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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: classical conditioning

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  • Classical Conditioning Vs Operant Conditioning - 720 words
    Classical Conditioning Vs. Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning vs. Operant conditioning Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are different learning methods. What exactly is conditioning? Conditioning is the acquisition of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli. Both classical and operant conditioning are basic forms of learning. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to transfer a natural response from one stimulus to another, previously neutral stimulus. Manipulating reflexes does this. Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which the likelihood of a behavior is increased or decreased by the use of re ...
    Related: classical, classical conditioning, conditioning, operant, operant conditioning
  • Discussion On Classical Conditioning As An Explanation Of Learning - 1,030 words
    Discussion On Classical Conditioning As An Explanation Of Learning We use the term classical conditioning to describe one type of associative learning in which there is no contingency between response and reinforcer. This situation resembles most closely the experiment from Pavlov in the 1920s, where he trained his dogs to associate a bell ring with a food-reward. In such experiments, the subject initially shows weak or no response to a conditioned stimulus (CS, e.g. the bell), but a measurable unconditioned response (UCR, e.g. saliva production) to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS, e.g. food). In the course of the training, the CS is repeatedly presented together with the UCS; eventually the ...
    Related: classical, classical conditioning, conditioning, explanation, cause and effect
  • Discussion On Classical Conditioning As An Explanation Of Learning - 995 words
    ... ces for the person manipulating them. This theory can explain some of social behaviour and relationships if that is the belief and also its causes us to review our previous acceptance that some people perform act for no personal gain. To a behaviourist, all relationships must provide people with the opportunity of obtaining pleasant outcomes for themselves. There are implications of adopting the assumption about cross- species similarity. (We can infer on how human beings learn by studying behaviour of less complex species) Silfe and Williams (1995) pointed out that reducing experiences e.g. 'loving behaviours' -behaviourists might argue that all animals that demonstrate i.e.. Parental c ...
    Related: classical, classical conditioning, conditioning, explanation, human learning, learning theory, operant conditioning
  • Aggression And Its Intricacies - 2,232 words
    ... 19;s quota of aggression will not cause him to kill acquaintances, let alone wage war against strangers from a different country┘.The overwhelming majority of those who have killed┘have done so as soldiers in war, and we recognize that that has practically nothing to do with the kind of personal aggression that would endanger us as their fellow citizens. (8) Here a regular serving soldier spoke with experience of seeing the numerous soldiers that "[derived] their greatest satisfaction from male companionship, from excitement, and from the conquering of physical obstacles." Those men were most likely part of the 2 percent of combat soldiers (as noted by Swank and Marchandρ ...
    Related: aggression, world war ii, francis galton, human existence, cruel
  • Agression - 2,162 words
    ... in numerous altercations as children. Not as bullies but rather as fighters, the type of person who would not back down once attacked or hurt. This seemed like a strange connection between the type of job and a similarity in childhood activities, because significantly less than a third of school populations engage in fights on a regular basis. This seems to point at a genetic capacity for violence and aggression. More informally, Gwynne Dyer has felt, through his experiences as a soldier, his genes at work as he says; Aggression is certainly part of our genetic makeup, and necessarily so, but the normal human beings quota of aggression will not cause him to kill acquaintances, let alone ...
    Related: agression, sexual offenders, classical conditioning, aggressive behavior, weapons
  • Behavioral - 646 words
    Behavioral Conditioning What I want to do is train my dog to shake with either paw upon request. If I say "right" I want him to raise his right paw and the same for the left. I would use operant and classical conditioning to reach the goal of teaching this trick to my dog. I must condition the dog to shake by using positive reinforcement. The dog (Max) already puts his paw on me when I grab his head so I will act like I am going to reach for his head and when he puts his paw on me I will say, "shake." Every time he puts his paw on me after I say shake I will give him a liver treat. Once I have conditioned him to shake it will then be time to differentiate right from left. I want the words, " ...
    Related: behavioral, operant conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, positive reinforcement, interval
  • Behavioral Learning - 982 words
    Behavioral Learning BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORIES Educational Psychology Journal Article Presentation Most theorists agree that learning occurs when experience causes a change in a person's knowledge or behavior . Behaviorists emphasize the role of environmental stimuli in learning and focus on the behavior, i.e., an observable response. Behavioral theories are based on contiguity, classical and operant conditioning, applied behavior analysis, social learning theory and self-regulation/cognitive behavior modification. Early views of learning were contiguity and classical conditioning. In contiguity learning, two events are repeatedly paired together and become associated in the learner's mind ...
    Related: behavioral, classroom learning, learning process, learning theories, learning theory, observational learning, social learning
  • Brave New World - 617 words
    Brave New World Soma and orgy-porgies, sex hormone chewing gum and erotic play among children-all of these things further the power of the centralized world government in Brave New World. In a civilization that is without disease, old age, and all negative emotions, the people are forced to pay a price without even realizing it. That great price is their freedom. With mass consumption as a diversion, the New World quickly forgets the advantages of true independence. In the futurized novel by Alduos Huxley, conformity rules over individuality and scientific control successfully enslaves a brainwashed and fearful society. Bokanovsky's process is one of the major instruments of social stability ...
