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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: bacteria

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  • Antibiotic Resistance In Bacteria - 724 words
    Antibiotic Resistance In Bacteria For about 50 years, antibiotics have been the answer to many bacterial infections. Antibiotics are chemical substances that are secreted by living things. Doctors prescribed these medicines to cure many diseases. During World War II, it treated one of the biggest killers during wartime - infected wounds. It was the beginning of the antibiotic era. But just when antibiotics were being mass produced, bacteria started to evolve and became resistant to these medicines. Antibiotic resistance can be the result of different things. One cause of resistance could be drug abuse. There are people who believe that when they get sick, antibiotics are the answer. The more ...
    Related: antibiotic, antibiotic resistance, bacteria, resistance, papua new guinea
  • Bacteria Are Often Maligned As The Causes Of Human And Animal Disease Like This One, Leptospira, Which Causes Serious Disease - 793 words
    Bacteria are often maligned as the causes of human and animal disease (like this one, Leptospira, which causes serious disease in livestock). However, certain bacteria, the actinomycetes, produce antibiotics such as streptomycin and nocardicin; others live symbiotically in the guts of animals (including humans) or elsewhere in their bodies, or on the roots of certain plants, converting nitrogen into a usable form. Bacteria put the tang in yogurt and the sour in sourdough bread; bacteria help to break down dead organic matter; bacteria make up the base of the food web in many environments. Bacteria are of such immense importance because of their extreme flexibility, capacity for rapid growth ...
    Related: bacteria, food poisoning, carbon dioxide, organisms, streptococcus
  • Bacteria Outline - 1,338 words
    Bacteria Outline Bacteria - Oldest, structurally simplest, most abundant forms of life - Only organism with prokaryotic cellular organization - The only members of the kingdom Monera (4800 different kinds) - Characteristics change depending on growth conditions - Maintenance of life depends on them - play vital role of productivity and as decomposers - Capable of fixing atmospheric N for use by other organisms - Used in production and fermentation of various food and as antibiotics and is being tested for insect control - Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes - Multi-cellularity - All bacteria fundamentally single celled - Sometimes cells adhere within a matrix to form filaments - Activities of bacteri ...
    Related: bacteria, outline, food poisoning, flowering plants, acid
  • Bacteria Reproduction - 916 words
    Bacteria Reproduction Bacteria are microscopic singular celled organisms grouped in the prokaryote kingdom. They have a seemingly simple internal structure but that is not so the internal structure of a bacterium is quite complicated . Bacterial growth is generally studied in cell cultures by "visible count" estimation which shows an apparent growth curve. (Stephenson 50) The growth curve shows the stages of bacterial growth within a cell culture. (Thimann 623). Bacteria can survive in a number of different extreme environments from extreme heat to little water. Bacterium have a internal structure that is more complicated than it seems at first. The first part of the bacterium is the plasma ...
    Related: bacteria, reproduction, salt lake, different stages, metal
  • Clover, Growth Rate, Inoculation With Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria In Nitrogen Deficient Conditions - 1,091 words
    Clover, growth rate, inoculation with Nitrogen fixing bacteria in Nitrogen deficient conditions Nitrogen Fixation was proved to increase the growth of clover plants over a ten-week experiment in Nitrogen deficient conditions. The Hypothesis was proved correct with no difficulties encountered. Nitrogen is approximately 78% (volume) of dry air. It is present in the protoplasm of living matter and the compounds contained in Nitrogen (Nitric Acid, Explosives, Cyanides, Fertilisers and Protein) are necessary to the continuation of life. Nitrogen is an essential constituent of Amino Acids that form Protein, which builds protoplasm. Although Nitrogen is about 78% (volume) of dry air this gaseous Ni ...
    Related: bacteria, fixing, growth rate, nitrogen, amino acids
  • Coli Bacteria - 459 words
    E Coli Bacteria For those who follow the rules of good nutrition by eating healthy foods, the rewards can be substantial. But it's also important that you clean and cook your food properly. Because if you don't, certain microorganisms that hitchhike into your stomach can make you feel miserable. E. coli is a bacteria that normally live in the intestines of humans and animals. Although, most strains of this bacteria are harmless, several are known to produce toxins that can cause diarrhea. One particular E. coli strain can cause severe diarrhea and kidney damage E. coli made a notorious appearance at a fast-food restaurant chain about three years ago, sickening hundreds and killing four child ...
