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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: solvents

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  • Bally Ground Water - 485 words
    Bally Ground Water BALLY GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION The Bally ground water site is a municipal water supply well field in the borough of Bally in Berks county, near the Philadelphia metropolitan area. The Bally well field and the nearby springs to the northwest of the site are the public water sources for approximately 1,200 residents. The area near the site includes wetlands to the north and a manufacturing plant, Bally Engineered Structures, 1,000 feet to the south of municipal well number 3. Since the 1930s, degreasing solvents containing methylene chloride, TCA, Methanol, Toluene, and TCE have been used in manufacturing at this plant. In 1982, a state water quality check identified the pl ...
    Related: ground water, potable water, water quality, water supply, metropolitan area
  • Chemical Equilibria - 1,497 words
    Chemical Equilibria Darryl Fagan Pd. 4 01-20-00 AP Chemistry An Activity Series Chemistry Lab 5 Introduction; In this experiment you will study some metals and some nonmetals to find their relative reactivity. A ranking according to reactivity is called an activity series. For example, an activity series containing the elements calcium, gold and iron would put the reactive calcium at the top, iron in the middle, and the unreactive gold at the bottom. If a piece of iron metal is placed in a solution of gold nitrate, the iron will dissolve forming positive ions while the solid gold metal appears. The more reactive metal will displace ions of the less reactive metal from solution. The less reac ...
    Related: mixture, ions, observing
  • Chlorofluorocarbons Cfcs - 701 words
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCs are a family of man-made gases used for various industrial purposes. First developed in the 1920's in the United States, CFCs have been used in large quantaties since 1950. The industrialized countries can account for over 80% of CFCs use. CFC-11 is used primarily as a propellant in aerosol cans, although its use has been phased out it is still used in the production of plastic foams. CFC-12 is used in foam production as well as cooling coals of refrigerators and air conditioners. HCFC-22 was recently introduced as a replacement for CFC-12 because of its shorter life in the atmosphere, and thus is less of an ozone depleting drug. CFC-113, methyl chloroform, an ...
    Related: cfcs, greenhouse gases, montreal protocol, aerosol cans, industrialized
  • Commercial Papermaking - 1,026 words
    Commercial Papermaking Commercial Papermaking Paper in 20th-century civilization, is one of our most important industrial products. Books, magazines, and newspapers are printed on paper. Data from computers are usually printed on paper. Education, government and industry could not operate without printing and writing on paper. Paperboard (used in packaging), and absorbent papers (tissue and towelling) are other widely used paper products. Paper is made from cellulose fibbers, which are found in all plant cell walls. When a mixture of water and fibbers is filtered through a fine screen, the fibbers tangle together to form a sheet of paper. As the wet sheet is dried chemical bonds form between ...
    Related: commercial, raw materials, essential steps, microsoft corporation, suspension
  • Conservation And Preservation Of The Pompeiian Architecture - 1,858 words
    ... hat the structure looked like two thousand years ago. So it is mostly educated guess work on their part. But when it comes to post-1980 (after the earthquake), every thing can be restored back to the original state since its appearance is well documented. In the case of painted coating, it is a little more complicated. It is now easy to restore painted coating in labs, but the in situ restorations are still very hard to do. We must start with restoring the wall itself, working from the outside of the wall which is usually in worst shape. The method that seems to give the best results is the injection of a solution that will regenerate the ancient mortar instead of replacing it. Solvents ...
    Related: architecture, conservation, preservation, world heritage, university press
  • Drugs And Alcohol - 1,331 words
    ... aches the brain in 15 to 30 seconds while smoked heroin reaches the brain in 7 to 10 seconds. Once the person begins using heroin, he/she quickly develops a tolerance to the drug and needs more and more to get the same effects. "Heroin is named after the German word for hero, heroisch" (Heroin, 1/2). The substitute of Heroin, Methadone, "was initially christened Dolphine in honor of Adolf Hitler" (1/2). After, in 1897, Bayer advertised Heroin as "the sedative for coughs" (1/2). According to Health Organization (see also Appendix 20),  Heroin is sometimes used in combination with other drugs. Therefore one person could have a heroin mention and a mention of another drug during the ...
    Related: alcohol, alcohol and drugs, drug abuse, drug dependence, drug problem, drugs, drugs and alcohol
  • Ebola Virus - 1,889 words
    Ebola Virus In the world today, there are many known deadly viruses, but few present as great a threat as Ebola, the virus that causes Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever. Key factors in understanding Ebola HF include: Its history, plan of attack, and the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The Ebola virus can, and usually does cause a disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever, which is a Viral hemorrhagic fever. According to the proceedings of the 4th National Symposium on Biosafety, the clinical definition for Viral hemorrhagic fever is as follows. "Viral hemorrhagic fever is an acute infection that begins with fever, myalgia, malaise and progresses to prostration. It shows evidence of vascular dysre ...
