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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: chemistry

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  • Analytical Chemistry - 1,249 words
    Analytical Chemistry Nanothinc - providing information services concerning nanotechnology and related enabling technologies, which include supramolecular chemistry, protein engineering, molecular design and modelling software Oxford Molecular Group PLC - A leading developer and marketer of computer-aided chemistry and bioinformatics software. Mac Education Software: Chemistry Math Latin Greek French Spanish Prode - Data on software, computers, chemical engineering, chemistry Trinity Software - programs for chemistry, life science, and speech and communication. Program titles include curriculum supplements and research tools for both PC and MAC computers. New Technology Collaborative, Inc - e ...
    Related: analytical, analytical chemistry, chemistry, inorganic chemistry, intellectual property
  • Chemistry Lab - 231 words
    Chemistry Lab Lab Report Introduction: The purpose of this lab was determining the molecular weight of an unknown solid organic compound by freezing point depression. In order to do so, one has to first, freeze cyclohxane, by putting it in ice cold water, and see what the constant temperature comes out as. Then, one has to freeze .4 grams of there unknown, and cyclohexane by doing the same process and also see what the constant temperature will come out as. After figuring out your constant temperature, on should then plug their numbers into the equations. Procedure: These equations were given in the lab procedures for experiment number ten Experiments for General Chemistry at Yavapai College ...
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  • Chemistry Notes - 1,462 words
    Chemistry Notes LECTURE 6 NOTES, CHM 101, SEC. 01 SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS THE ACTUAL WEIGHING OF REACTANTS OFTEN PROVES IMPRACTICAL OR INCONVENIENT. THIS IS ESPECIALLY TRUE IF REACTANTS ARE GASES, LIQUIDS, OR VERY REACTIVE. HOW CAN WE DELIVER KNOWN WEIGHTS OF REACTANTS WITHOUT WEIGHING THEM FIRST? CONSIDER: HNO3 + NaOH = NaNO3 + H2O NEITHER NITRIC ACID, NOR SODIUM HYDROXIDE CAN BE WEIGHED EASILY. WHY? HOWEVER, SOLUTIONS OF KNOWN AMOUNT OF SOLUTE PER UNIT VOLUME CAN BE DELIVERED IN KNOWN VOLUME TO GIVE PRECISELY-KNOWN AMOUNTS OF REACTANTS. WHY? BECAUSE: (MOLES/LITER) X LITERS = MOLES IF YOU KNOW THE NUMBER OF MOLES CONTAINED IN ONE LITER, YOU CAN CALCULATE THE MOLES CONTAINED IN ANY MEASURED ...
    Related: chemistry, notes, carbon dioxide, acid, sodium
  • Chemistry Open Book Paper - 913 words
    Chemistry Open Book Paper Atomic spectroscopy is a chemical analysis technique and it is used to identify what elements are in a compound. It uses the idea of a photon being absorbed or emitted whenever an electron changes from one energy level to another. The diagram below shows sodium salt being sprinkled onto a flame and yellow light being emitted. Emission spectra are produced by thin gases in which the atoms do not experience many collisions (because of the low density). The emission of yellow light occurs because the electrons of the sodium salt have been promoted to a higher electronic energy state but have then fallen back down and emitted the energy as an electromagnetic wave, in th ...
    Related: chemistry, energy level, chemical analysis, proton, falling
  • Chemistry Research - 2,121 words
    Chemistry Research CHAPTER 32 The tallest tree is the Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) approx 110 m The tallest Angiosperm is the Australian Eucalyptus regnans Water Uptake and transport (Fig. 32.1) = water is essential because: transport solute, cool the body, photosynthesis and Turgor pressure Osmosis- movement of H2) through a semi-impermeable membrane Osmotic potential ( o)-depend on dissolve solute: Hi concentration means more negative o. Isoosmotic-two solution with same o; Hypoosmotic- solution that has a less negative o(more +) Turgor Pressure -hydraulic pressure result from water up take, cell turgid; analog to air pressure in a tire Water Potential ( )-Overall tendency of a solution ...
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  • Chemistry Research - 2,013 words
    ... ng; use tissue rich in Mit/blood supply and Thermogenin. COLD vs HOT- Fig. 37.21 THERMAL INSULATION AND RATE OF HEAT LOSS = Thermal energy is release by body to it's environment = Muscle contraction or change blood flow to skin; WOLF-constrict Blood vessel in its feet at above 0 C = Elephant, Rhinos, water Buffaloes have thick layer of fur; so they wallow in water = Sweating, panting are last resort use bu animals in hot climate or habitat (H2O evaporate quickly) THE VERTEBRATE THERMOSTAT- Fig 37.22/37.23 = All animals that thermoregulate must have a regulatory system; Info get from Hypothalamus-integration center In Humans: If glands is cool BT rises (constriction of Blood vessels and i ...