    Related: bacteria, coli, fast food, good nutrition, carefully
  • Do Bacteria Effect The Rate Of Oxidation - 205 words
    Do Bacteria Effect The Rate Of Oxidation? Do Bacteria Effect the Rate of Oxidation? Microbiology . Signature of Sponsoring Teacher . Signature of School Administrator Albron Hana 6630 N. Whipple Chicago, IL 60645 Mather High School Grade 10 Acknowledgments During the days that I have been working on my project, I believe that my father should receive a little credit because if it were not for him, I would have been able to get the supplies needed to complete my project. Purpose and Hypothesis The reason I am conducting this experiment is to find out if a bacterium effects the rate of oxidation on metals. If a piece of metal is cleansed before being placed outside, will the rate of oxidation ...
    Related: bacteria, oxidation, high school, school administrator, chicago
  • Human Disease And Their Control Follow Up Questions 1a When People Refer To Pathogens, They Are Talking About Bacteria That C - 1,108 words
    Human Disease and Their Control follow up questions 1a) When people refer to pathogens, they are talking about bacteria that cause disease. 1b)The toxins actually excreted by the pathogens are the main cause of diseases although thetoxins are only by-products of the pathogen's metabolism. 2a)In most cases, the toxins excreted by the pathogens find there way into the circulatory system. Thus, sometimes, the infection is caused somewhere else from where the toxins were excreted. An example of this would be Rheumatic fever. The toxins that ca Yet another example of where the disease is in a different location then where the toxin was released is Dipheria. The pathogen that causes Diptheria is u ...
    Related: bacteria, human body, human disease, refer, blood cells
  • The Determination Of The Presence Of Coliform Bacteria From Selected Sources By Means Of The Most Probable Number Mpn Method - 1,491 words
    The Determination Of The Presence Of Coliform Bacteria From Selected Sources By Means Of The Most Probable Number (Mpn) Method Abstract Coliform bacteria are good indicator organisms for the presence of pathogenic bacteria due to their realtionship with these pathogenic bacteria, their relative ease of determination by simple methods, and by their occurrence in large quantities in human feces. The MPN method used in this experiment is one of the prescribed techniques for the determination of these coliform bacteria from the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater as prescribed by the EPA. It consists of three stages, each of which necessitates a positive result for the p ...
    Related: bacteria, determination, probable, total number, environmental protection
  • The Determination Of The Presence Of Coliform Bacteria From Selected Sources By Means Of The Most Probable Number Mpn Method - 1,449 words
    ... other sources did go through all the stages but did not give positive results for the last stage. Table 1 gives us a summary of the results for each stage of each sample. Stage AS Pond UP Lagoon Tap Water Drinking Water Presumptive Gas present in all tubes Gas present in some tubes Gas present in some tubes Gas present in some tubes Confirmed Reddish colonies found on a MacConkey plate Purple colonies found on an EMB plate No possible coliform bacterial colonies No possible coliform bacterial colonies Completed Gram-negative, endospore-forming, small rods and lactose fermenting bacteria Gram-negative, endospore-forming, small rods and lactose fermenting bacteria N/A N/A Table 1. Results ...
    Related: bacteria, determination, probable, gram negative, water pollution
  • Upon Looking Back At Our Yed Dishes, We Noticed Some Areas Of Bacteria Growing On The Outer Edges Of The Plate As Well As A V - 873 words
    Upon looking back at our YED dishes, we noticed some areas of bacteria growing on the outer edges of the plate as well as a very bad permeated throughout the room. The only signs of cross contamination that we observed happened when the diploid strains out grew their respected cells and began to move onto other cells areas. However, this was no cause for alarm because we had already recorded our observations and no longer needed the plates. Discussion: The process of sexually reproduction between stains of yeast begins with haploid gametes. The gametes code for dominant and recessive traits which on passed on to the next generation. In this lab's case, the R genotype coded for color with a c ...
    Related: bacteria, outer, plate, combine
  • A Introduction - 1,026 words
    A. Introduction During the last twenty years, industrial livestock farms have been replacing the traditional family size farms that once raised most of the nations swine. The number of livestock animals produced in the United States has grown modestly in the past two decades, but the number of farms raising them has slunk dramatically because large producer now dominate the market. The large increase in industry farming has led to large quantities of manure. B. Problem Definition The over abundance of manure has become a problem that leads to problem with Pollution, heated debates between the industries and societies (people of the community), ways to try and find solutions for the pollution ...
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  • A Parasite Is Defined As An Organism That Lives In Or On Another Organism, Called A Host 2 If The Parasite Has The Capacity T - 1,538 words
    A parasite is defined as an organism that lives in or on another organism, called a host (2). If the parasite has the capacity to cause disease in the host then the parasite is called a pathogen. Disease in the host is caused by the infection of the parasite. The interaction between the host and parasite is complex. Both the pathogen and the host strive for survival in some of the cases. The pathogen divides within or on the host in an attempt to keep its species alive while the hosts defense mechanisms simultaneously attempt to eliminate the pathogen. The extent of the battle for survival varies depending on the relationship. This paper discusses the disease state of Chlamydia; how the orga ...
