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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: special education

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  • The History Of Special Education In The Twentith Century - 1,288 words
    The History Of Special Education In The Twentith Century During the twentieth century, drastic changes were made to vastly improve the special education system to ensure that all students, regardless of their ability, were given equal rights according to the Constitution of the United States. During early colonial America, schooling was not mandatory and it was primarily given to the wealthy Anglo-Saxon children (Carlson, p230). Children were mainly taught in the home or in a single room schoolhouse. Therefore, children of limited mental capability were not likely to be schooled. Also, in a non-graded schoolhouse, children of differing abilities did not pose problems. With the beginning of m ...
    Related: appropriate education, brown v board of education, education classes, education program, education system, education teachers, general education
  • The History Of Special Education In The Twentith Century - 1,304 words
    ... f All Handicapped Students Act (EHA). This act authorized state grants to help give all handicapped children a free and appropriate education, and also tried to combat the misclassification and exclusion of school age children between the ages of six and eighteen. As EHA was being executed, and schools became more and more accessible and appropriate for those students with disabilities, Congress was willing to include more children under EHA's protection. In 1983 and 1986, Congress amended the law to provide early childhood special education for children ages three to five. It was also believed that children with disabilities could also use assistance in the transition from childhood to ...
    Related: appropriate education, department of education, education classes, education plan, education program, education programs, general education
  • Academic Effects - 950 words
    Academic Effects In the spring of 1997, Lisa Sharon Cushing and Craig H. Kennedy conducted an experiment to study the academic effects of providing peer support in general education classrooms on students without disabilities. In other words, students were paired with other students and their behavior observed. The study was undertaken to better understand the effects of peer support stratigies of participating students. Three non-disabled students were observed and a baseline measure of academic engagement was taken. Each student was paired to be a peer supporter with a disabled student and that level of behavior was observed. The experimental question states: Does serving as a peer support ...
    Related: academic, negative effect, positive effects, extraneous variables, english class
  • Adult Illiteracy - 3,413 words
    Adult Illiteracy Learning to read is like learning to drive a car. You take lessons and learn the mechanics and the rules of the road. After a few weeks you have learned how to drive, how to stop, how to shift gears, how to park, and how to signal. You have also learned to stop at a red light and understand road signs. When you are ready, you take a road test, and if you pass, you can drive. Phonics-first works the same way. The child learns the mechanics of reading, and when he's through, he can read. Look and say works differently. The child is taught to read before he has learned the mechanics the sounds of the letters. It is like learning to drive by starting your car and driving ahead. ...
    Related: adult, adult literacy, illiteracy, attention deficit, young people
  • Adult Illiteracy - 3,219 words
    ... atic, enemies of early, intensive teaching of phonics. Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman are two of today's most influential proponents of the look and say or as they would term it, whole language philosophy of teaching reading. San Diego State University Professor Patrick Groff recently reviewed 43 reading texts, all published in the1980's and used by teachers' colleges in training reading teachers, to see if they included the findings of researchers that the code-emphasis or phonics approach to teaching reading should be used. He found that none of these books advocate phonics. In fact, only nine of these books inform teachers that there is current debate about if or when phonics should ...
    Related: adult, adult education, adult literacy, illiteracy, state university
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - 1,225 words
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Understanding the Behavioral Disorder: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Imagine living in a fast-moving kaleidoscope, where sounds, images, and thoughts are constantly shifting. Feeling easily bored, yet helpless to keep your mind on tasks you need to complete. Distracted by unimportant sights and sounds, your mind drives you from one thought or activity to the next. Perhaps you are so wrapped up in a collage of thoughts and images that you don't notice when someone speaks to you. "Tommy can't sit still. He is disruptive at school with his constant talking and clowning around. He leaves the classroom without the teacher's permission. Al ...
    Related: attention deficit, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, deficit, deficit hyperactivity, disorder, hyperactivity, hyperactivity disorder
  • Autism - 1,085 words
    ... ternal pleasure. Another theory is that sudden episodes of self-injury may be caused by sub-clinical seizures. An infection of the middle ear is thought to be a cause of the head banging or ear hitting. The last theory is that some forms of self-injury may be a result of over arousal (such as frustration). It acts as a release, and lowers arousal. The social theorists have a different perspective on self-injurious behavior. They believe that the autistic individuals engage in these behaviors to obtain attention from other people. Research on how to treat autism is a continuous process. It also makes it difficult because each child reacts differently to the various treatments. There is no ...
