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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: urban

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  • Challenges Facing Urban Transport In Asia Construction - 1,552 words
    - Challenges Facing Urban Transport In Asia - Construction CHALLENGES FACING URBAN TRANSPORT IN ASIA Abstract- One of the greatest challenges facing the new millennium is to effect a well integrated and environmentally acceptable solution for urban transportation. In spite of many decades of studies, involving research and experiments, success has often been elusive and more importantly, there is still a lack of consensus of what constitutes an acceptable integrated transport policy within the urban fabric The paper analyses the global trend towards urbanisation and demonstrates that while there are megacites throughout the world,there is a concentration of them in the Asian region and that ...
    Related: asia, challenges facing, construction, facing, transport, urban, urban areas
  • Challenges Facing Urban Transport In Asia Construction - 1,594 words
    ... employment and services so as to shorten journeys, public transport availability effectiveness and fares, and road pricing. 1.Short term Measures : a. Pricing and Finance : In urbanized areas with substantial amount of congestion caused by motorization, road pricing offers the best solution since it promotes both the purposes; it encourages that the socially efficient number of trips be undertaken and raises revenue to finance road ways and transport expansion to the efficient level. More ever, road pricing can contribute to viable loan financing and voluntary participation of the private sector. Some supplements to other basic taxes which may be used are petrol tax and parking fees, w ...
    Related: asia, challenges facing, construction, facing, transport, urban, urban development
  • Economic Development In Urban Areas - 1,066 words
    Economic Development In Urban Areas Economic change has helped lead America into urban crisis for the following reasons. First of all, because urban problems are no longer confined to the inner city, but are regional in nature. The federal government has, also, largely drawn from the urban policy arena, thereby having cities and sates to develop their own solutions to local problems. Furthermore, the economy of cities is no longer organized around a central business district, but is dispersed throughout a metropolitan region. Next, the national economy has experienced a fundamental reorganization and many cities have experienced the direct effects of deindustrialization and disinvestments. A ...
    Related: economic change, economic development, urban, urban america, urban areas, urban problems
  • Pope Urban Ii - 437 words
    Pope Urban Ii Pope Urban II had called the Christians to join him in a Holy War to reclaim the Holy Lands as an act of Christianity, but there were many activities that took place that werent characteristics of Christianity. The Crusades were a smokescreen for Popes craving for power and control. The Crusades were the idea of Pope Urban II, a wise Frenchman. On November 18, 1095 AD, Pope Urban II opened the Council of Clermont. Nine days later, the Pope made a very important speech just outside the French city of Clermont-Ferrand. In his speech, he asked the people to help the Christians effort to restore peace to the East. The Crusades had originally been to help the Churches in the East, b ...
    Related: pope, pope urban, urban, social classes, holy war
  • The Urban Underclass: Challenging The Myths About Americas Urban Poor - 1,155 words
    The Urban Underclass: Challenging THe Myths ABout America's Urban Poor Paul Peterson and Christopher Jencks, co editors of "The Urban Underclass," and William Julius Wilson, a contributor to the book, will conduct a public symposium from 2 to 4 p.m. Tuesday, April 16, in the Brookings auditorium. Discussants will include James Johnson of UCLA, Charles Murray of the American Enterprise Institute and Isabel Sawhill of the Urban Institute. The conference is open to press and other interested parties. If you plan to attend, please call 202/797 6105. FOR RELEASE: April 16, 1991 CONTACT: Paul Peterson, 617/495 8312 or Christopher Jencks, 708/491 8724 or Lisa Pullen, Assistant Public Affairs Dire ...
    Related: americas, challenging, urban, urban institute, american enterprise
  • Urban Dwellers In Plainsfield, Pennsylvania - 607 words
    Urban Dwellers In Plainsfield, Pennsylvania Urban Dwellers in Plainfield, Philadelphia Plainfield's earliest settlers, like many others who pioneered this country, were seeking religious and political freedoms denied them in their own countries. By 1685, seven families (whose name identify them as all good Scots) established farms along the Cedar Brook. But long before the arrival of the first settlers, Indians had frequented the area in their travels between the Hudson and Delaware rivers. Those living in the Plainfield area were the Watchungs, part of the Lenni-Lenape tribe. They encamped along the Green Brook and in the areas of the Watchung and Park avenues, and Grant and Clinton avenues ...