    Related: capacity, host, organism, parasite, upper saddle
  • Acid Rain - 1,289 words
    Acid Rain Pollution comes in various forms. Whether its toxic waste, CFCs, or sewage, they are all hazardous, to the earth. These can deplete the earth and its inhabitants of resources, causing a harmful change. A product of pollution is acid rain. We shall see that acidification is harmful to all forms of life. Acid rain is any form of precipitation that is polluted by sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX). This acid precipitation can be in the form of rain, snow, sleet, fog, or cloud vapors. The acidity of substances dissolved in water are measured by their pH levels. Normal precipitation pH levels fall between 5.0-5.6.2 When levels fall below these numbers, then the precipitati ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, rain, human activity, food supply
  • Acid Rain - 1,774 words
    Acid Rain What is acid rain? Acid rain is the term for pollution caused when sulfur and nitrogen dioxides combine with atmospheric moisture. The term 'acid rain' is slightly misleading, and would be more accurate if deemed 'enhanced acid rain', as rain occurs acidic naturally. Acidity is measured on what is know as the pH scale. Fourteen is the most basic, seven is the most neutral, and zero is the most acidic. Pure rain has a pH level of 7, which is exactly neutral. The acidity of rain is determined by the pH of pure water in reaction with atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, resulting in carbonic acid. These particles partly dissociate to produce hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, rain, electric utilities, major change
  • Acid Rain - 1,829 words
    ... . These particles collect on the leaves of the tree, and studies have shown that when these particles contain acid they can cause damage to the leaves. The leaves are the part of the tree that help make food, hence any damage to the leaves will result in harm to the health of the entire tree. Coniferous trees are vulnerable to the harmful effects of acid rain as well. The tree's needles are designed to nourish the tree after they fall to the ground. Each needle houses whole colonies of microscopic bacteria and algae that help the tree change nitrogen into food at the roots. Acid rain will often burn away this material, thereby reducing adequate food supply, and weakening the tree's healt ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, rain, eastern canada, human health
  • Acid Rain And North America - 1,891 words
    Acid Rain And North America In the past century, one of the greatest threats to North America's aquatic ecosystem has been the widespread acidification of hundreds of thousands of waterways. Acid rain has effected plant and animal life within aquatic ecosystems, as well as microbiologic activity by affecting the rates of decomposition and the accumulation of organic matter. What causes this poisonous rain, and what can be done to improve North America's water quality and prevent future catastrophes? To answer these questions, we must first examine the cause and formation of acid rain, as well as understand ways to decrease or prevent its formation. Formation of acid rain. Acid deposition, mo ...
    Related: acid, acid rain, america, north america, rain
  • Acne - 597 words
    Acne Almost everyone has acne at one time or another in life. Acne is a skin condition that can cause pimples such as, white heads and black heads to appear on the face, chest, back, neck, and shoulders. Most teenagers have acne for about five years, but for others it clears up much faster. Not only teenagers go through acne, but women that did not experience acne during puberty, can also get acne in there twenties and thirties. Women can also get minor acne before there menstrual period. All of us are affected by acne at one point in time or another, and some less than others, but all of us experience it and just have to deal with it because the best remedy for getting rid of acne is time. ...
    Related: acne, peroxide, wash
  • Active Transport - 1,302 words
    Active Transport Since the cell membrane is somewhat permeable to sodium ions, simple diffusion would result in a net movement of sodium ions into the cell, until the concentrations on the two sides of the membrane became equal. Sodium actually does diffuse into the cell rather freely, but as fast as it does so, the cell actively pumps it out again, against the concentration difference. The mechanism by which the cell pumps the sodium ions out is called active transport. Active transport requires the expenditure of energy for the work done by the cell in moving molecules against a concentration gradient. Active transport enables a cell to maintain a lower concentration of sodium inside the c ...
    Related: transport, early stages, carbon dioxide, carried away, chloroplasts
  • Aging Theories - 1,767 words
    ... ter a certain number of divisions, the clock genes are triggered and may produce proteins responsible for cell destruction (Keeton, 1992, 50). Cellular Aging In 1961, a discovery made by Leonard Hayflick showed that normal, diploid cells from such continually Areplaced@ parts of the body as skin, lungs, and bone marrow, divide a limited number of times. Although the cells stop dividing at the point just before DNA synthesis, they do not die. The longer-lived the species, the more divisions the cells undergo. As the age of an individual increases, the number of potential divisions decreases (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 29). This discovery was found using fibroblasts, or cells found in the c ...
    Related: aging, aging process, bone fracture, concise encyclopedia, testosterone
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