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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: protein synthesis

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  • Protein Synthesis - 1,592 words
    Protein Synthesis The process of Protein Synthesis involves many parts of the cell. Unlike other similar productions, this process is very complex and precise and therefore must be done in proper sequence to work effectively. The slightest error during this process could cause the action to experience difficulty or even fail. For example, in the production of starch, glucose molecules are combined to be stored and eventually utilized as usable chemical energy. The cell can break down the starch with little difficulty as if each molecule was identical, even though there is a wide variety of molecules. This is a different case in Protein Synthesis. In Protein Synthesis, there are twenty differ ...
    Related: protein, protein synthesis, synthesis, genetic code, blood cells
  • Aids And Retroviruses - 1,286 words
    ... AP) to a cellular receptor. Receptor molecules can be proteins (glycoproteins), or the sugar residues present on glycoproteins or glycolipids. Some complex viruses, for example, Poxviruses and Herpesviruses may have more than one receptor-binding protein, therefore, there may be alternative routes of uptake into cells. The expression or absence of receptors on the surface of cells largely determines the tropism of most viruses, that is, the type of cell in which they are able to replicate.  Penetration Unlike attachment, viral penetration is an energy-dependent process; that is, the cell must be metabolically active for this to occur. Three mechanisms may be involved:  Tr ...
    Related: aids, genetic code, life cycle, immune system, replication
  • Anabolic Steroids - 1,862 words
    Anabolic Steroids Anabolic Steroid Use in the Olympics Canadian track star Ben Johnson was denied his gold medal in the 1988 Olympics after he tested positive for anabolic steroids. This incident sparked worldwide attention to the extent of anabolic steroid use. To date, the International Olympic Committee has barred the use of seventeen anabolic steroids. Other organizations, including The National Football League, National Collegiate Athletic Associations International Amateur Athletic Federation, and the International Federation of Body Builders have followed suit. Athletes and non-athletes alike are still abusing anabolic steroids to excel in sports. Anabolic steroids belong to a group o ...
    Related: anabolic, anabolic steroids, steroid use, steroids, works cited
  • Anabolic Steroids - 1,099 words
    Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids (steroids for short) are used widely among bodybuilders to increase their testosterone, thus to get stacked or larger. Steroids seem to be a wonderful thing for these bodybuilders, but very few of them know just how they work and what the effects are. History The word "anabolic" portrays any substance, which accumulates nitrogen in muscle protein and from there builds muscle tissue. The bodys natural anabolic steroid is called testosterone, which men (naturally) obtain more of, than women do. Testosterone brings on the development of speed, mass, endurance, definition, and strength. Testosterone is naturally released into the blood stream, goes to differen ...
    Related: anabolic, anabolic steroids, steroid use, steroids, protein synthesis
  • Breast Cancer - 1,598 words
    Breast Cancer Hereditary breast cancer is a disease caused by mutations on breast cancer suppresser genes (ACCV Pg.17). Mutations allow normal cells to divide abnormally (ACCV Pg.13). Resulting cells divide faster as they do not specialize and form useless lumps of cells called malignant tumours (ACCV Pg.13). Genetic Screening is the process where Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) fragments are analyzed for a specific gene. The purpose is to identify individuals carrying disease causing genes so they can change their life style and also help invent a cure (ACCV Pg.20). This is done by amplifying DNA withdrawn from an individual, then specific gene mutations are targeted using the Electrophoresis p ...
    Related: breast, breast cancer, cancer, fact sheet, clinical practice
  • Cancer - 668 words
    Cancer Good morning ladies and gentlemen, my colleagues and I have called you in at such short notice because we need to discuss a patient who was brought to our attention earlier this week. The patient presented with rapidly progressing lymphadenopathy, subsequent examination lymph nodes congested with many small B-lymphocytes. The B-lymphocytes showed a significant chromosomal aberration in the form a 14;18 translocation. The patient has been diagnosed with lymphoma and has been prescribed an immediate course of chemotherapy. This mornings presentation will include a short description of the cell cycle and how and where certain checkpoints of genomic integrity function. My colleagues Assoc ...
    Related: cancer, good morning, protein synthesis, cell division, mutation
  • Cells Of The Human Body - 2,250 words
    Cells Of The Human Body Cells are the basic living units of all plants and animals. The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms. There are a wide variety of cell types, such as nerve, muscle, bone, fat, and blood cells. Each cell type has many characteristics, which are important to the normal function of the body as a whole. One of the important reasons for maintaining hemostasis is to keep the trillions of cells that form the body functioning normally. An averaged size cell is one-fifth the size of the smallest dot you can make on a sheet of paper with a sharp pencil. Although cells may have quite different structures and functions, all cells share some common ch ...