    Related: chemistry, body weight, biological clock, genetic diversity, orange
  • Chemistry: Reaction With Sugar - 204 words
    Chemistry: Reaction With Sugar The variable that was used in our experiment was common sugar. The process of spearation is refining. The natural sugar stored in the cane stalk or beetroot is separated from the rest of the plant material. Sugar cane is refined by the following process: a) pressing the cane to extract the juice; b) boiling the juice until it begins to thicken and sugar begins to crystallize; c) spinning the crystals in a centrifuge to remove the syrup, producing raw sugar; d) shipping the raw sugar to a refinery where it is washed and filtered to remove remaining non-sugar ingredients and color; and e) crystallizing, drying and packaging the refined sugar. The U.S. Department ...
    Related: sugar, food supply, food and drug administration, department of agriculture, experiment
  • Clinical Chemistry In Medicine - 1,442 words
    Clinical Chemistry In Medicine Of the diagnostic methods available to veterinarians, the clinical chemistry test has developed into a valuable aid for localizing pathologic conditions. This test is actually a collection of specially selected individual tests. With just a small amount of whole blood or serum, many body systems can be analyzed. Some of the more common screenings give information about the function of the kidneys, liver, and pancreas and about muscle and bone disease. There are many blood chemistry tests available to doctors. This paper covers the some of the more common tests. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is an end-product of protein metabolism. Like most of the other molecules i ...
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  • Clinical Chemistry In Medicine - 1,423 words
    ... toglobulins, which bind hemoglobin. Iron transport is related to beta-globulins. The glycoprotein that binds the iron is transferrin (Lehninger, 1993). Gamma-globulins (immunoglobulins) are associated with antibody formation. There are five different classes of immunoglobulins. IgG is the major circulating antibody. It gives immune protection within the body and is small enough to cross the placenta, giving newborns temporary protection against infection. IgM also gives protection within the body but is too large to cross the placenta. IgA is normally found in mucous membranes, saliva, and milk. It provides external protection. IgD is thought to function during the development and matura ...
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  • Combinatorial Chemistry - 784 words
    Combinatorial Chemistry And New Drugs The body fights disease by generating antibodies that bind to invading organisms. The body can make different antibodies by shuffling and reshuffling their constituent parts, but it can't make a special antibody each time it is faced with a new pathogen. So it uses only the antibodies that will work best and makes more of them. In the past few years, chemists have begun to follow this method to develop new drugs. Instead of looking for signs of a desired activity and then making modifications to the structure, they generate a large number of related compounds and then screen the collection for the ones that could have medicinal value in a process called ...
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  • History Of Chemistry - 1,607 words
    History Of Chemistry History of Chemistry Introduction: Humans have always been very curios creatures. The have always wondered about what they are and why they are here. Our limited knowledge of the environment has always urged for new things to be discovered. The desire to understand the world better has made people search for rational answers, for principles and laws. For centuries people have tried to unlock the mysterious world that surrounds them. History: Because myths did not explain things well enough the Greeks began to ask questions about the world around them. They did this so thoroughly and so brilliantly that the era between 600 and 400 B.C. is called the golden age of philosop ...
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  • How Chemistry Affects My Daily Life - 705 words
    How Chemistry affects my Daily Life I get up in the morning and I breath in oxygen and I breath out carbon dioxide. I get in the shower and use water *. I use soap in the shower also. I dry the water off with air molecules. I dry my hair by using a hair dryer, which uses electricity. Electrical affects are caused by the position and the movement of positively and negatively charged particles.I use cologne which has alcohol in it. I wash my clothes using water and soap. I light a candle. This is an example of combustion. For this to occur there must be a presence of combustible substance, a temperature high enough to cause combustion, and the presence of oxygen or chlorine. Of course when I l ...
    Related: chemistry, daily life, periodic table, atomic weight, hydrogen
  • Organic Chemistry - 1,197 words
    Organic Chemistry Organic compounds are covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides. Carbon atoms are unique because of their ability to bond by catenation, which is forming long chains and rings from the covalent binding of an element to itself. Besides bonding with itself, carbon atoms are able to bind to elements with similar electronegativities. Organic compounds consist of carbon and these other elements. Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds, composed of only carbon and hydrogen. Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons in which each carbon atom in the molecule forms four single covalent bonds with other atoms. Hydrocarbons that contain only ...
