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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: proton

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  • A Quantum Computer A Future Technology - 1,415 words
    A Quantum Computer... a future technology Mike Damewood By the strange laws of quantum mechanics, Folger, a senior editor at Discover, notes, an electron, proton, or other subatomic particle is "in more than one place at a time," because individual particles behave like waves, these different places are different states that an atom can exist in simultaneously. Ten years ago, Folger writes, David Deutsch, a physicist at Oxford University, argued that it may be possible to build an extremely powerful computer based on this peculiar reality. In 1994, Peter Shor, a mathematician at AT&T Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, proved that, in theory at least, a full-blown quantum computer could factor ...
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  • Active Transport - 1,302 words
    Active Transport Since the cell membrane is somewhat permeable to sodium ions, simple diffusion would result in a net movement of sodium ions into the cell, until the concentrations on the two sides of the membrane became equal. Sodium actually does diffuse into the cell rather freely, but as fast as it does so, the cell actively pumps it out again, against the concentration difference. The mechanism by which the cell pumps the sodium ions out is called active transport. Active transport requires the expenditure of energy for the work done by the cell in moving molecules against a concentration gradient. Active transport enables a cell to maintain a lower concentration of sodium inside the c ...
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  • Air Pollution - 281 words
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  • Antimatter Introduction Ordinary Matter Has Negatively Charged Electrons Circling A Positively Charged Nuclei Antimatter Has - 1,213 words
    Anti-Matter Introduction Ordinary matter has negatively charged electrons circling a positively charged nuclei. Anti-matter has positively charged electrons - positrons - orbiting a nuclei with a negative charge - anti-protons. Only anti-protons and positrons are able to be produced at this time, but scientists in Switzerland have begun a series of experiments which they believe will lead to the creation of the first anti-matter element -- Anti-Hydrogen. The Research Early scientists often made two mistakes about anti-matter. Some thought it had a negative mass, and would thus feel gravity as a push rather than a pull. If this were so, the antiproton's negative mass/energy would cancel the p ...
    Related: negatively, nuclei, ordinary, positively, black holes
  • Atomic Theory - 703 words
    Atomic Theory Chemistry: A Brief History of Atomic Theory February 28, 1999 In the beginning of the 1800s John Dalton, an English scientist did work some work on gases, which lead him to the creation of a complex system of symbols for all known elements at the time. He took all the information he had collected, along with the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Definite Composition and Multiple Proportions and updated Aristotle's theory of matter with the Atomic Theory of Matter, which stated: - All matter is composed of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms. - Atoms of an element have identical properties. - Atoms of different elements have different properties. - Atoms of two or more elements ...
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  • Atomic Theory - 1,225 words
    Atomic Theory In ancient Greek the word atom meant the smallest indivisible particle that could be conceived. The atom was thought of as indestructible; in fact, the Greek word for atom means not divisible. Knowledge about the size and make up of the atom grew very slowly as scientific theory progressed. What we know/theorize about the atom now began with a core theory devised by Democrotus, a Greek philosopher who proposed that matter consisted of various types of tiny discrete particles and that the properties of matter were determined by the properties of these particles. This core theory was then modified and altered over years by Dalton, Thompson, Rutherford, Bhor, and Chadwick. The ato ...
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  • Aurora Borealis - 1,720 words
    Aurora Borealis AURORA BOREALIS Imagine a cold October night, you walk out to your car and something catches your eye. You step further into the street be it busy or not, and you begin to turn in 360 circles. For what your eyes behold is far from anything you have ever seen. A circle of green and blue swirl through the night sky, I could best describe this as two ballroom dancers doing a Waltz through the night sky. They flow, they glide so gracefully that they capture you and keep you entranced for a very long time. This my first experience viewing the amazing Aurora Borealis, it did not matter that people were watching, or that the roads were iced over and that I could not stand on ...
