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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: reform

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  • A Critique Of Philosophical Approaches To Criminal Justice Reform - 1,000 words
    A Critique Of Philosophical Approaches To Criminal Justice Reform People are arrested every day in the United States. They are put on probation or sent to jail, and sometimes they are let out on parole; there are millions of people affected. In 1995 alone there were over five million people under some form of correctional supervision, and the number is steadily increasing. The incarceration rate is skyrocketing: the number of prison inmates per 100,000 people has risen from 139 in 1980 to 411 in 1995. This is an immense financial burden on the country. Federal expenditure for correctional institutions alone increased 248% from 1982 to 1992. Obviously something has to be changed in the justic ...
    Related: approaches, criminal, criminal activity, criminal acts, criminal behavior, criminal justice, criminal mind
  • A Critique Of Philosophical Approaches To Criminal Justice Reform - 1,021 words
    ... at our justice system as it is now leaves a lot to be desired, but I believe that the greatest concern is not how to change criminals once they've already been arrested, but how to prevent them from becoming criminals in the first place. My proposition is for society, as well as the government, to turn its attention away from prison reform and focus instead on the issues that lead people to adopt a criminal lifestyle. There are distinct environmental factors that are correlated with criminal behavior. In 1991 a third of all inmates in state prisons had been unemployed prior to their arrest, and of those who had held jobs, one fourth had only part-time jobs. In local jails 36% had been un ...
    Related: approaches, criminal, criminal activity, criminal behavior, criminal justice, critique, justice reform
  • Campaign Finance Reform - 362 words
    Campaign Finance Reform CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM The campaign finance system is corrupted. Spending is out of control, and there are various loopholes in federal campaign finance law. Money buys access and influence, which effectively causes the majority of Americans to have no real capacity to influence public policy. State and federal legislation is needed to fight corruption and unjust influence, to ensure the publics right to know where a candidates money comes from, to enable all candidates to compete equitably in elections, and to allow maximum citizen participation in the political process. Rock the Vote believes that the McCain-Feingold Campaign Finance Reform Bill, in its current sta ...
    Related: campaign, campaign finance, campaign finance reform, finance, reform
  • Chinas Reform - 2,198 words
    ... Sport Obermeyer Sport Obermeyer is a high-end fashion skiwear design and merchandising company headquartered in Aspen, Colorado. Over the years, Sports Obermeyer has developed into a dominant competitor. Sports Obermeyer's estimated sales in 1992 were $32.8 million. The company holds 45% share of children's skiwear and 11% of adult Skiwear market. Sport Obermeyer produces merchandise ranging from: parkas, vests, ski suits, shells, ski pants, turtlenecks, and accessories. These products are sold throughout U.S. department stores in urban areas and ski shops. With increasing demands and rising competition, Sport Obermeyer needs to have and edge on the market. Starting in 1985 with a joint ...
    Related: reform, management approach, over time, united states government, forecasting
  • Educational Reform - 267 words
    Educational Reform American Polling Choice Words: If You Cant Understand Our Poll Questions, Then How Can We Understand Your Answers? Core Issue Richard Morin writes about a problem plaguing polls across the nation. Morin states that many Americans polled do not understand the poll questions, yet they seem to always have an opinion on most questions poised. Supporting Ideas 1) When President Clinton was confronted with questions about his past actions with Monica Lewinsky, he created ambiguity within the questions. He misinterpreted the meaning of sex, and what it entails. 2) To create the most illustrating answers, several questions are asked; the answers should come out the same. This will ...
    Related: educational, educational reform, reform, standard error, monica lewinsky
  • Educational Reform In A Pluralistic Society - 1,117 words
    Educational Reform In A Pluralistic Society My personal philosophy of education is that every child has the right to an education. This education should be such that every student has the equal opportunity to succeed and learn at the highest level they are capable. I believe that the purpose of education is to educate people who are well-rounded individuals. By well-rounded, I am referring to graduates who will be able to apply their education to numerous aspects of life. This includes people who are going to college and people who will be entering the work force directly from high school. Every person should have a wide base of knowledge to draw from and add to throughout their life. This t ...
    Related: democratic society, educational, educational reform, educational system, pluralistic, reform
  • Failure Of Economic Reform In Russia - 254 words
    Failure of Economic Reform in Russia Formerly the preeminent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Russia has been an independent nation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Because of its great size, its natural resources, and its political domination, the Russian Federation played a leading role in the economy of the Soviet Union. In the years preceding the disintegration of the union in 1991, the economy of Russia and the union as a whole was in decline. In 1992, immediately after the separation, the Russian government implemented a series of radical reforms. Price controls were abolished as the beginning of a transition from a centrally controlled economy to ...
    Related: economic growth, economic reform, reform, russia, boris yeltsin
  • Health Care Reform - 1,424 words
    Health Care Reform 9:15 Due to the upcoming presidential election, the two major political parties, and their candidates, have been focusing on the primary problems that the nation will face. Chief among those problems is the future of Medicare, the national health-insurance plan. Medicare was enacted in 1965, under the administration of Lyndon B. Johnson, in order to provide health insurance for retired citizens and the disabled (Ryan). The Medicare program covers most people aged 65 or older, as well as handicapped people who enroll in the program, and consists of two health plans: a hospital insurance plan (part A) and a medical insurance plan (part B) (Marmor 22). Before Medicare, many A ...
