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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: polar regions

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  • Air Pollution - 1,493 words
    ... ures have in fact been rising, and the years from 1987 to 1997 were the warmest ten years on record. Most scientists are reluctant to say that global warming has actually begun because climate naturally varies from year to year and decade to decade, and it takes many years of records to be sure of a fundamental change. There is little disagreement, though, that global warming is on its way. Global warming will have different effects in different regions. A warmed world is expected to have more extreme weather, with more rain during wet periods, longer droughts, and more powerful storms. Although the effects of future climate change are unknown, some predict that exaggerated weather condi ...
    Related: air pollution, pollution, pollution control, lung disease, more effective
  • Atmospheric Circulation And More - 688 words
    Atmospheric Circulation and More The global energy balance and atmospheric motion mainly determine the circulation of the earth's atmosphere. There is a hierarchy of motion in atmospheric circulation. Each control can be broken down into smaller controlling factors. The global energy balance is an equal balance of short-wave radiation coming into the atmosphere and long-wave radiation going out of the atmosphere. This is called thermal equilibrium. The earth is at thermal equilibrium; however, there can have a surplus or deficit of energy in parts of the heat budget. If you have a net radiation surplus warm air will rise, and a net radiation deficit will make the air cool an fall. Air gets h ...
    Related: atmospheric, atmospheric circulation, circulation, contributing factor, northern hemisphere
  • Atmospheric Circulation And More The Global Energy Balance And Atmospheric Motion Mainly Determine The Circulation Of The Ear - 688 words
    Atmospheric Circulation and More The global energy balance and atmospheric motion mainly determine the circulation of the earth's atmosphere. There is a hierarchy of motion in atmospheric circulation. Each control can be broken down into smaller controlling factors. The global energy balance is an equal balance of short-wave radiation coming into the atmosphere and long-wave radiation going out of the atmosphere. This is called thermal equilibrium. The earth is at thermal equilibrium; however, there can have a surplus or deficit of energy in parts of the heat budget. If you have a net radiation surplus warm air will rise, and a net radiation deficit will make the air cool an fall. Air gets h ...
    Related: atmospheric, atmospheric circulation, circulation, motion, northern hemisphere
  • Depletion Of The Ozone Layer - 1,052 words
    Depletion of the Ozone Layer Depletion of the Ozone Layer CHEM 151 Research Paper July 11, 1996 The ozone layer diminishes more each year. As the area of polar ozone depletion (commonly called the ozone hole) gets larger, additional ultraviolet rays are allowed to pass through. These rays cause cancer, cataracts, and lowered immunity to diseases.1 What causes the depletion of the ozone layer? In 1970, Crutzen first showed that nitrogen oxides produced by decaying nitrous oxide from soil-borne microbes react catalytically with ozone hastening its depletion. His findings started research on "global biogeochemical cycles" as well as the effects of supersonic transport aircraft that release nitr ...
    Related: depletion, layer, ozone, ozone depletion, ozone hole, ozone layer, stratospheric ozone
  • Gps: The Future Of Navigation And Technology - 1,872 words
    ... on, Charley 12, a Blue Force team member, tracks its own movement as it traverses the ridge lines in search of defending Red Force troops. When the enemy is sighted, Charley 12's onboard GPS receivers trace the sudden swing of the tank's turret as the gunner locks onto the target with a 120-millimeter smoothbore gun. Grant also points out that after the gunner squeezes the trigger, within milliseconds, processing software in Charley 12's instrumentation package verifies -- based on GPS coordinates the gun pointing angle, and the tank's known performance capabilities -- that the enemy tank is within the cross hairs and effective firing range of its main gun. An electronic hit signal notif ...
    Related: navigation, navigation system, technology, public transportation, last year
  • Introduction - 1,018 words
    INTRODUCTION Ecology is the study of living things interacting with its environment, other species, and its own kind. Its a study of all external condition and factors, both biotic ( living ) and a-biotic ( nonliving ), that affect an organism. To carry out this study, scientists observe different ecosystems: forests, deserts, grasslands, oceans, or any kind of interaction between organisms and their surroundings, or with each other, which are called ecosystem effects. There are four components within an ecosystem. The a-biotic component, which determines the types of organisms found there, the producers, the consumers, and the decomposers. These components cause continual change within the ...
    Related: ocean currents, natural resources, global warming, warming, ecosystems
  • Mars - 676 words
    Mars Mars would make a lousy host for the Winter Olympics. Yes, there's the lack of air to consider. But more important, Martian snow turns out to be rock hard. Worse, it is melting away at an alarming rate. In fact, Mars may be in the midst of a period of profound climate change, according to a new study that shows dramatic year-to-year losses of snow at the south pole. It is not yet clear, though, if the evidence of a single year's change represents a trend. But the study provides a surprising new view of the nature of the southern ice cap, said Michael Caplinger of Malin Space Science Systems. It's saying that the permanent cap isn't quite so permanent as we thought, Caplinger said in a t ...
    Related: mars, space science, over time, carbon dioxide, trip
  • Mars - 1,012 words
    ... phere is warmer than in the north. The southern seasonal cap is larger than the northern cap because more carbon dioxide is frozen out in the south than the north because Mars is farthest from the sun, and therefore coldest, in the southern winter. Carbon dioxide may also make up the southern permanent cap. Regions of striped-looking terrain, probably formed of layers of dust and ice, occur at the edges of both polar caps. Climate cycles almost like the ice ages on the earth may have caused this layering. THE ATMOSPHERE OF MARS The atmosphere of Mars is 95 percent carbon dioxide, nearly 3 percent nitrogen, and nearly 2 percent argon with tiny amounts of oxygen, carbon monoxide, water vap ...