    Related: ebola, ebola virus, influenza virus, virus, health care
  • Electrolytes - 609 words
    Electrolytes Electrolytes are liquids that conduct electricity. Most need to be dissolved into water or another solvent. Battery's have an electrolyte in them, either as a liquid or as a paste. Liquid electrolytes are used in electrolysis, electroplating, and other chemical processes. When electrolytes dissolve they release positive and negative ions. The released ions carry electric charges between electrodes, in the solution. Cations (a positively charged ion that migrates to the cathode, a negative electrode) carry positive electric charges toward the cathode. Anions carry negative electric charges toward the anode, positive electrode. Strong electrolytes release many ions and conduct ele ...
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  • Electrolytes - 608 words
    Electrolytes Electrolytes are liquids that conduct electricity. Most need to be dissolved into water or another solvent. Batterys have an electrolyte in them, either as a liquid or as a paste. Liquid electrolytes are used in electrolysis, electroplating, and other chemical processes. When electrolytes dissolve they release positive and negative ions. The released ions carry electric charges between electrodes, in the solution. Cations (a positively charged ion that migrates to the cathode, a negative electrode) carry positive electric charges toward the cathode. Anions carry negative electric charges toward the anode, positive electrode. Strong electrolytes release many ions and conduct elec ...
    Related: electrolyte, transmission, arrangement
  • Epoxy Resins - 318 words
    Epoxy Resins Epoxy resins The group of synthetic resins called epoxies produce the strongest adhesives in current use, as well as plastics and corrosion-resistant coatings. Epoxy adhesives are thermosetting; that is, after initial hardening, they cannot be remelted by heat. They have excellent resistance to solvents and weathering agents, and high electrical and temperature resistance. Their adhesion to almost any type of surface--including metal, ceramic, wood, and fabric--is unmatched. Epoxies are usually made by reacting epichlorohydrin and Bisphenol A to produce a polymer chain of somewhat complex structure. The end of the polymer chain is an epoxy group from epichlorohydrin; the resulti ...
    Related: epoxy, adolf hitler, carlos, slightly
  • Fetal Abuse - 1,408 words
    Fetal Abuse Fetal Abuse When I was a senior in high school one of my classmates was pregnant and abusing cocaine during her whole pregnancy. This upset me so greatly and it still does today when I think about it. I felt angry with the mother, concerned and scared for the child, and I also felt confused about exactly what consequences the mother would face if anyone ever found out. Chapter fourteen in our textbook covers "Fetal Abuse": The Case of Drug-Exposed Infants, so naturally I became very interested on the subject. One of the issues brought up is criminal court response and whether the use of illegal drugs during pregnancy should be prosecuted. This is a controversial issue in our soci ...
    Related: abuse, abuse prevention, alcohol abuse, child abuse, drug abuse, drug and alcohol abuse, fetal
  • In The Early Stages Of The Twentieth Century, Little Was Known About Cell Membranes Until The Early 1950s, The Biological Cel - 414 words
    In the early stages of the twentieth century, little was known about cell membranes. Until the early 1950s, the biological cell membrane was rarely mentioned in scientific literature. It was recognised that something was probably there, but hardly anything about it was known. Considering the lack of technical equipment available a century ago, scientists such as Charles Overton and Edwin Gorter were not only exploring new territory in looking at the properties of cell membranes, but laying the way for future cell biologists. Scientists had to wait another fifty years for the discovery of the electron microscope, let alone seventy years for the advent of freeze fracturing techniques. Nageli a ...
    Related: biological, cell, early stages, twentieth, twentieth century
  • Instruction Manual - 1,142 words
    ... lid and liquid will require the filtration process. The collection of the compound will be usually in a flask or another beaker after the chemical reactions have run their course. Remember: it is important that the experiment is complete before the purification can begin or there would be nothing to purify. Filtration Once the chemical reaction are complete and the experimental procedures are over, the filtration of the crude product can begin. Turn on the water facet and allow the it to produce a vacuum in the hoses and throughout the system. To test if there is a vacuum, the student should place their hand over the funnel and feel for suction. Now the student can slowly begin to pour t ...
    Related: instruction, manual, boiling point, organic chemistry, procedure
  • Interview - 1,928 words
    Interview The Interview For my interview, I interviewed Jennifer Wong, a scientist in the development of analytic chemistry. In her occupation she purifies and analyzes proteins, as well as characterizes the proteins. She works for Panox located at 10301 Stellink Houston, TX 77025. For this company Dr. Wong analyzes proteins in order for her company to market drugs that will later help patients with certain diseases. Right now her company has not yet marketed any products yet, but they are still in the process. To arrange for the interview, I first asked my cousin, Tracy Bui, who is in the biochemistry field, but she referred me to her co-worker who had been working for that company longer. ...