    Related: canada health, care reform, care system, financial health, health, health care, health care reform
  • Immigration Reform - 477 words
    Immigration Reform James Fenimore Cooper was born in Burlington, New Jersey on September 15, 1789. He was the eleventh of twelve children born to William and Elizabeth Cooper. When James was one year old the family moved to the frontier, and his father established the settlement of Cooperstown at the head of the Susquehanna River.Cooper attended a private preparatory school at Albany, New York, and was then admitted to Yale in 1803. He was expelled during his junior year because of a prank. His family allowed him to join the navy as a midshipman, but he soon found that more discipline was present in the Navy than at Yale. In 1810 Cooper took a furlough, and never returned to active duty. Coo ...
    Related: immigration, immigration reform, reform, walter scott, american life
  • Labor Union, Launched In 1866, And The Knights Of Labor, Which Reached Its Zenith In The Mid1880s On Their Face, These Reform - 1,510 words
    LABOR UNION, LAUNCHED IN 1866, AND THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR, WHICH REACHED ITS ZENITH IN THE MID-1880S. ON THEIR FACE, THESE REFORM MOVEMENTS MIGHT HAVE SEEMED AT ODDS WITH TRADE UNIONISM, AIMING AS THEY DID AT THE COOPERATIVE COMMONWEALTH RATHER THAN A HIGHER WAGE, APPEALING BROADLY TO ALL PRODUCERS RATHER THAN STRICTLY TO WAGEWORKERS, AND ESCHEWING THE TRADE UNION RELIANCE ON THE STRIKE AND BOYCOTT. BUT CONTEMPORARIES SAW NO CONTRADICTION: TRADE UNIONISM TENDED TO THE WORKERS'' IMMEDIATE NEEDS, LABOR REFORM TO THEIR HIGHER HOPES. THE TWO WERE HELD TO BE STRANDS OF A SINGLE MOVEMENT, ROOTED IN A COMMON WORKING-CLASS CONSTITUENCY AND TO SOME DEGREE SHARING A COMMON LEADERSHIP. BUT EQUALLY IMPORT ...
    Related: knights, labor, labor force, labor movement, labor party, labor union, labor unions
  • Labor Union, Launched In 1866, And The Knights Of Labor, Which Reached Its Zenith In The Mid1880s On Their Face, These Reform - 1,587 words
    ... , BANKER AND ART COLLECTOR. MORGAN HEADED J. P. MORGAN AND COMPANY, THE MOST IMPORTANT FORCE IN AMERICAN FINANCE IN THE QUARTER CENTURY BEFORE WORLD WAR I, A TIME WHEN THE BURGEONING AMERICAN ECONOMY GREW TO BE THE LARGEST AND MOST POWERFUL IN THE WORLD. MORGAN WAS BORN INTO A WEALTHY FAMILY IN HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT. IN 1854, HIS FATHER, JUNIUS SPENCER MORGAN, BECAME A PARTNER OF GEORGE PEABODY'S BANKING HOUSE IN LONDON AND TOOK OVER THE FIRM WHEN PEABODY RETIRED, RENAMING IT J. S. MORGAN AND CO. FROM HIS EARLIEST DAYS MORGAN WAS EXPOSED BOTH TO INTERNATIONAL BANKING AT THE HIGHEST LEVELS AND TO THE IDEA HELD BY PEABODY AND HIS FATHER THAT PERSONAL INTEGRITY WAS INDISPENSABLE TO SUCCESS ...
    Related: knights, labor, labor union, reform, zenith
  • Massachusetts Juvenile Justice Reform A Step In The Wrong Direction - 1,587 words
    Massachusetts Juvenile Justice Reform - A Step in the Wrong Direction THESIS STATEMENT: The Great and General Court of Massachusetts has erred in reforming the juvenile justice system by implementing policies and procedures that will harm juveniles and place society at risk. On July 23, 1995, an intruder brutally attacked and stabbed Janet Downing approximately 100 times in her Somerville home. The revolting Downing murder and ensuing arrest of Edward O'Brien Jr., a 15-year-old juvenile whom prosecutors say committed the heinous crime, sent shockwaves through the state. When Somerville District Court Judge Paul P. Hefferman ruled that the Commonwealth try Mr. O'Brien as a juvenile, those sho ...
    Related: justice reform, justice system, juvenile, juvenile court, juvenile crime, juvenile delinquency, juvenile delinquents
  • Massachusetts Juvenile Justice Reform A Step In The Wrong Direction - 1,552 words
    ... which the founders based the juvenile justice system is that juveniles are different from adults and need different treatment. Throughout its history, the juvenile justice system has strived to uphold this principle by providing benevolent and less formal means than adult courts for dealing with the unique problems of juvenile offenders. For instance, juvenile courts typically subscribed to the philosophy of rehabilitation, rather than punishment, and closed proceedings to the public to protect juveniles from harmful stigma. Massachusetts, in providing for the automatic trial in adult court of juveniles charged with certain crimes, moves away from the traditional benevolent, rehabilitati ...