    Related: autism, occupational therapy, dairy products, immune system, auto
  • Behavioral Learning - 982 words
    Behavioral Learning BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORIES Educational Psychology Journal Article Presentation Most theorists agree that learning occurs when experience causes a change in a person's knowledge or behavior . Behaviorists emphasize the role of environmental stimuli in learning and focus on the behavior, i.e., an observable response. Behavioral theories are based on contiguity, classical and operant conditioning, applied behavior analysis, social learning theory and self-regulation/cognitive behavior modification. Early views of learning were contiguity and classical conditioning. In contiguity learning, two events are repeatedly paired together and become associated in the learner's mind ...
    Related: behavioral, classroom learning, learning process, learning theories, learning theory, observational learning, social learning
  • Bilingual Education - 1,449 words
    Bilingual Education Our school systems play host to dozens of languages in addition to the standard fare of English. Starting in the late 1960s, partially as a swing off the Civil Rights Movement, school systems were required by law to provide bilingual education anytime twenty or more children spoke the same foreign language, and were found to be limited in their English proficiency. At first, the need for such programs was small, but over time it has been steadily increasing until now where the need has reached what many consider to be massive. In recent years, the population of the United States has exploded with many non-English speaking students, making the need for bilingual education ...
    Related: bilingual, bilingual education, education classes, education programs, school education, special education
  • Budget Cuts - 1,698 words
    Budget Cuts Id like to inform you about the great deal of budget cuts happening everyday in our public school systems. One of the hardest hit is in our arts and music departments. The battle over NEA funding and other important foundations that are set up to benefit our youths are being challenged by the government at an alarming rate. Cutbacks in our schools budget force students in these departments to go without necessary supplies that are essential in the learning process. Id also like to show you why art and music education is essential to our childrens learning process, how it allows them to grow up to be well rounded citizens, and why as a country, we need to fight to save these progr ...
    Related: budget, cuts, student achievement, public discourse, poetry
  • Cerebral Palsy - 908 words
    Cerebral Palsy Katherine Dillon Child Psychology Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a term used to describe disorders of movement that result from injury to the brain. It is a problem of muscle coordination. The muscles themselves are not effected but the brain is unable to send the appropriate signals necessary to instruct the muscles when to contract or relax. Cerebral Palsy can be caused by numerous problems occurring in the prenatal period, prematurity, labor and delivery complication in the newborn period due to genetic or chromosomal abnormality to the brain may not develop in the typical way. Some environmental factors such as drugs metabolic problems, and placental dysfunction may also lead to C ...
    Related: cerebral, cerebral palsy, palsy, technical support, resource center
  • Clinical Psychology - 1,054 words
    Clinical Psychology Clinical Psychology The word psychology can translate to mean "the science of the soul." Since Aristotle, psychology has become both a science and a profession. As a profession, it is the application of understanding people and their behavior to help solve human problems (Careers, 1993). A psychologist usually concentrates on one specialty that is of particular interest. There are many different fields of psychology to study. Clinical psychologists work with people with emotional and mental problems (Career Discovery, 1997). A clinical psychologist basically prevents, evaluates, and treats mental and emotional disorders in individuals. "Disorders range from minor problems ...
    Related: applied psychology, clinical, clinical practice, clinical psychology, general psychology, health psychology, psychology
  • Dream School - 1,174 words
    Dream School I am going to write my paper on my vision of the perfect school. In describing my dream school I will explain how it will operate, involve special education students and prepare students for life after high school. A strong site based administration is not only my preference, but is also the system that is most effective. I will first identify the individual positions of my dream school and then define their roles. I will call my school Dream High School. Dream High will have a traditional administrative chain, consisting of a principal and a vice-principal. There would be a dean of discipline for each grade, and a FAC (Faculty Advisory Committee) made up of two teacher represen ...