    Related: blood cells, cell division, human body, genetic information, deoxyribonucleic acid dna
  • Cells Of The Human Body - 2,204 words
    ... lum of skeletal muscle stores calcium ions that function in muscle contraction. GOLGI APPARATUS The Golgi apparatus is composed of flattened membranous sacs, containing cisternae, that are stacked on each other like dinner plates. The Golgi apparatus modifies, packages, and distributes proteins and lipids manufactured by the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticula. Proteins produced at the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are surrounded by a vesicle, or little sac, that forms from the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. The vesicle moves to the Golgi apparatus, fuses with the membrane of the Golgi apparatus, and releases the protein into the cisterna of the Golgi apparatus. ...
    Related: blood cells, cell division, human body, white blood cells, health care
  • Creatine Monohydrate - 1,043 words
    Creatine Monohydrate Creatine Monohydrate Creatine is a natural substance found in highest concentration in lean red muscle tissue of animals and humans in the form of creatine phosphate. When muscles are used to lift a weight, or perform any type of work, ATP, (Adenosine Triphosphate) is rapidly broken down to ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) and energy is released. The amount of ATP stored in the muscle will only fuel a maximum effort such as weight lifting for 10 to 15 seconds. After that the muscle must rely on Creatine to restock its supply of ATP. ATP has three phosphate molecules to one molecule of adenosine. Energy is created when one of the phosphate molecules breaks away turning ATP int ...
    Related: creatine, adenosine triphosphate, athletic performance, heart disease, intensity
  • Decubitis Ulcers - 1,134 words
    Decubitis Ulcers Decubitis Ulcers J. Caldwell P.N.S. 1. Decubitis Ulcers are also known as bed sores.(Marsh 1) They are mostly seen in Geriatrics patients. They occur in people who are put on bed rest, or long periods of wheelchair use. A traumatic decubitis ulcer is precipitated by continuous pressure on the skin and deep tissue with ischemic necrosis (Plewig 369). These particular ulcers are mainly found on bony parts of the body. They develop when the cells die because there is a tremendous amount of pressure put on the skin and it is trapped between a mattress or chair and tiny blood vessels collapse. The parts of the body that are affected by these ulcers are the back of the head, ear, ...
    Related: ulcers, skin deep, vital signs, protein synthesis, urine
  • Food - 1,122 words
    ... bsorbed into the muscles faster. Long-term consequences of daily Creatine ingestion, especially in high dosages, are currently unknown. There is a strong possibility that excess Creatine can put stress on the kidneys. Androstenedione is a direct precusor in the biosynthesis to testosterone. Its naturally made in both men and women. And its also found in the tree pollen scotch pine trees. Andro was first isolated in 1935, but it wasnt looked into until the late 50s when scientists determined andro is converted in the body to testosterone. There are two different pathways in the body that can create andro: either from DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) or from a hormone called 17 alpha-hydroxyp ...
    Related: men and women, protein synthesis, immune system, physiology, creatine
  • From The Big Bang To Life On Earth - 1,267 words
    From The Big Bang To Life On Earth From the Big Bang to Life on Earth Should we as humans expect to find intelligent life elsewhere in the Universe? There are many reasons for and against this concept, but first we should trace just how our terrestrial life started. The beginning of time and the universe began with the Big Bang. This was an explosion that started the expansion of the universe. In the most basic sense, the standard model is simply the idea that every bit of the matter and energy in the universe was once compressed to an unimaginable density. In the big bang, the material exploded outward into the formation of matter that we see today. Shortly after this event everything in th ...
    Related: bang, planet earth, carbon dioxide, amino acids, spin
  • Hormones - 1,052 words
    Hormones IntroductionHormones are organic substances that are secreted by plants and animals and that function in the regulation of physiological activities and in maintaining homeostasis. They carry out their functions by evoking responses from specific organs or tissues that are adapted to react to minute quantities of them. The classical view of hormones is that they are transmitted to their targets in the bloodstream after discharge from the glands that secrete them. This mode of discharge (directly into the bloodstream) is called endocrine secretion. The meaning of the term hormone has been extended beyond the original definition of a blood-borne secretion, however, to include similar r ...