    Related: dwellers, pennsylvania, urban, post office, methodist church
  • Urban Evangelism - 1,268 words
    ... W.A.S.P. (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) going into urban areas and preaching a Caucasian Christ who, to them, knows nothing of being a minority who feel frustration with the current political system when in actuality Christ can more easily be identified with those minority outcasts than with mainstream religion. As. Ellison put it The Christian church has tended to maintain society's fantasies by presenting a false picture of Christ of the Bible. It has tended to portray Jesus as Anglo-Saxon, blue-eyed, blond, Protestant (and, some add Republican). As William E Pannell writes in My Friend the Enemy 'this conservative brand of Christianity perpetuates the myth of white supremacy (Ellison ...
    Related: evangelism, urban, urban areas, human history, anglo saxon
  • Urban Industrial Workers - 1,622 words
    Urban Industrial Workers As urban industrial workers expanded in the 19th century, industry and the industrial work force boomed as well. Workers , however, were met with difficult situations that ultimately led to violent outbursts. Low wages could not buy food and clothes at the same time and conditions in the work place brought about countless deaths and injuries. Growing number of immigrants caused the reduction of wages and insecurity of the workers caused unemployment. There were hostilities between workers, employers, and organizations and complaints of no social safety nets. Due to these chaotic dilemmas, union members decided to emerge as one, in order to overcome the corporations. ...
    Related: american worker, industrial workers, urban, workers, social safety net
  • Urban Music In The Year 2000 - 812 words
    Urban Music In The Year 2000 Urban Music in the Year 2000 Shots ring out in South Central Los Angeles. A man screams in horror. This man has been shot in a heated gang war. This is everyday life for gang members. Gang members are used to cold blooded murder and most attend at least 5 funerals a week. Similar situations occur in Harlem, New York and in other places around the country. Why is this happening? Many people think that rap music is making kids more violent. They think that rap music is just a glorification of violence. All rap music is doing is to show how horrible and inhuman life is in the ghettos across the country. This is what's really happening out there. It's not fake. Right ...
    Related: music, rap music, urban, south central, west coast
  • Urban Safari - 1,243 words
    Urban Safari Urban Safari There are times when having a brother with twenty more years of age, experience, and wisdom, can adversely effect your credibility. This is especially true at nine years old. I found this to be the case one Christmas day many years ago when my brother Tom came home for the holidays. It appeared to be the start of a special Christmas, for my brother was coming to visit. I was even more excited than usual for a nine-year-old boy at this time of year. I wondered what new presents would be under the tree? In the past, Tom always got me such neat stuff. I could hardly wait to start shaking the gifts and guessing. As usual, I was up before dawn, tearing into my gifts with ...
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  • Urban Sprawl - 1,224 words
    Urban Sprawl Urban Sprawl Introduction I. Each morning, millions of Americans start their engines and grind their way to work. They leave quiet settings for the hustle and bustle of the cities. When evening approaches, these same people make their way home. Home, however, is no longer just across town. Many of these people will commute miles and miles to their *country= homes. II. They are not alone in their commute though - the entire rest of the subdivision is doing the exact same thing, day in and day out. They endure the traffic, lost time, and general inconvenience to be surrounded by farmland and open space and a hundred or so homes exactly identical to theirs. (Transition)Today I am g ...
    Related: sprawl, urban, urban sprawl, sierra club, shopping malls
  • Urban Sprawl - 1,480 words
    Urban Sprawl Urban sprawl is not a new phenomenon, and the battle between environmentalists and developers is well-known. But perhaps the issue is not that the land is being utterly stripped of life and replaced by cookie cutter houses or factories, which has been a controversy for decades. Perhaps the fighting has exposed a deeper problem: the American acceptance of a false outside, seen through lawns that mimic interiors. People often perceive that any green space is nature. As Michael Ventura says, "America is form opposed to content" (216). Contractors leave some existing trees on lots not because it may be costly to remove them but because those trees also serve as a selling feature for ...
    Related: sprawl, urban, urban sprawl, park service, court system
  • 100 Years Of Degradation - 1,060 words
    100 Years Of Degradation Students were assigned this essay as an inside look at oppression and racism from the last one hundred years, told by two elderly ladies in the book, Having Our Say. 100 Years of Degradation There are several books that have to be read in English 095. Having Our Say is one of them. My advice is to read this book while you are still in 090 or 094, just to get the advantage. These are some things that you will discover in this extraordinary biography. This book is tough to take as humorous, because its heart-wrenching to look at racism in America, but Having Our Say, manages to pull off the feat. Having Our Say really makes you think and tries to somehow reflect on the ...