    Related: dream, high school, local community, computer technology, abstract
  • Dyslexia - 1,572 words
    Dyslexia Whether we graduate from highschool or college we all hope to find a challenging career that will propel us forward in today`s society. For those suffering from dyslexia this only adds to the frustration and fears associated with seeking employment. Many adults with dyslexia or other forms of learning disabilities never disclose their disability in interviews or once employed for fear of being discriminated against. Several investigators have noted, however, that many persons with learning disabilities adjust well to the demands and complexities of adulthood. (Greenbaum et al. 1996). The basic cause of dyslexia is still not known, however, much research is being done to determine th ...
    Related: dyslexia, information processing, real estate, mechanical engineer, mechanical
  • Ebonics - 1,323 words
    Ebonics Ebonics The United States is filled with many different ethnicities, cultures, customs, languages, etc. Supposedly, our public schools are equipped with classes, teachers, curriculums and materials in order to educate that part of the student population whose first language is something other than the English language. Bilingual classes, transitional classes, ESL classes are just a few of the programs that have been developed to instruct non-English speaking students in order for them to acquire the English language. However, there has been a language use among African American students; language that has not been examined closely nor acknowledged until recently. Ebonics is classifie ...
    Related: ebonics, special education, equal protection, public schools, edition
  • Ebonics - 1,410 words
    ... t cannot be considered a dialect but it can be considered a form of improper English, slang or jive. According to Zeis (1997), when high school students who speak ebonics go to college, they will have to take English 101 because they are classified as foreign speaking students whose first language is something other than English. Black English is a representation of the culture of many African American students and teachers must recognize this use of language and in doing so, they also acknowledge the rich culture of the students that has been marginalized for years. Educators in California believe that these students can only learn through their roots and that the only way they can get ...
    Related: ebonics, growing concern, american english, academic achievement, spelling
  • Education Of Gifted Children - 1,229 words
    Education of Gifted Children Started in the 1970s, Americas Gifted & Talented programs are used to enhance the curriculum of students included in either category in order to challenge and strengthen their unique abilities. These students are usually provided a separate class with specialized lessons in all areas and a teacher with a special degree in gifted education. I feel that it is important that the teacher was a gifted student who would know what the students must face as "above average" members of their school. The job market for gifted education offers a wide range of opportunity and gifted teachers are needed all over the country. One of the earliest programs for gifted and talented ...
    Related: elementary education, gifted child, gifted children, gifted education, gifted students, special education
  • Esl And Reading Theories Midterm - 1,574 words
    Esl And Reading Theories Midterm Mid-Term/Spring 1998 This Termpaper was for an Educational Class for the Teaching Credential Program. The questions listed below describe various theories and questions related to ESL and reading. Hope you find this paper useful. I got an 'A' for this termpaper Bibliography : Author - Ruddell Reading in Secondary Education 1. Krashen's theory of comprehensible input states: We learn a second language containing linguistic structures that are just beyond the structures we already know. (Ruddell, Page 341). According to Krashen, Comprehensible input is symbolized by the following formulated statement: i (input + 1). This means that comprehensible input is just ...
    Related: midterm, reading comprehension, paying attention, language development, native
  • Fetal Alchohol Syndrome - 1,192 words
    Fetal Alchohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Many pregnant women are not aware of the complications that are involved with pregnancy. The greater majority of young women see pregnancy as a way of bringing a life into the world but do not use precaution in their dietary habits to prevent the destruction or inhibition of such a life. Most pregnant women continue on their drinking and drug abuse binge right throughout their pregnancy. They do not think ahead to the inexplicable damage that it could do to their fetus. What they do not know is that when a woman drinks while pregnant it could do damage, and pose problems not only to herself, but to the fetus that she is carrying. The problem? FA ...
    Related: alchohol, alcohol syndrome, fetal, fetal alcohol, fetal alcohol syndrome, syndrome
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - 1,768 words
    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Preventable Birth Defect If women didnt drink anymore during pregnancy, there would never be another baby born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or Fetal Alcohol Effect (McCuen 33). This is a very powerful statement. It is also a very simple cure for an alarmingly high birth defect that all women have the power to stop. Every year more than 40,000 American children are born with defects because their mother drank alcohol while pregnant (McCuen 34). That is 1 to 3 per 1,000 live births (McCuen 31). Many of these cases go undiagnosed It is also the number one cause of mental retardation in the United States, and one of the three leading causes of bir ...
    Related: alcohol, alcohol dependency, alcohol syndrome, drink alcohol, fetal, fetal alcohol, fetal alcohol syndrome
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