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  • Bio Outline - 2,398 words
    Bio Outline BIOLOGY 220 OUTLINE SECTION II Text: Essential Cell Biology I. Opening Comments (Chapter 3) A. Life creates order out of disorder through a never-ending series of chemical reactions B. This is Metabolism and the ability to Metabolize C. Most of the chemical reactions required by the cell would not occur at physiological conditions D. Control of these reactions is achieved by specialized protein, ENZYMES. II. Basic Principles of Energy A. Energy - Basics Principles 1. Define Energy - ability to do work 2. Define Work - the ability to change the way matter is arranged 3. Define Kinetic Energy 4. Define Potential energy - energy of position 5. FIRST LAW of THERMODYNAMICS Energy can ...
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  • Biology Molecule - 1,080 words
    Biology Molecule Unit 1 -man is high 50s to 60% water -distribution in body divided into 3 compartments: 1) intracellular - 28 litres 2) intercellular/interstitial fluid - 11 litres - 80% 3) blood plasma - 3 litres - 20% -women contain less water than men -organisms can contain 60-80% water -bacteria have lots of water -fat cells have little -waters properties result from its structure and molecular interactions -water is polar -polar covalent bonds and asymmetrical shape give it opposite charges on opposite sides -electrons spend more time around O giving H a slight positive charge -hydrogen bonds form between the oxygen of one molecule and the hydrogen of another -cohesion: substance being ...
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  • Chemistry Open Book Paper - 913 words
    Chemistry Open Book Paper Atomic spectroscopy is a chemical analysis technique and it is used to identify what elements are in a compound. It uses the idea of a photon being absorbed or emitted whenever an electron changes from one energy level to another. The diagram below shows sodium salt being sprinkled onto a flame and yellow light being emitted. Emission spectra are produced by thin gases in which the atoms do not experience many collisions (because of the low density). The emission of yellow light occurs because the electrons of the sodium salt have been promoted to a higher electronic energy state but have then fallen back down and emitted the energy as an electromagnetic wave, in th ...
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  • Chp 2 Atoms, Molecules And Bonds - 1,100 words
    CHP 2 ATOMS, MOLECULES AND BONDS Define element, atom, compound, molecule, and trace element. ELEMENT: a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions. COMPOUND: a substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio. MOLECULE: two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds TRACE ELEMENTS: those required by an organism in only minute quantities. Give the mass, charge, and location of each sub-atomic particle. NEUTRON: Mass= 1 Dalton or 1.009 grams or 1.7 x 10-24 Charge= neutral Location=Center of the atom PROTON: Mass= 1 Dalton or 1.007 grams or 1.7 x 10-24 Charge= positive Location= Center of the atom ELECTRON: Mass= we ignore the mass o ...
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  • Comets - 1,209 words
    Comets The first written records of comets date back to nearly 3,000 years ago from China and Europe. The accounts of these comets were believed to be the causes of terrible events that occurred afterwards. In more recent times, however, astronomers have found out what they really are. A comet is basically a mixture of ices, from both water and frozen gases, and dust. They have also been given the names dirty snowballs or icy mud balls. The typical comet is less than 10 kilometers across. They spend most of their time frozen solid in the outer parts of our solar system. Comets are composed of five parts: the nucleus, coma, hydrogen cloud, dust tail, and ion tail. The nucleus is pretty solid ...
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  • Cryogenics And The Future - 1,202 words
    Cryogenics And The Future Cryogenics is a study that is of great importance to the human race and has been a major project for engineers for the last 100 years. Cryogenics, which is derived from the Greek word kryos meaning Icy Cold, is the study of matter at low temperatures. However low is not even the right word for the temperatures involved in cryogenics, seeing as the highest temperature dealt with in cryogenics is 100 (C (-148 (F) and the lowest temperature used, is the unattainable temperature -273.15 (C (-459.67 (F). Also, when speaking of cryogenics, the terms Celsius and Fahrenheit are rarely used. Instead scientists use a different temperature measurement scale called the Kelvin ( ...
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  • Diamond - 1,222 words
    ... as it provided a more efficient method for adamantane production. Schleyer was able to increase the output of his adamantane synthesis to a 30% and 40% yield by exposing the tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene to an AlCl3-HCl mixture under 40 atms. of pressure of hydrogen and HF-BF3 catalyst respectively.7 When Schleyer focused his procedure on the retrieval of adamantane, he found that the synthesis was bountiful with the starting reactant dicyclopentadiene which is a common compound.3 Research into the enigmatic compound could then proceeded full force from this point on to examine the compound to its every minute detail. What they found confirmed their previous assertions that adamantane was ...
