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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: wavelength

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  • A Quantum Computer A Future Technology - 1,415 words
    A Quantum Computer... a future technology Mike Damewood By the strange laws of quantum mechanics, Folger, a senior editor at Discover, notes, an electron, proton, or other subatomic particle is "in more than one place at a time," because individual particles behave like waves, these different places are different states that an atom can exist in simultaneously. Ten years ago, Folger writes, David Deutsch, a physicist at Oxford University, argued that it may be possible to build an extremely powerful computer based on this peculiar reality. In 1994, Peter Shor, a mathematician at AT&T Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, proved that, in theory at least, a full-blown quantum computer could factor ...
    Related: quantum, quantum computer, quantum mechanics, technology, simple steps
  • Air Pollution - 1,546 words
    Air Pollution Air Pollution is addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally. Air pollution makes people sick, it causes breathing problems and promotes cancer, and it harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of acid rain and snow, which corrode statues and buildings, damage crops and forests, and make lakes and streams unsuitable for fish and other plant and animal life. Pollution is changing the earth's atmosph ...
    Related: air pollution, pollution, greenhouse gases, global scale, burn
  • Bio Outline - 2,398 words
    Bio Outline BIOLOGY 220 OUTLINE SECTION II Text: Essential Cell Biology I. Opening Comments (Chapter 3) A. Life creates order out of disorder through a never-ending series of chemical reactions B. This is Metabolism and the ability to Metabolize C. Most of the chemical reactions required by the cell would not occur at physiological conditions D. Control of these reactions is achieved by specialized protein, ENZYMES. II. Basic Principles of Energy A. Energy - Basics Principles 1. Define Energy - ability to do work 2. Define Work - the ability to change the way matter is arranged 3. Define Kinetic Energy 4. Define Potential energy - energy of position 5. FIRST LAW of THERMODYNAMICS Energy can ...
    Related: outline, energy level, carbon dioxide, basic principles, storage
  • Black Holes - 1,516 words
    ... n in space. At this exact point in time, high amounts of radiation are given off, and with the proper equipment, can be detected and seen as an image of a black hole. Through this technique, astronomers now believe that they have found a black hole known as Centaurus A. The existence of a star apparently absorbing nothingness led astronomers to suggest and confirm the existence of another black hole, Cygnus X1. By emitting gravitational waves, non-stationary black holes lose energy, eventually becoming stationary and ceasing to radiate in this manner. In other words, they decay and become stationary black holes, namely holes that are perfectly spherical or whose rotation is perfectly uni ...
    Related: black hole, black holes, theory of relativity, stephen hawking, uniform
  • Chemistry Open Book Paper - 913 words
    Chemistry Open Book Paper Atomic spectroscopy is a chemical analysis technique and it is used to identify what elements are in a compound. It uses the idea of a photon being absorbed or emitted whenever an electron changes from one energy level to another. The diagram below shows sodium salt being sprinkled onto a flame and yellow light being emitted. Emission spectra are produced by thin gases in which the atoms do not experience many collisions (because of the low density). The emission of yellow light occurs because the electrons of the sodium salt have been promoted to a higher electronic energy state but have then fallen back down and emitted the energy as an electromagnetic wave, in th ...
    Related: chemistry, energy level, chemical analysis, proton, falling
  • Color Theory - 1,472 words
    Color Theory Color photographs begin as black and white negatives. Color film consists of three layers of emulsion, each layer basically the same as in black and white film, but sensitive only to one third of the spectrum (reds, greens or blues). Thus, when colored light exposes this film, the result is a multilayered black and white negative After the negative images are developed, the undeveloped emulsion remaining provides positive images by reversal. The remaining emulsion is exposed (chemically or with light) and the film developed a second time with a different developer. As it converts the light-sensitive silver compounds to metallic silver, the developer becomes oxidized and combines ...
    Related: methods used, real world, complementary colors, mosaic, random
  • Color Theory - 1,552 words
    ... ensations can be produced this way, including those red-blue mixes (purples and magentas) not found at any wavelength band in the spectrum. In photography, the principles of additive color synthesis underlie making separation negatives for photomechanical reproduction of color images, and dye transfer and similar printing processes. It was also the principal behind the Autochrome film process and similar screen processes. In the darkroom, additive color printing uses red, green, and blue exposures to obtain prints from color negatives and transparencies. ( 1 ) The Grainmaker filter relies on this principle of additive color printing. AUTOCHROME was a photographic transparency film patent ...
