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  • Catherine The Great - 1,069 words
    Catherine The Great CATHERINE THE GREAT EMPRESS OF ALL RUSSIA Catherine II (a.k.a. Catherine the Great) Catherine II, or Catherine the Great, empress of all Russia, did much to continue the process of Westernization reforms began by Peter the Great. Catherine was devoted to art, literature, science, and politics. Many people say she had a great gift and was a great leader, thus she was awarded with the name "the Great" She helped develop schools, hospitals, and many other organizations for the country. She was a shrewd leader and autocrat and helped to continue and further reforms made by Peter the Great, finally making Russia a permanent European power. Originally named Sophie Frederick Aug ...
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  • Catherine The Great - 1,177 words
    Catherine The Great Throughout history, Russia has been viewed as a regressive cluster of barely civilized people on the verge of barbarism. In the eighteenth century, ideas of science and secularism grasped hold of Europe, and Russian Czars, realizing how behind Muscovite culture was, sought out this knowledge, attempting to imbed it into Russian society. Catherine II was one of these Czars. She listened to both the ideas of the philosophers and the problems of her people and strove to enlighten Russia by codifying the laws, establishing an elected government, funding hospitals, and forming a functioning school board. Her attempts, however, were met with only partial success. Her reforms re ...
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  • Catherine The Great - 1,166 words
    ... inst Turkey. Nevertheless, the drafts written by the electives were not wasted, as the materials were employed in a "Description of the Russian Empire and its International Administration and Legal Enactments," published in 1783. This proclamation was the closest thing that Russia had to a law code for the next 50 years (Hosking 100). It denounced capital punishment and torture, it argued for crime prevention and, in general, "was abreast of advanced Western thought for criminology" (Riasanovsky 259). Catherine decided that, before positing common interests, which did not exist, she should put more backbone into fragmented Russia by creating institutions which would enable citizens to wo ...
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  • Catherin The Great - 1,765 words
    Catherin The Great Catherine the Great: Empress of Russia, (1762-1796) History 120, Section 4 Russell Smith Dr. Homer December 2, 1999 One of the most interesting, hard-working and powerful people to grace the pages of history during the eighteenth century was Catherine II, Empress of Russia. Historians have not always been so kind to her memory, and all too often one reads accounts of her private life, ignoring her many achievements. The stories of her love affairs have been overly misinterpreted and can be traced to a handful of French writers in the years immediately after Catherine's death, when Republican France was fighting for its life against a coalition that included Russia. Catheri ...
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  • Catherin The Great - 1,755 words
    ... ed remarkable results. Russia's primary exports were timber, hemp, flax, raw leather, furs, linen, cloth and iron. After the Treaty of Kyakhta was signed in 1768, camel caravans were soon passing to and from Manchuria. Russia exported furs, leather and linens to China, and imported cottons, silks, tobacco, silver and tea, among other commodities from China. As early as 1765 three quarters of the Empress Elizabeth's debt was repaid, and a budget deficit had been turned into a surplus. A decree issued by Catherine in 1764 to all governor-generals instructed them to take accurate census, map their provinces and report on agriculture and trade. They were to build and repair roads and bridges ...
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  • Diderot: The Enlightened Philosopher - 1,071 words
    DIDEROT: THE ENLIGHTENED PHILOSOPHER Denis Diderot was born in 1713 in the pious town of Langres, France. He was the oldest surviving child of a family whose long tradition it was to make renowned cutlery. At the age of thirteen, he decided to leave school because he became impatient with his teachers. They weren't feeding him enough of the information he craved. He decided to join his father in the cutlery business. That lasted for four days. He simply described his family's trade as boring. Diderot decided impatience was better than boredom and returned to school at the local Jesuit college. He became an Abbe in hopes of pursuing a religious career and assuming his uncle Vigneron's positio ...