    Related: interview, higher education, high performance, waste management, engineering
  • Introduction - 1,119 words
    Introduction Air pollution is nothing new. Ever since the discovery of fire, less-than-desirable substances have been vented into the air. One of the first air-pollution regulations dates back to the fourteenth century, when King Edward I banned the burning of sea coal in lime kilns. U.S. air-pollution regulations have their roots in British Common Law. But regardless of those efforts, air pollution continues to be a serious local and world-wide problem. Pollution is the pressure within the air of one or more substances that are harmful to human health, welfare, animal or plant life, or property. In the past with air pollution we included mainly the outdoor pollutants, although in recent yea ...
    Related: electric utilities, melting point, boiling point, combine, contributor
  • Maquiladoras And The Naftas Impact - 1,042 words
    Maquiladoras And The NaftaS Impact Introduction In this paper I will discuss the history and practices of the Maquiladora industry. I will discuss its background, its problems, the benefits it offers to United States companies, and the impact the NAFTA has and will have on the industry. In addition, I will make a suggestion on a possible strategy the Maquiladoras can adopt in order to address the challenges brought on by the NAFTA, to ensure it remains a strong force in the future. Background Mexican agricultural workers had been granted temporary work visas allowing them to work in the United States agricultural industries through a program called the Bracero Program until 1965 when this pr ...
    Related: confidential information, running water, mexican border, bond, leather
  • Nike - 1,199 words
    Nike The Nike Foundation, formerly the Nike P.L.A.Y. Foundation, is reflection of the Nike Cultures. Nike is committed to assisting youth to achieve both their personal goals as well as to contribute to the overall betterment of our society. The focus of Nike's resources will be applied to your empowerment, sports, after-school programs, and community and environmental learning to develop skills, build confidence, and to apply critical thinking to solutions to individuals, community and global concerns. Corporate Responsibility Nike's mission for corporate responsibility is to lead in corporate citizenship through programs that reflect caring for the world family of Nike, our teammates, our ...
    Related: nike, blue ribbon, corporate responsibility, white house, olympians
  • Nike Is The Leading Shoe And Athletic Apparel Company In The United States And One Of The Largest In The World In 1993, Nikes - 1,284 words
    Nike is the leading shoe and athletic apparel company in the United States and one of the largest in the world. In 1993, Nikes fiscal revenues were as large as the NBA, NFL, and Major League Baseballs television deals, ticket sales, and paraphernalia sales combined. In addition to their phenomenal sales, Nike has marketed itself so thoroughly that it has literally become a household name. Over 200 of the 324 NBA players wear Nike shoes, with over 80 of them under contract to do so. 275 professional football players and 290 Major League Baseball players join them. Nikes fame however, is not limited to professional sports. Over one half of the NCAA championship basketball teams of the past dec ...
    Related: apparel, athletic, nike, shoe, major league
  • Ozone Depletion Is An Environmental Problem That Many People Do Not Take As Seriously As They Should The Ozone Layer Prot - 1,074 words
    Ozone depletion is an environmental problem that many people do not take as seriously as they should. "The ozone layer protects animal and plant life from the sun's harmful radiation. The depletion of the ozone layer will allow ultraviolet rays to, over time, lead to higher skin cancer rates, eye cataracts, and crop damage." At ground level, ozone, a form of oxygen, is poisonous to humans and other organisms. It causes respiratory problems and damages plants. The greatest concentration of ozone is located in a layer of air called the stratosphere, some 10 to 30 miles above the Earth's surface. About 90% of the Earth's protective ozone layer resides in this level. "The molecule, ozone, is pro ...
    Related: depletion, environmental, environmental problem, environmental protection, environmental protection agency, layer, ozone
  • Ozone Layer Poisoning - 1,109 words
    Ozone Layer Poisoning The poisoning of the Earths ozone layer is increasingly attracting worldwide concern for the global environment and the health effects of life on the Planet Earth. There is not just one particular cause for the ozones depletion; the accumulation of different pollutants into our ozone layer has all added up and equaled a worldwide problem. There is not just one effect from the poisoning of the ozone, but instead multiple ramifications from diseases to death. The damage to the ozone is increasing with every second; moreover, there are many ways we can help reduce the problem and preserve the ozone layer. Ozone is a pale blue gaseous form of oxygen, in chemical form it is ...
    Related: layer, ozone, ozone depletion, ozone layer, poisoning
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