    Related: justice reform, justice system, juvenile, juvenile court, juvenile delinquents, juvenile justice, juvenile offenders
  • Poland And Czech Reform - 914 words
    Poland And Czech Reform After the fall of communism, several different countries decided that it was time to reform both current economic and political policies. Two countries that have had major economic reforms are Poland and the Czech Republic. However, the process of that change is different, each country had a different idea of how to become a new economic power in the 1990s. In December 1989, the new government, led by members of the labor union Solidarity, launched a reform program designed to transform Poland's economy into a free-market system. Price controls were lifted, while wage controls were imposed. State enterprises were transformed into joint-stock companies, and many were s ...
    Related: czech, czech republic, economic reform, poland, reform
  • Reform And Fundamental Change In The Political - 1,174 words
    Reform and Fundamental Change in the Political Economy and Government of Texas The political economy and government of each state in the United States are different. James W. Lamare discusses Texas politics in his book Texas Politics: Economics, Power and Policy. In the last chapter of the book, Lamar discusses reform and fundamental change in the political economy and government of Texas. In the following paragraphs, I will discuss Lamare's view and give my own opinions of his views. Lamar argues that the economy of Texas is controlled by a relatively small number of corporations. Wealth is socially accepted as a sign of success. Many of the dominant businesses in Texas are economically int ...
    Related: fundamental, political economy, political parties, political power, political system, reform
  • Social Security Reform - 1,108 words
    Social Security Reform A little over 60 years ago the nation struggled through what was, up to then, the most dramatic crisis since the Civil War. The economy was uprooted after the crash of the stock market and the country's financial stability destroyed. One of the many steps taken to alleviate the burden on the American people was that of the passing of Social Security Act of 1935 and its amendments by Congress and the President, Franklin D. Roosevelt. Under the provisions of the Act, the government would take on the responsibility of taxing the income of all working Americans and returning the money through numerous public benefits and programs. Now the nation faces an economic and polit ...
    Related: reform, security benefits, security reform, social insurance, social security
  • Social Security Reform - 1,101 words
    ... uce them or are politically apprehensive. These proposals include, but are not limited to, privatization of social security in stocks, Personal Security Accounts (PSAs), raising taxes - lowering benefits, Cost of Living Adjustments (COLAs), and abolishment of many Social Security benefits. The most controversial and popular proposition offered has been that of privatization of some parts of the social security system. By this approach the government would invest 40% of the Social Security surplus into Wall Street on numerous private and public stocks. This would give Rose 4 the Administration "a $1.3 trillion stake in Corporate America by 2020" (McNamee, How We Should...). This system wo ...
    Related: reform, security benefits, security issues, security reform, social security, welfare reform
  • Societys Restraint To Social Reform - 1,785 words
    Societys Restraint to Social Reform Of the many chatted words in the social reform vocabulary of Canadians today, the term workfare seems to stimulate much debate and emotion. Along with the notions of self-sufficiency, employability enhancement, and work disincentives, it is the concept of workfare that causes the most tension between it's government and business supporters and it's anti-poverty and social justice critics. In actuality, workfare is a contraction of the concept of "working for welfare" which basically refers to the requirement that recipients perform unpaid work as a condition of receiving social assistance. Recent debates on the subject of welfare are far from unique. They ...
    Related: reform, restraint, social assistance, social contract, social justice, social policy, social reform
  • The Military: An Impetus For Social Reform - 991 words
    The Military: An Impetus For Social Reform The Military: An Impetus for Social Reform Revolutionary War The military since the Colonial Era has been an impetus for social reform in the United States. The Revolutionary War afforded Black Americans an opportunity to escape from the toils of slavery and fight for freedom. Some Black Americans even earned their freedom by fighting for the Colonists, but still the freedom they fought for wasn't their own. However, the military was responsible for the freedom of many slaves and some of these freed slaves became legendary soldiers like Salem Poor. His performance in battle gave credibility for future arguments about blacks being allowed to serve. I ...
    Related: impetus, reform, social pressure, social reform, state university
  • The Most Extreme Precursor To The Reform Movement Was A Man By - 956 words
    The most extreme precursor to the Reform movement was a man by the name of Samuel Holdheim. He was born in 1806 in Kempo in the province of Posen. At a young age he studied at a yeshiva and received a Talmudic education. He began to study German and secular subjects after his marriage to a woman with a modern education. After their divorce several years later, he began studying at the University of Prague and Berlin and received a doctorate from the University of Leipzig. Following service in Frankfurt -Am-Oder he became a Landesrabbiner or chief Rabbi of Mecklenberg-Schewerin. In the year 1847 he became the rabbinate of a reform congregation in Berlin . At this point he already disapproved ...
    Related: precursor, reform, reform judaism, education after, religious life
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