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  • The Chemistry Of Natural Water Introduction The Purpose Of This Experiment Is To Explore The Hardness Of The Water On Campus - 1,158 words
    The Chemistry of Natural Water INTRODUCTION The purpose of this experiment is to explore the hardness of the water on campus. Hard water has been a problem for hundreds of years. One of the earliest references to the hardness or softness of water is in Hippocrates discourse on water quality in Fifth century B.C. Hard water causes many problems in both in the household and in the industrial world. One of the largest problems with hard water is that it tends to leave a residue when it evaporates. Aside from being aesthetically unpleasing to look at, the build up of hard water residue can result in the clogging of valves, drains and piping. This build up is merely the accumulation of the minera ...
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  • The Chemistry Of Natural Water Introduction The Purpose Of This Experiment Is To Explore The Hardness Of The Water On Campus - 1,069 words
    ... on this, we calculated the parts per million and the grains per gallon for each water sample. Finally, we took an AA reading for each sample. This gave us absorption values and concentration values for each of the two main metals we were observing; Ca++ and Mg++. We then plotted a graph of Atomic Absorption Standards. These were values given to us by the AA operator. These values helped us to calibrate the machine. The parts per million that we find will be based on plugging in the reported absorption value into the resulting curve from the graph of these values. The resulting concentration was used as the final value for the hardness for that particular sample. All calculations and con ...
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  • The Chemistry Of Photography - 965 words
    The Chemistry Of Photography Photography is a very complex form of art, which uses standard chemicals and scientific equations. It is a chemical reaction, which occurs when light hits a film or paper emulsion. An emulsion is part of the film or paper, which is very sensitive to light. This is also the part where the chemical reaction takes place. In an emulsion, are small crystals of silver halide, silver bromide, silver chloride, or silver iodide [Eaton, George]. These chemical crystals react with light when it is passed through a camera, to create an image on paper [Foto Info]. The development of film production has a very simple chemical equation, most widely known as: Light + Ag(X) Ag + ...
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  • A Personal Information - 1,287 words
    A. Personal Information Arthur Kornberg (1918-), American biochemist and physician, claims he has never met "a dull enzyme." He has devoted his life to pursuing and purifying these critical protein molecules. His love of science did not spring from a family history rooted in science. He was born on March 3rd, 1918, the son of a sewing machine operator in the sweatshops of the Lower East Side of New York City. His parents, Joseph Aaron Kornberg and Lena Rachel Katz, were immigrant Jews who made great sacrifices to ensure the safety of their family. They had fled Poland, for if they had stayed, they would have been murdered in a German concentration camp. His grandfather had abandoned the pate ...
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  • A Vogadro Was Born On June 9, 1776 In Turin, Italy He Began His Career In 1796 By Obtaining A Doctorate In Law And Practicing - 596 words
    A vogadro was born on June 9, 1776 in Turin, Italy. He began his career in 1796 by obtaining a doctorate in law and practicing as a lawyer for three years after. In 1800, he began to take private lessons in mathematics and physics and decided to make the natural sciences his profession. He was appointed as a demonstrator at the Academy of Turin in1806 and the Professor of Natural Philosophy at the College of Vercelli in 1809, and in 1820, he was appointed the professor of mathematical physics. He was a physics professor but he also experimented in chemistry using mathematics to base most of his findings. Avogadro is well known for his hypothesis known as Avogadro's Law. His law states that a ...
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  • Academic Stress - 1,365 words
    Academic Stress Picture a typical, hard-working student. Each day she recieves multiple assignments to complete for homework. She is involved in several extracurricular activities so she doesnt have much extra time. After sports practice, she struggles home, ladden with books, to begin studying. On a typical evening she has to work diligently for a couple of hours to complete her homework for school the next day. She has a rigorous schedule that includes honors and advanced placement classes so some nights she is forced to stay up very late to keep up with her classes. Other nights she has an extra packet of work to complete for her SAT Prep course. All this work puts a lot of pressure on he ...
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  • Acid Rain - 1,013 words
    Acid Rain Acid Rain (The Environmental Effects) My first question is , What is Acid Rain? You hear about it all the time in the news and it is very important to the earths ecosystem. In simple terms, acid rain is rain that is more acidic than normal. All objects in nature have a certain level of acicicity but acid rain has too much acid in it. Acid rain is a complicated problem, caused by air pollution. Acid rain's spread and damage involves weather, chemistry, soil, and the life cycles of plants and animals on the land and from acid rain in the water. Acidity is measured using a pH scale, with the number 7 being neutral. Therefore, a body with a pH value of less than 7 is acidic. On the oth ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, rain, air pollution, new england
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