    Related: enlightened, philosopher, meaning of life, jacques rousseau, france
  • Enlightened Despotism - 712 words
    Enlightened Despotism Enlightened despots believed that political change could best come from above; from the ruler. However, they were encouraged by the philosophers to make good laws to promote human happiness. How did these monarchs differ from earlier unenlightened monarchs of the past? The difference lay in tempo. These new despots acted abruptly and desired quicker results. They were impatient with all that stood in the way of their reforms. In addition, they justified their authority on the grounds of usefulness, not divine right. These new monarchs were rational and reformist and they regarded political change as possible and desirable. Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, and J ...
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  • Modern History Of Russia - 777 words
    Modern History of Russia Modern History of Russia The reigns of Peter I and Catherine the Great in the late 1600s and the 1700s marked the beginning of Russia's establishment as a major European power. These rulers attempted to westernize the traditional society of Moscow, and they ambitiously expanded Russian territories. In the early 1800s, Alexander I began to carry out further plans to westernize the government by attempting to create a Duma, or representative body. However, Russia became involved in the Napoleonic Wars and played a key role in the alliance that overthrew French emperor Napolean I. This firmly established Russia as a major power in Europe. The influence of Western Europe ...
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  • Nazi Art - 1,073 words
    ... o represent Nazi ideas such as the Aryan body, healthy and beautiful. The male would be strong and active, a superman, either a warrior, proud and heroic reaping victory after victory or participating in sport and shaping the body for battle in a friendly competition that would help shape his opponent preparing him for the same battle. And the female would be the lovely Nordic superwoman, a mother to birth and teach a generation of men for work and battle. Another popular theme in Nazi art was the German landscape. Hitler was very fond of the snow covered peaks of the Alps, but the portrait and genre paintings are of more political and historical significance. Paintings of various figure ...
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  • Russia In The 1800s - 1,417 words
    Russia In The 1800'S RUSSIA IN THE 1800'S Since the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the Russian Tsars had followed a fairly consistent policy of drawing more political power away from the nobility and into their own hands. This centralization of authority in the Russian state had usually been accomplished in one of two ways--either by simply taking power from the nobles and braving their opposition (Ivan the Terrible was very good at this), or by compensating the nobles for decreased power in government by giving them greater power over their land and its occupants. Serfdom, as this latter system was known, had increased steadily in Russia from the time of Ivan the Terrible, its inventor. By the ...
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  • The Baltics: Nationalities And Other Problems - 4,591 words
    "The Baltics: Nationalities and Other Problems" The Baltics area is fraught with cross ethnic mergings, conquerings by different groups, and control by both small groups like the Teutonic and Livonian knights and by larger entities like the nations of Sweden, Poland, and Russia during the roughly eight centuries of Baltic history. There is no ideal way to depict these very diverse groups of people and areas, so this is an attempt to first look at the area as a whole as it developed, in the briefest kind of way, then shoot forward in time to examine each of the three Baltic countries separately prior to World War II and after, and then an examination of the situation as it is today and in the ...
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  • The Enlightenment - 1,257 words
    The Enlightenment Main Themes: The Enlightenment 1. The Enlightenment had its origins in the scientific and intellectual revolutions of the 17c. 2. Enlightenment thinkers felt that change and reason were both possible and desireable for the sake of human liberty. 3. Enlightenment philosophes provided a major source of ideas that could be used to undermine existing social and political structures. I. The Major Themes of the Era: A. rationalism --* logical reasoning based on facts. B. cosmology --* new world view based on Newtonian physics --* analysis of natural phenomena as systems. C. secularism --* application of scientific theories to religion and society. D. scientific method --* experim ...
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  • Truman Doctrine Results - 1,151 words
    Truman Doctrine - Results The Truman Doctrine was the impetus for the change in United States foreign policy, from isolationist to internationalists; thus we were drawn into two wars of containment and into world affairs. The Truman Doctrine led to a major change in U.S. foreign policy from its inception - aid to Turkey and Greece - to its indirect influence in Korea and Vietnam. The aftermath of World War II inspired the U.S. to issue a proclamation that would stem Communist influence throughout the world. However, our zeal in that achievement sent our soldiers to die in Vietnam and Korea for a seemingly futile cause. It must be the policy of the U.S. to support free peoples. This is no mor ...
    Related: doctrine, truman, truman doctrine, marshall plan, republican congress
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