behavior. Our ability to imitate improves with practice at the behaviors involved. In addition, our abilities improve even when we just imagine ourselves performing the behavior. 4. Motivation. Yet with all this, youre still not going to do anything unless you are motivated to imitate or until you have some reason for doing it. Bandura mentions a number of motives: past reinforcement (traditional behaviorism), promised reiforcement (incentives we can imagine), and vicarious reinforcement (seeing and recalling the model being reinforced). In addition there are negative motiv ...
    Related: albert, albert bandura, bandura, american psychological, social psychology
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