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  • Electric Cars - 1,506 words
    Electric Cars Electric Cars History: Early electric vehicles may have appeared as early as 1830. Scottish inventor Robert Davidson constructed the world's first prototype electric vehicle in 1837, but historians generally credit J.K. Starley, an English inventor, and Fred M. Kimball of Boston with building the first practical electric cars in 1888. Later in the in the decade, William Morrison of Des Moines, Iowa, constructed his version of the electric vehicle in 1891. His vehicle required 24 storage battery cells, took 10 hours to charge, and could run for 13 hours. It could carry up to 12 people and had a 4-horsepower motor. His car could reach speeds up to 14 miles per hour. Morrison, how ...
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  • Fusion Energy - 860 words
    Fusion Energy A fusion reaction is one in which two atomic nuclei merge to form a heavier nucleus. this is the process that happens in in the stars. In average stars, like the sun, the process of fusion is converting hydrogen nuclei (or protons) into helium nuclei. There is an enormous amount of kinetic energy and gamma rays released in this process that heat the star's interior, and this realease is what maintains it at the extreamly high temperatures (greater than 10 million K) required to continue the fusion. This process has been making the stars go for billions of years has clear potential as a power source on earth. Once we have started the reaction, Fusion requires no energy and reale ...
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  • Georges Charpak - 506 words
    Georges Charpak Georges Charpak, a French citizen, was born on August 1, 1924 in Poland. Charpak's family moved from Poland to Paris when he was seven years old. During World War II Charpak served in the resistance and was imprisoned by Vichy authorities in 1943. In 1944 he was deported to the Nazi concentration camp at Dachau, where he remained until the camp was liberated in 1945. Charpak became a French citizen in 1946. He received a Ph.D. in 1955 from the College de France, Paris, where he worked in the laboratory of Frdric Joliot-Curie. In 1959 he joined the staff of European Laboratory for Particle Physics at CERN in Geneva and in 1984 also became Joliot-Curie professor at the School o ...
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  • Hydrogen - 638 words
    HYDROGEN Hydrogen, symbol H, is reactive, colorless, odorless, and tasteless gaseous element. The atomic number of hydrogen is 1. The element is usually classed in group 1 of the periodic table. Hydrogen was confused with other gases until the a British chemist demonstrated in 1766 that it was evolved by the action of sulfuric acid on metals and also showed at a later date that it was an independent substance that combined with oxygen to form water. The British chemist Joseph Priestley named the gas "inflammable air" in 1781, and the French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier renamed it hydrogen. Like most gaseous elements, hydrogen is diatomic, but it becomes and turns into free atoms at high ...
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  • Hydrogen Bonds Are Extremely Strong Bonds Which Join Molecules Of Relatively Small Mass This Peculiarity Creates The Unique P - 535 words
    Hydrogen bonds are extremely strong bonds which join molecules of relatively small mass. This peculiarity creates the unique properties associated with substances with hydrogen bonding, especially in H20. In most compounds, the polarity of its elements has a negligible effect on the dipole forces which connect them. However, when hydrogen bonds to a small and highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F, the difference in electronegativity between the atoms causes the shared electrons to associate less with the hydrogen. Electrons, which normally orbit about both bonded atoms, are more attracted to the nucleus of the N, O, or F, than to the proton of the hydrogen atom. As a result, the hy ...
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  • Living Thing Biology - 2,286 words
    Living Thing Biology Living things make up the world as we know it. Living things are involved in our life constantly, seeing that we are alive. There are five characteristics that are common to all living things. Living things are made up of one or more cells. Each cell is made up of living matter and is separated by a barrier that encloses the cell from its surroundings. However, there are many different kinds of cells that make up living things. A single cell can be one organism. These organisms are known as unicellular. Most of the organisms that we know best such as people, trees, and dogs are all made up of more than one cell. Organisms made of more than one cell are said to be multice ...
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