    Related: brave, brave new world, world government, world leaders, major problem
  • Capital Punishment - 2,956 words
    ... actors that determine a person being sentenced to death. A criminals past record and the seriousness of the crime currently committed are two major factors in determining death row sentencing. These factors are what have sent more men to death row than women. Some people believe that the selection of death row is unfair due to the number of men vs. women facing it. Jurors have many things to consider when convicting the accused. How brutal was it, how many people were killed, was it premeditated, was it torturous? These are all things that the jurors considering when determining the fate of the accused. Of course they also have to keep decide if the evidence proves, with out a doubt, the ...
    Related: capital punishment, punishment, decision making process, times books, america
  • Classical - 723 words
    Classical And Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are different learning methods. The two methods have the word conditioning in common. What is conditioning? Conditioning is the acquisition of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli. Both classical and operant conditioning are basic forms of learning. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to transfer a natural response from one stimulus to another, previously neutral stimulus. This is done by manipulating reflexes. Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which the likelihood of a behavior is increased or decreased by the use of reinforceme ...
    Related: classical, classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, operant conditioning, tube
  • Development Of Psychology - 964 words
    Development Of Psychology John Wilson Psychology Essay (Development of psychology) In the following essay I will explain the development of major schools in terms of distinguishing features and historical context. Scientific study is a valid way of coming to an understanding of life, and can be very useful in every area of life. Science develops theories based on what is observed. It examines each theory with rigorous and scrupulous tests to see if it describes reality. The scientific method works well in observing and recording physical data and in reaching conclusions which either confirm or nullify a theory. During the mid-19th century, scholars (although at that time probably termed phil ...
    Related: cognitive psychology, human psychology, psychology, social psychology, psychological aspects
  • Drugs As Stimulus - 616 words
    Drugs As Stimulus Throughout life we are subjected to countless stimuli, and our responses to those stimuli shape and affect our lives and those surrounding us. This example of real life classical conditioning is one that took a negative affect on a close friend of mine. My senior year in high school my friend formed a new group of people he associated with. This was not a problem until drugs entered the equation, and soon after he began to associate drug use with fun, and enjoyment whereas before just hanging out with his new friends provided his fun and enjoyment. This conditioning occurred because he was too ignorant to realize that it was his friends and not the drugs that provided the g ...
    Related: drug addicts, drugs, stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, real life
  • General History Of - 1,116 words
    General History Of Psych Two Take-Home Essay The study of Behaviorism dates can be traced back to the classical Greek philosophers, and goes into the nineteenth and twentieth-century psychology. Below is a list of fundamental psychologists and their contributions. * Greeks Philosophers and psychologists have been intrigued with the human thought process for thousands of years, with one of the first being the Greek philosopher Aristotle. He presented some of the first operational methods in how human learning and memory are formed. He also emphasized the importance of mental imagery. * Wundt William Wundt is considered the father of Psychology when he opened his laboratory in Leipzig, Germany ...
    Related: general history, history, research method, natural selection, cognition
  • Intrinsic Motivation Is Ideal - 1,846 words
    Intrinsic Motivation Is Ideal Inquisitive and self-directed learning is a natural behavior for young children. They marvel at each new discovery and strive to understand the meaning behind every question in their world. However, older children seem to be resistant to learning unless directed by teachers or parents with various forms of external recognition (Deci and Ryan, 1981). Their enthusiasm and inner desire for understanding has diminished. Learning, to older children has become directly connected to demands, controls, and rewards. In order to understand why this attitude toward learning develops, the concept of motivation in education must be defined and examined in a theoretical sense ...
    Related: intrinsic, intrinsic motivation, motivation, teacher education, people learn
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - 1,780 words
    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Are you the type of person who has a phobia of germs, dirt, or contaminated bodily fluids? Is the only way to feel safe and pure is for you to cleanse yourself countless times a day? Or maybe you`re the type of person who has to check things twice, three times or more. Perhaps you`re the type of person who has to do everything twice, or by a fixed number. Maybe you are the type of person who must have everything neatly placed, and if misplaced at all you throw a tantrum. If you are a person who happens to do any of these things then maybe you have OCD, the acronym for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (formerly known as obsessive neuro ...
    Related: anxiety disorder, compulsive, compulsive behavior, compulsive disorder, disorder, obsessive, obsessive compulsive disorder
  • Psychology Development - 777 words
    Psychology Development Psychology as a science has developed over a long period of time, literally centuries. During this period of time, man individuals have had an impact on the development of Psychology as a science. Select three individuals, describe in detail the contributions of the individuals, and discuss the significance of the person to the development of Psychology as a science. In this paper I am going to talk about three different individuals, and describe their contributions to Psychology. I am also going to talk about how there contributions had a significant effect on Psychology as a science. These three people are the three that I consider the most important people of Psycho ...
    Related: psychology, different types, scientific method, classical conditioning, structuralism
  • The Effects Of Music On Advertising And Choice Befhavior - 303 words
    The Effects Of Music On Advertising And Choice Befhavior Jose Gonzalez Mktg. section 8 April 2000 THE EFFECTS OF MUSIC IN ADVERTISING ON CHOICE BEHAVIOR: Introduction Commercials typically contain both product spedific information and background features such as pleasant music, attractive colors, and humor. Of the two experiments that Gerald J. Gorn conducted we will analyze the one experiment, which determined whether background features of a commercial, in this specific case music, affected product preferences in consumers. It is said that the impact of product information in a commercial on beliefs and attitudes would typically be interpreted within an information-processing framework. It ...
    Related: advertising, music, unconditioned stimulus, classical conditioning, awareness
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