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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: pope gregory

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  • Artificial Intelligence - 937 words
    Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence once something that people thought could only come out of science fiction novels and movies. But today that could all change because of a robot called Cog. Cog is an artificial intelligence that its creators have given a body. He is the future of AI and a new beginning for the field. His creator , Rogney Brooks, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science, thought of creating cog, from inspiration from an artificial intelligence that was depicted in the movie, "2001:A Space Odyssey." In the movie, Hal, the AI, controlled a large space craft. Instead of creating a brain in a box like in the movie, Rodney is putting the mind of a h ...
    Related: artificial, artificial intelligence, intelligence, intelligence community, science fiction
  • Birth Of A New Era - 1,903 words
    Birth Of A New Era Despite the problems of the fourteenth century, it marked the beginnings of extraordinary changes in numerous facets of fifteenth century society. This astonishing revolution was coined the Renaissance, which meant "rebirth." The Renaissance led to such literary pioneers as Niccol Machiavelli. His work, The Prince, gave detailed instructions as to what qualities a perfect leader must possess and how to use these qualities. Machiavelli presented a thorough account of a perfect prince and how he achieved and maintained power. Machiavelli's The Prince is a classic literary example of Renaissance writing in the ideas it conveys and how it conveys them. The Renaissance, a time ...
    Related: most effective, main theme, medieval period, personality, leisure
  • Catholic Church And Contraception - 1,451 words
    Catholic Church And Contraception The issue of contraception has been an extremely controversial and debated one in the Catholic Church. The Catholic religion declares that the three requirements for healthy sexual expression include a mutual physical drive for pleasure, intimacy and committed love between the couple, and the openness to procreation and parenting children. This last aspect is the subject of much disagreement between people both inside and outside the church community. The authoritative voice of the church, the Magisterium, holds that artificial contraception is a sin and only accepts the form of contraception called Natural Family Planning. This method involves avoiding sexu ...
    Related: catholic, catholic church, catholic religion, contraception, emergency contraception
  • Christians And Contraception - 1,458 words
    Christians And Contraception Christians and Contraception: Why it is Your Choice, and Why Christianity Was Wrong in the Past INTRODUCTION Contraception History Contraception is defined by Websters II New Riverside Dictionary as the prevention of conception. Its synonym is birth control; defined as the avoidance of unwanted pregnancies by preventing fertilization by the use of contraceptives or continence. It is argued that many forms of birth control are not in fact contraceptives because they do not interrupt the conceptual process, but merely inhibit the survival of the fertilized egg. While we will still frame our discussion in the general category of birth control, the distinctions are ...
    Related: christian tradition, contraception, early christian, roman catholic, pope paul
  • Classical Music - 606 words
    Classical Music Classical Music, popular term for the Western tradition of art music that began in Europe in the Middle Ages and continues today. It includes symphonies, chamber music, opera, and other serious, artistic music. More narrowly, the "classical" style refers to the work of the Viennese classical school, a group of 18th-century composers that includes Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven, which is the epitome of what is called classical music. Choral Music, music sung by a group of people, using two or more singers to perform each musical line. The term part-song is used for vocal music having one singer for each part. Choral music is written for c ...
    Related: african music, chamber music, classical, classical music, classical school, music
  • Controversies Between Church And State - 407 words
    Controversies Between Church And State Controversies Between Church and State During the Middle Ages, church and state leaders had many battles. Some who were involved were Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich IV and Pope Gregory VIII; King II and Archbishop Thomas Becket; King Philip IV and Pope Boniface VIII. Their situations were all related by the fact that they were all controversies between an emperor or king and the Catholic church. The Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich (Henry) IV and Pope Gregory VIIIs struggle was centered on by investiture. Henry invested many bishops at his own will even though Gregory had banned investiture by laity. Henry felt his investiture of bishops was necessary to the co ...
    Related: catholic church, church and state, higher power, pope boniface, gregory
  • Crusades - 1,014 words
    Crusades Crusades were military expeditions planned and carried out by western European Christians. The crusades started around 1095. The purpose of these crusades was to overtake and gain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. The Holy Land was Jerusalem and the Christians believed that gaining control of it was their fate. The pope would gather the people together and incite them. The origin of the crusades was a result of the expanding Turks in the middle east. These Turkish forces invaded Byzantium, a Christian empire. The crusaders were a militia, sent out to recover what they thought was theirs. The first crusades were essentially started by Pope Urban II. On November 27, 1095, he ...