    Related: degradation, public school system, rights movement, school teacher, negro
  • A Cultural Approach - 964 words
    A Cultural Approach The cultural and developmental aspects of American history in the 17th and 18th centuries are certainly among the most important and influential factors in the shaping of this country's long and storied history. Historiographically speaking, there are undoubtedly thousands upon thousands of different studies and opinions on the most influential cultural strides of early Americans well as the pros and cons that each colonial region developed in shaping America and readying it for the Revolutionary Era. Each of these four studies brings a slightly different and even, at times, conflicting approach to analyzing the cultural and social roots of early America, but each one pro ...
    Related: colonial period, urban areas, middle america, dynamic, portion
  • Aaron Douglas - 1,128 words
    Aaron Douglas People may ask, what other than a tornado can come out of Kansas? Well, Aaron Douglas was born of May 26, 1899 in Topeka, Kansas. Aaron Douglas was a "Pioneering Africanist" artist who led the way in using African- oriented imagery in visual art during the Harlem Renaissance of 1919- 1929. His work has been credited as the catalyst for the genre incorporating themes in form and style that affirm the validity of the black consciousness and experience in America. His parents were Aaron and Elizabeth Douglas. In 1922, he graduated from the University of Nebraska School of Fine Arts in Lincoln. Who thought that this man would rise to meet W.E.B. Du Bois's 1921 challenge, calling fo ...
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  • Abortion A Matter Of Choice - 1,279 words
    Abortion - A Matter Of Choice Abortion A MATTER OF CHOICE The topic of abortion is one of the most controversial of our times. It has caused countless deaths and several violent confrontations between the two separate parties of opinion. The fight between pro-life and pro-choice supporters has been long and brutal. This is because, despite what several people may believe, abortion is neither right nor wrong. It is a matter of personal opinion. In this way, each side can say with certainty that the other is wrong. Therefore the question remains; should abortion be legal? Though some may disagree on this point, the fact is that legalized abortion is the only option that will protect the lives ...
    Related: abortion, personal opinion, present state, urban areas, pro-life
  • Abortion Pill: Medical Advance Or Setback - 680 words
    Abortion Pill: Medical Advance Or Setback? The subject of abortion has created some of the most controversial, social, and moral debates in United States history. On Jan. 22, 1973, in the case Roe Vs. Wade, the Supreme Court ruled that it was a woman's constitutional right to have an abortion during the first trimester of the pregnancy (The Ruling). Still other interest groups argue that human life begins at conception and having an abortion is murder to an unborn child. These opposing viewpoints create a delicate political and social debate in which the lives of unborn children are placed in the center. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved the RU 486 "abort ...
    Related: abortion, advance, setback, human life, first trimester
  • Acid - 1,218 words
    Acid Rain Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases. Many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now, and others believe it should be met head on. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact of acid rain effects on wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed. Causes Acid rain is a cancer, eating into the face of Eastern Canada and the North Eastern United States. In Canada, the main sulphuric acid sources are non-ferrous smelters and power generation. On both sides of the border, automobiles are the main sources for nitric acid (about 40% of the total). Power generating plants, industrial com ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, great lakes, disease prevention, bear
  • Adolescent Sexuality - 1,525 words
    Adolescent Sexuality Adolescent Sexuality Sexuality is an important aspect of development during adolescence. The ability to identify and communicate with adolescent who may be at high risk of premature activity is important since sexual intercourse at an early age can have serious short and long-term consequences. An emphasis of confidentiality and an honest appraisal of implications of early sexual activity will enhance discussions about sexual issues with adolescents. Some parents are ill prepared for discussions about sexuality. Having conversations with their adolescent on sexuality may be difficult for them. Many adolescents claim both experience and confidence about sexual issues, the ...
    Related: adolescent, adolescent boys, adolescent girls, human sexuality, sexuality
  • Advertising, The Good With The Bad - 1,119 words
    Advertising, The Good With The Bad Mass Communication Process Thesis Paper Advertising (Chapter 11) Advertising is a necessary market force that is responsible for the success of most, and involved in all, forms of Multimedia. It is also responsible for some of our most powerful and long-living icons that dominate the American landscape. Advertising, like it or not, is everywhere. It is on buses, billboards and hot-air balloons. It invades our living rooms, our classrooms and almost every aspect of human life. The average American is exposed to 115 advertisements during their morning commute. With this much exposure to the consumer market, one wonders weather or not this is good or bad for t ...
    Related: communication process, natural world, mass communication, drinkers, technological
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