    Related: over time, isaac newton, visible spectrum, photographer, knife
  • Crocodile Physics - 392 words
    Crocodile Physics Crocodile Physics Crocodile Physics is like a well-stocked physics lab where you can experiment to your hearts content. Covering many syllabus topics, here is the hardware flattened for the small screen. There are masses, trolleys, lenses and electronic components to assemble, experiment and take measurements with. You can swing pendulums, change gravity, change angle of ramps to learn about forces. Excellent are the optics tools which let you split light into its colours with a prism and see how fibre optics transmit light. A section on eye defects, where you increase the focal length of a spectacle lens and see what that does to the light rays will make an awesome teachin ...
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  • Diabetes And Types - 1,641 words
    Diabetes And Types Diabetes Diabetes is little or no ability to move glucose out of the blood into the red blood cells. Nearly 16 million people have diabetes in the United States, which narrows it down to about 1 out of every seventeen people. About 2,150 new cases are diagnosed each day. Many of us do not clearly know what diabetes is and the different categories that it is classified in. The first type of diabetes that will be discussed is type 1 diabetes and steps that can be taken to diagnose diabetes. The second type of diabetes that will be talked about will be type 2 diabetes and how it effects patients. The third type of diabetes is gestational diabetes and how exercise can help con ...
    Related: dependent diabetes, diabetes, diabetes mellitus, diabetes type, gestational diabetes, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes
  • Diamond - 1,222 words
    ... as it provided a more efficient method for adamantane production. Schleyer was able to increase the output of his adamantane synthesis to a 30% and 40% yield by exposing the tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene to an AlCl3-HCl mixture under 40 atms. of pressure of hydrogen and HF-BF3 catalyst respectively.7 When Schleyer focused his procedure on the retrieval of adamantane, he found that the synthesis was bountiful with the starting reactant dicyclopentadiene which is a common compound.3 Research into the enigmatic compound could then proceeded full force from this point on to examine the compound to its every minute detail. What they found confirmed their previous assertions that adamantane was ...
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  • Dwdm - 1,536 words
    Dwdm Bandwidth is the capacity for carrying digital information. In the past few years, bandwidth has been increasing at roughly twice the rate of computing power. Data traffic has been doubling every 100 days (according to the U.S. Department of Commerce) and it is predicted that that Internet traffic will reach 16 million terabytes by 2003. Fiber is the transport medium of choice. It out performs copper, coaxial cable, and high frequency radio in data-carrying ability. As service needs increase, fiber exhaust becomes a problem. In some areas it is not economically feasible to lay new fiber. In these areas, it is important to look at alternatives to provide economical solutions. One of the ...
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  • Effects Of Tv On Society - 1,203 words
    Effects Of Tv On Society How many would believe the common television is a major building block of our present society? Yes, the very T.V. in your bedroom is one of the many influences that built and is building our society at this very moment. Through its' many commercials, sitcoms, and movies, they lay thick layers of influences on the average individual. The introduction of the television into the America forever effected the society, and still effects the society at our present time. The television reached labratory perfection in the 1930's, but it did not reach the market until 1945, just after WWII. The introduction of television made an enormous impact, some even claimed it was The Bi ...
    Related: nobel prize, typical american, information age, watches, bored
  • Electro Magnetic Radiation - 777 words
    Electro Magnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic radiation is defined as "the emission and transmission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves" (Chang, pp. 246). An electromagnetic wave consists of two waves at perpendicular planes, on representing the electrical field while the other represents the magnetic field. This spectrum is split up into about 81 octaves, much like the octaves of sound, which scientists have categorized in order to depict the usefulness of the different properties. Theoretically electromagnetic waves can be as long as the expansive width of the universe in one wave, to a wavelength the size of a quanta (the smallest amount of energy that c ...