    Related: growth hormone, hormones, water balance, reproductive system, react
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome - 1,359 words
    ... oute to healingalternative therapy. Various forms of this type of therapy include the use of herbs, vitamins and minerals, yoga, aromatherapy, meditation, massage and acupuncture. According to the April 2000 issue of GreatLife magazine, Australian researchers treated 116 IBS patients three times a day with the following herbs: Dang Shen, Huo Xiang and Fang Feng. Improvement in these patients was confirmed by gastroenterologists (18). Further herbs used in the management of IBS symptoms include milk thistle, licorice, burdock root, red clover, alfalfa, aloe vera, skullcap, peppermint, valerian root, balm, chamomile, ginger and pau darco. Vitamins and minerals can be used to supplement the ...
    Related: bowel, irritable bowel syndrome, syndrome, nervous system, central nervous
  • Nucleotides - 1,580 words
    Nucleotides The foundation of life as we know it is composed of nucleic acids. Researchers believe that these fundamental building blocks were first formed three billion years ago when the first forms of elementary life began to appear on earth. Nucleic acids have at least two functions. The first of these functions is to serve as a means of passing on hereditary characteristics, and the second is to instruct the cells in the production of specific proteins. Nucleic acids by nature are rather complex and in large numbers, with the help of other types of compounds, create DNA. Nucleotides, often called mononucleotides, are units of repeating nucleic acids. Thusly we know that nucleotides part ...
    Related: nucleotides, genetic code, large numbers, amino acids, precious
  • Parasitic Wasps - 2,778 words
    Parasitic Wasps Malaria is one of the most prevalent and dangerous diseases known to man. It has existed for centuries and affects a myriad of people in the tropical region. Even today, with our newly discovered treatments for many of the tropical diseases, over 10% of the people that are infected with malaria each year and do not receive proper treatment die. In Africa alone, over 1 million children die each year because of malaria and new cases are reported frequently. Malaria is very dangerous and harmful to man. However, the protozoan that causes malaria has existed since man came into being. Fossils of mosquitoes that are 30 million years old contain the vector for malaria. After writte ...
    Related: parasitic, blood cells, national government, united nations, phase
  • Parasitic Wasps - 2,688 words
    ... Malaria Morbidity in Young Children Vitamin A is often deficient in individuals living in malaria endemic areas, is essential for normal immune function, and several studies show it could play a part in potentiating resistance to malaria. Studies have shown that vitamin A deficient rats and mice are more susceptible to malaria than normal animals, and this susceptibility is readily reversed by vitamin A supplementation. Also, a genetic locus, which includes cellular retinol-binding protein, influences malaria mortality and parasitemia in mice. In vitro, addition of free retinol to P.falciparum cultures reduced parasite replication in one study but not in another (Shankar A H, et al 1999 ...
    Related: parasitic, university press, alternative medicine, harper collins, rural
  • Protein For Muscles - 1,518 words
    ... tine may affect performance through one or more of the following mechanisms (Table 2): an increase in concentrations of creatine and phosphocreatine in resting muscle cells; an increased rate of resynthesis of phosphocreatine between bouts of activity; enhanced metabolic efficiency (lower production of lactate, ammonia, and/or hypoxanthine); and enhanced adaptations through higher training loads. Creatine supplementation during training may also promote greater gains in lean body mass (see Body Composition below). Not all studies have reported ergogenic benefit of creatine supplementation (Table 3). In this regard, a number of equally well-controlled studies indicate that creatine supple ...
    Related: muscles, protein, protein synthesis, body mass, side effects
  • Proteins Made From Ribosomes Attached To The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Enter The Lumen Of The Er And Move To The Smooth End - 860 words
    Proteins made from ribosomes attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum enter the lumen of the ER and move to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. A small vacuole (vesicle) pinches off the smooth ER and carries the protein to the Golgi apparatus, where it is further processed. -------------------------------------------------- ----------- Mitochondria are bounded by a double membrane. The inner membrane is folded to form little shelves, called cristae, which project into the matrix, an inner space filled with a gel-like fluid. -------------------------------------------------- ------------ A vacuole is a large membrane-enclosed sac that usually functions as a storage area. Plant vacuoles contain ...
    Related: protein synthesis, rough, smooth, animal cells, toxic substances
  • Sports Info - 1,956 words
    Sports Info supplements range from protein shakes to illegal anabolic steroids. Some sports izzle out, while others still work well but do more damage than good in the long run. In the past athletes had to turn to such things as anabolic steroids or blood doping (the process of taking out blood and adding oxygen to it and putting it back into your body in order to increase a persons endurance). However, these procedures have many drawbacks. Mainly, thCreatine One of the primary things an athlete will do is put supplements into their body. ey are illegal. An athlete may be suspended from playing their perspective sport for using them. They have many long terms and short term side effects. Man ...
    Related: info, performance sports, sports, negative effect, anabolic steroids
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