    Related: crusades, first crusade, second crusade, french army, french king
  • England Latin Anglia, Political Division Of The Island Of Great Britain, Constituting, With Wales, The Principal Division Of - 4,616 words
    England (Latin Anglia), political division of the island of Great Britain, constituting, with Wales, the principal division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. England occupies all of the island east of Wales and south of Scotland, another division of the United Kingdom. Established as an independent monarchy many centuries ago, England in time achieved political control over the rest of the island, all the British Isles, and vast sections of the world, becoming the nucleus of one of the greatest empires in history. The capital, largest city, and chief port of England is London, with a population (1991 preliminary) of 6,378,600. It is also the capital of Great Britai ...
    Related: church of england, division, great britain, latin, principal, southern england
  • Frederick Barbarossa - 1,817 words
    Frederick Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa, like other men of his age, was influenced by a growing resurgence of neoclassical sensibilities. It should not therefore be considered surprising that he would have considered himself ruling as Frederick, by the grace of God emperor of the Romans and august forever...(A letter to Otto of Freisling) He like other leaders before and since saw and welcomed the prestige and sense of legitimacy offered by the title of Roman Emperor. To achieve this, kings since the time of Charlamegne had often traveled to Rome in order to be crowned Emperor. The pope as heir to the Church of Constantine provided the symbolic link between the Roman past and the present E ...
    Related: barbarossa, frederick, king richard, holy land, subsequently
  • Historical Content - 1,196 words
    HISTORICAL CONTENT Julian of Norwich lived during the late fourteenth century- early fifteenth century. Many things were happening in Europe at that time. The main thing going on at that time was the Bubonic or Black Plague. The plague spread in waves. It was spread by fleas, which got it from infected ship rats. The plague lasted about one-hundred years. The Bubonic Plague was very influential in the works of art and the way people felt at that time period. Another thing going on was the hundred years war. This was actually lasted one-hundred fifteen years, and was fought between the French and British. During the life of Julian the Avignion Papacy was going on. This was when the popes move ...
    Related: geoffrey chaucer, spend time, english language, religion, wont
  • History Of Music - 1,282 words
    History of Music History of Music It can be argued that the vanguard of development has always been reflected in the arts of a culture. It is the poets, the dreamers and artists who are the architects of the future; the ones who build the world they want to live in, the ones who dream out loud1. Music is an elaborate art form, tempered by the emotions of those who create it and as such the dreams, creations and inventions are partly the products - or at least artifacts - of the world around them. As such, the social, economic and technological changes in society reflect themselves in the arts of the time also. The common question "Does art imitate life, or does life imitate art?" when inspec ...
    Related: christian music, greek history, history, music, music history
  • Medieval Music - 1,247 words
    Medieval Music Music of the Middle Ages made great advancements through the centuries, which many are still evident today. The Christian Church effected the development of music greatly during the middle ages. The first major type of music of this time was chanting. The early Christians inherited the Jewish chants of synagogues.(Bishop-324) Chants didnt have constant rhythm, every note was about the same length. They had only one melody ,usually in the major key of C. All the singers sang the same notes together, this is called monophonic. Chants became an significant part of the church service, they were sung throughout the mass. These first chants were just sung by the congregation, later ...
    Related: folk music, medieval, medieval music, medieval times, music
  • Middle Ages As The Age Of Faith - 1,004 words
    Middle Ages As The Age Of Faith? Is it accurate to refer to the Middle Ages as the Age of Faith? The Middle Ages is often referred to as the Age of Faith and it is correct to do so, as during this period religion dominated all aspects of life from architecture, literature, art and music. The dominant religion during this period was Christianity. The middle ages saw "the emergence ... of Christian literary forms ... a popular religious culture centred around processions, icons, and relics" (George Holmes 42). The crusades were wars fought in the name of God or holy wars. The first of the crusades began in 1095 when Pope Urban the second received an appeal for help from Alexius the first, the ...
    Related: early middle ages, high middle, middle ages, liberal arts, gregorian chant
  • Music In Middle Ages - 332 words
    Music In Middle Ages The middle ages, (450- 1450), after the Roman empire fell this was a time of great change through chaos. The later part of the middle ages brought a period of growth with religious structures and universities. Most of society in the beginning of this era was influenced by the Roman Catholic church. During the middle ages the Roman Catholic churchs official music was the Gregorian chant, named after Pope Gregory I. This music was sung without instruments, set to sacred Latin texts. It was without meter, and a little sense of beat. The sound of this chant resulted in the unfamiliar scale also called, church mode. Music outside the church also greatly attributed to this era ...