    Related: electro, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic, magnetic field, radiation
  • Electro Magnetic Radiation - 777 words
    Electro Magnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic radiation is defined as "the emission and transmission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves" (Chang, pp. 246). An electromagnetic wave consists of two waves at perpendicular planes, on representing the electrical field while the other represents the magnetic field. This spectrum is split up into about 81 octaves, much like the octaves of sound, which scientists have categorized in order to depict the usefulness of the different properties. Theoretically electromagnetic waves can be as long as the expansive width of the universe in one wave, to a wavelength the size of a quanta (the smallest amount of energy that c ...
    Related: electro, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic, magnetic field, radiation
  • Electromagnetic Radiation - 778 words
    Electro-Magnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic radiation is defined as the emission and transmission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves (Chang, pp. 246). An electromagnetic wave consists of two waves at perpendicular planes, on representing the electrical field while the other represents the magnetic field. This spectrum is split up into about 81 octaves, much like the octaves of sound, which scientists have categorized in order to depict the usefulness of the different properties. Theoretically electromagnetic waves can be as long as the expansive width of the universe in one wave, to a wavelength the size of a quanta (the smallest amount of energy that can ...
    Related: electromagnetic, electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic spectrum, radiation, industrial revolution
  • Electromagnetism - 594 words
    Electromagnetism Electromagnetism exists everywhere. When people drive, walk, or even go to the beach. However, due to the extreme complexity of the topic, electromagnetism has proven to be a subject studied by those who are crafty and willing enough to explore the domain. The ideas of electricity start from simple objects such as springs, coils and magnets that simply created a current for some sort of affect to either start or light some object. Now these theories have expanded to a point where our everyday lives are affected by it. When people start their cars for example, a magnet turned by a flywheel generates current through coils to help ignite the cars electrical system. In short, el ...
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  • Excimer Laser And Its Applications - 1,077 words
    Excimer laser and its applications Introduction The first report of a new type of excimer system came from Golde and Thrush at Cambridge who observed characteristic bound-free transitions in ArCl produced by reacting argon metstables with chlorine in a flowing afterglow system. At present the rare-gas halidel asers are undoubtedly the most important excimer lasers and are being actively developed for applications in laser-induced fusion and isotope separation. A large amount of energy, ranging from 8 eV in Xe to 20 eV in He is required to produce the first excited state because of the closed shell nature of the normal state of the rare gases. Application on Water Pollution A typical spectrum ...
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  • Fiber Optics - 1,280 words
    Fiber Optics Table of Contents 1.0 Intro to Fiber Optics 2.0 Fiber Constuction 1.0 Introduction to Fiber Optics Today many communications companies are replacing their copper carrier wires with fiber optic cables. A fiber optic cable is capable of transmitting laser light across thousands of miles and can carry many more messages at the same time than the copper wire of equivalent diameter. With the relentless pursuit of bandwidth, fiber optic cabling is being deployed at an ever increasing rate. This cable, which uses glass to carry light pulses, poses both advantages and challenges. The intent of this paper is to explain the how's and why's of fiber optic cabling and to provide a set of so ...
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  • Fiber Optics - 1,252 words
    ... olor. The 1300nm and 1550nm transmitters emit light only in the infrared spectrum. The difference in performance of the various wavelengths is beyond the scope of this paper. What is important is an awareness of the wavelengths and that the equipment on both ends of the fiber needs to be matched. The final characteristic of transmitters is the output power. This is a measure of the optical energy (intensity) launched into the fiber. It is measured in dBm. A typical value for multi mode transmitters used in Ethernet is -15dBm. Single mode transmitters have a wide range in power depending on the application. Receiver Specifications With a knowledge of transmitters, what happens at the othe ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, network design, potential risk
  • Fiber Optics - 2,292 words
    ... ight- or left-handed symmetry group. At the transition temperature the tetrahedral framework of beta-quartz twists, resulting in the symmetry of alpha-quartz; atoms move from special space group positions to more general positions. At temperatures above 867 C (1,593 F), beta-quartz changes into tridymite, but the transformation is very slow because bond breaking takes place to form a more open structure. At very high pressures alpha-quartz transforms into coesite and at still higher pressures, stishovite. Such phases have been observed in impact craters. Quartz is piezoelectric: a crystal develops positive and negative charges on alternate prism edges when it is subjected to pressure or ...
    Related: fiber, fiber optics, optics, control system, best method
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