    Related: mars, polar regions, international space, navigation system, travel
  • Mars Polar Landing - 647 words
    Mars Polar Landing A momentous occasion has been bestowed upon us. The Mars Polar Lander will try to reach its destination of Mars southern polar ice cap. The Lander was presumed to touch down on Friday December 3, 1999. It was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 17 on January 3, 1999 and hopefully it has finally reached the surfaces of Mars. This mission is worth $327.6 million total for both orbiter and Lander (not including Deep Space 2). Those figures come from $193.1 million for spacecraft development, $91.7 million for launch, and $42.8 million for mission operations. March 1, 2000 is the anticipated end of the Primary Mission. This truly a feat of human ...
    Related: landing, mars, polar, polar regions, first days
  • Over The Past Years Most Individuals Have Become Acutely Aware That The Intensity Of Human And Economic Development Enjoyed O - 2,024 words
    ... e of this relationship and the way it varies have yet to be determined; for now, change in solar irradiance, alias sunspots cycles, remain as enigmatic as ever." Tree ring data has also been helpful in the study of natural climatic change. In addition to the variables just noted, there are researchers who believe that the quantity and quality of solar radiation that reaches the earth is mainly affected by dust and sulphate aerosols, usually concomitant to volcanic eruption. "The dust scatters and partially reflects incoming solar radiation whereas the aerosols act as cloud-condensation nuclei. Both cause reduced temperatures for short-lived periods unless the volcanic eruptions are very ...
    Related: economic development, human beings, human existence, human impact, human life, intensity, past years
  • Ozone Layer Solid Research - 4,719 words
    Ozone Layer Solid Research Subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS How to get this FAQ Copyright Statement General remarks Caveats, Disclaimers, and Contact Information TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. THE STRATOSPHERE 1.1) What is the stratosphere? 1.2) How is the composition of air described? 1.3) How does the composition of the atmosphere change with 2. THE OZONE LAYER 2.1) How is ozone created? 2.2) How much ozone is in the layer, and what is a 2.3) How is ozone distributed in the stratosphere? 2.4) How does the ozone layer work? 2.5) What sorts of natural variations does the ozone layer show? 2.5.a) Regional and Seasonal Variation 2.5.b) Year-to-year variations. 2.6) What are CFC's? 2.7) How do CFC's destroy oz ...
    Related: layer, ozone, ozone depletion, ozone hole, ozone layer, solid, stratospheric ozone
  • Ozone Layer Solid Research - 4,597 words
    ... ne hole is firmly established to be halogen chemistry....There is not a full accounting of the observed downward trend in global ozone . Plausible mechanisms include heterogeneous chemistry on sulfate aerosols [which convert reservoir chlorine to active chlorine - R.P.] and the transport of chemically perturbed polar air to middle latitudes. Although other mechanisms cannot be ruled out, those involving the catalytic destruction of ozone by chlorine and bromine appear to be largely responsible for the ozone loss and are the only ones for which direct evidence exists . (emphases mine - RP) The Executive Summary of the subsequent 1994 scientific assessment (available on the Web at http:/ ...
    Related: layer, national research, ozone, ozone depletion, ozone hole, ozone layer, research council
  • Physical Geology Notes - 2,695 words
    ... ssure melting point (spec. pres =* melt) -low altitudes, meltwater and ice exist together * polar glacier- ice below pressure melting point -where temperatures remain below freezing Where do Glaciers Occur? -glaciers can form at or above the snowline -snowline- lower limit of perennial snow, dependent on local climate -climate-temperature and precipitation -sea level in polar altitudes, mountaintops in the tropics Glacier Ice -a metamorphic rock that consists of interlocking crystals of the mineral ice conversion of snow to glacier ice: 1. melting 2. evaporation 3. freezing 4. deformation under the weight of overlying snow and ice -under pressure grains develop -smaller, rounder, denser ...
    Related: geology, notes, physical characteristics, subduction zone, mississippi river
  • Polar Vs Brown Bear - 1,001 words
    Polar Vs. Brown Bear There are eight different species of bears found throughout the world: the spectacled bear, the Asiatic black bear, the brown bear (including grizzlies), the polar bear, the sun bear, the American black bear, the sloth bear and the giant panda. Even though most people can distinguish a polar bear from a brown bear by the color of the fur, a lot of people fail to identify all the differences among those two species. Both bears can be perceived as large, clumsy and lumbering beasts with heavily built bodies but short legs, necks and tails. Both of them have rounded ears and noticeably small eyes relative to their large body size. While both of the bears belong to same fami ...
    Related: bear, black bear, brown, polar, polar bear, polar regions
  • Winds - 993 words
    Winds Michael Zakrzewski March 31, 1999 Mr. Oshogobor G001 Earth Science Report: Winds There are two general types of winds, local winds and global winds. Local winds blow from any direction and usually cover short distances. Global winds blow from a specific direction and almost always cover longer distances than local winds. Both local winds and global winds are caused by differences in air pressure due to unequal heating of the atmosphere. During the day, the air over a land area is often warmer than the air over a nearby lake or sea. The air is warmer because the land heats up faster than the water. As the warm air over the land rises, the cooler air over the sea moves inland to tale its ...
    Related: northern hemisphere, southern hemisphere, polar regions, overhead, farming
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