    Related: middle ages, music, sacred music, roman catholic, catholic church
  • Supernatural In Middle Ages - 1,428 words
    Supernatural In Middle Ages Supernatural events and miracles are very common in medieval literature. Many of these miracles were used for common purposes, which were to provide examples of an ideal Christian way of life and promote conversion to Christianity. They do this by writing about miracles that punished people who acted improperly, miracles that took place to reward Christians for doing good deeds, showing extreme and persistent faith, or for those who were leading moral lives. Some examples of medieval literature that contain miracles which serve this purpose are Saint Augustines Confessions, MacMullens Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries, HillGarths Christia ...
    Related: early middle ages, middle ages, supernatural, holy trinity, pope gregory
  • The Canterbury Cathedral - 1,630 words
    The Canterbury Cathedral For at least fourteen hundred years the worship of God has been offered on the site of this Cathedral, and through the prayers of the Church his power and grace have shaped human lives. Ever since the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket in the Cathedral in 1170, Canterbury has attracted thousands of pilgrims. This tradition continues to this day, and a large team of Welcomers, Guides, Cathedral Assistants and Chaplains are there to give all visitors a warm welcome. The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Christ Canterbury is a holy place of pilgrimage, founded by St Augustine for the worship of Almighty God and the honour of Christ our Saviour. It is the seat of th ...
    Related: archbishop of canterbury, canterbury, canterbury cathedral, cathedral, the archbishop of canterbury
  • The Crusades - 1,122 words
    ... (6) The Muslims had time to regroup after the Second Crusade, and in 1169, Nur al-Din's forces took Egypt. Saladin took control of the Muslims when Nur al-Din died on May 15, 1174 in Damascus. In 1180 he joined forces with the Anatolian Seljuk sultan, Kilij Arslan II. Saladin stopped the unification of Aleppo and Mosul in 1182, brought Aleppo under his control in 1183, and made a four year truce with the Franks in 1185 after invading Palestine in 1183. Reynald of Chtillon, leader of the Franks, broke the truce when he heard of a rich caravan of unarmed merchants traveling on the east bank of Jordan. In retaliation, Saladin invaded Palestine in 1187. The Franks got their forces together t ...
    Related: crusades, second crusade, holy roman emperor, king richard, ransom
  • The Crusades - 1,122 words
    ... (6) The Muslims had time to regroup after the Second Crusade, and in 1169, Nur al-Din's forces took Egypt. Saladin took control of the Muslims when Nur al-Din died on May 15, 1174 in Damascus. In 1180 he joined forces with the Anatolian Seljuk sultan, Kilij Arslan II. Saladin stopped the unification of Aleppo and Mosul in 1182, brought Aleppo under his control in 1183, and made a four year truce with the Franks in 1185 after invading Palestine in 1183. Reynald of Chtillon, leader of the Franks, broke the truce when he heard of a rich caravan of unarmed merchants traveling on the east bank of Jordan. In retaliation, Saladin invaded Palestine in 1187. The Franks got their forces together t ...
    Related: crusades, second crusade, catholic religion, north africa, history
  • The Crusades - 714 words
    The Crusades The Crusades were just a war waged over power, fear, and interest. The purpose of the Crusades was to recapture the Christian Holy Land from the Muslims, Arabs, and even the Turks. The Crusades were stirred up and sponsored by the papacy. It is the will of G-d, claimed Pope Urban II. His statement was not the only reason as to why the majority of the Christian population decided to engage in war against the nonbelievers. Pope Urban IIs statement seems more like an excuse to make the war seem just and rightful in the name of G-d. The Crusades were expeditions undertaken in fulfillment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Land from Muhammedan tyranny. By the late 11th century, the ...
    Related: crusades, henry iv, pope urban, holy roman emperor, secular
  • The Crusades - 1,122 words
    ... (6) The Muslims had time to regroup after the Second Crusade, and in 1169, Nur al-Din's forces took Egypt. Saladin took control of the Muslims when Nur al-Din died on May 15, 1174 in Damascus. In 1180 he joined forces with the Anatolian Seljuk sultan, Kilij Arslan II. Saladin stopped the unification of Aleppo and Mosul in 1182, brought Aleppo under his control in 1183, and made a four year truce with the Franks in 1185 after invading Palestine in 1183. Reynald of Chtillon, leader of the Franks, broke the truce when he heard of a rich caravan of unarmed merchants traveling on the east bank of Jordan. In retaliation, Saladin invaded Palestine in 1187. The Franks got their forces together t ...
    Related: crusades, second crusade, king louis, southern france, boost
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