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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: philosophical

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  • A Critique Of Philosophical Approaches To Criminal Justice Reform - 1,000 words
    A Critique Of Philosophical Approaches To Criminal Justice Reform People are arrested every day in the United States. They are put on probation or sent to jail, and sometimes they are let out on parole; there are millions of people affected. In 1995 alone there were over five million people under some form of correctional supervision, and the number is steadily increasing. The incarceration rate is skyrocketing: the number of prison inmates per 100,000 people has risen from 139 in 1980 to 411 in 1995. This is an immense financial burden on the country. Federal expenditure for correctional institutions alone increased 248% from 1982 to 1992. Obviously something has to be changed in the justic ...
    Related: approaches, criminal, criminal activity, criminal acts, criminal behavior, criminal justice, criminal mind
  • A Critique Of Philosophical Approaches To Criminal Justice Reform - 1,021 words
    ... at our justice system as it is now leaves a lot to be desired, but I believe that the greatest concern is not how to change criminals once they've already been arrested, but how to prevent them from becoming criminals in the first place. My proposition is for society, as well as the government, to turn its attention away from prison reform and focus instead on the issues that lead people to adopt a criminal lifestyle. There are distinct environmental factors that are correlated with criminal behavior. In 1991 a third of all inmates in state prisons had been unemployed prior to their arrest, and of those who had held jobs, one fourth had only part-time jobs. In local jails 36% had been un ...
    Related: approaches, criminal, criminal activity, criminal behavior, criminal justice, critique, justice reform
  • Cicero, Was Truly A Man Of The State His Writings Also Show Us He Was Equally A Man Of Philosophical Temperament And Affluenc - 1,955 words
    Cicero, was truly a man of the state. His writings also show us he was equally a man of philosophical temperament and affluence. Yet at times these two forces within Cicero clash and contradict with the early stoic teachings. Cicero gradually adopted the stoic lifestyle but not altogether entirely, and this is somewhat due to the fact of what it was like to be a roman of the time. The morals of everyday Rome conflicted with some of the stoic ideals that were set by early stoicism. Thus, Cicero changed the face of stoicism by romanizing it; redefining stoicism into the middle phase. Of Cicero it can be said he possessed a bias towards roman life and doctrine. For Cicero every answer lay withi ...
    Related: ideal state, philosophical, temperament, ideal society, roman society
  • Cicero, Was Truly A Man Of The State His Writings Also Show Us He Was Equally A Man Of Philosophical Temperament And Affluenc - 1,956 words
    ... nd the factors too deeply but rather he relied to mush on the roman historic path as a blueprint. Cicero offered no real comprehensive logic behind his pattern of possible outcomes. Early roman history (tradition) tells of a series of seven kings, and the last, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, was a tyrannical rex. In the first part of Cicero's diagram a monarch is in place, which can only be followed by a tyrant. After Lucius Tarquinius Superbus overthrow the senate and patricians played a decisive role. The rex's position was abolished and two consuls were elected annual ridding Rome of monarchical and tyrannical rule. This brought Rome into the age of a republic, shortly after the senate g ...
    Related: philosophical, roman state, temperament, roman world, political philosophy
  • Confucianism, The Philosophical System Based On The Teaching Of Confucius 551479 Bc, Dominated Chinese Sociopolitical Life Fo - 1,161 words
    Confucianism, the philosophical system based on the teaching of Confucius (551-479 BC), dominated Chinese sociopolitical life for most of Chinese history and largely influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan, and Indochina. The Confucian school functioned as a recruiting ground for government positions, which were filled by those scoring highest on examinations in the Confucian classics. It also blended with popular and imported religions and became the vehicle for articulating Chinese mores to the peasants. The school's doctrines supported political authority using the theory of the mandate of Heaven. It sought to help the rulers maintain domestic order, preserve tradition, and uphold a const ...
    Related: chinese, chinese culture, chinese history, chinese people, confucius, philosophical, sociopolitical
  • Confucianism, The Philosophical System Founded On The Teaching Of Confucius, Who Lived From 551 Bc To 479 Bc, Dominated Chine - 647 words
    Confucianism, the philosophical system founded on the teaching of Confucius, who lived from 551 BC to 479 BC, dominated Chinese sociopolitical life for most of the Chinese history and largely influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan, and Indochina. The Confucian school functioned as a recruiting ground for government positions, which were filled by those scoring highest on examinations in the Confucian classics. It also blended with popular and important religions and became the vehicle for presenting Chinese values to the peasants. The school's doctrine supported political authority using the theory of the mandate of heaven. It sought to help rulers maintain domestic order, preserve traditio ...
    Related: founded, philosophical, acquiring knowledge, standard of living, mandate
  • Consequentialism Is A Philosophical Theory That Offers A Systematic Approach To Reaching Ethical And Moral Conclusions Conseq - 889 words
    Consequentialism is a philosophical theory that offers a systematic approach to reaching ethical and moral conclusions. Consequentialists believe that in making a decision regarding a moral or ethical issue, one must heavily consider the outcome of the action. A moral and good decision would ultimately result in overall net happiness, and in contrast wrong and immoral actions would result in net displeasure or pain. At first, this theory seems logical in terms of weighing the utility actions that lead to promotion of good and happiness. However, closer investigation brings attention to the numerous objections and obvious conflicts with out basic moral intuitions. When adopting the theory of ...
    Related: consequentialism, ethical, ethical issue, moral decision, moral obligation, philosophical, philosophical theory
  • Moral And Philosophical History Of Vegetarianism - 1,994 words
    Moral And Philosophical History Of Vegetarianism Vegetarianism is the theory or practice of living solely on vegetables, fruits, grains and nuts. It is practiced for moral, ascetic or nutritional reasons In Western society today meat in many different forms is readily and economically available, yet the current trend shows a growing number of voluntary vegetarians around the world. In the United States, roughly 3 to 4 percent of the total populations are considered vegetarian. The origins of modern day Vegetarian philosophy and its influences can be traced back nearly three thousand years. . Most vegetarians are people who have understood that to contribute towards a more peaceful society we ...
    Related: history, moral issue, philosophical, vegetarianism, greek philosopher
  • Philosophical Views Are Still Relevant Today - 1,966 words
    Philosophical Views Are Still Relevant Today Ancient Greek Philosophical Views Are Still Relevant Today As a strategy to defeat the invading Persians during the Persian War, the poleis (Greek city-states) of Greece united in order to form one large military force. Following the war, Greece decided to adhere to this idea of unity and form the Delian League in order to protect Greece from Persian domination. However, many of the poleis begin to resent the fact that the polis of Athens held a roll at the top of the League. This tension leads to a war between Athens and Sparta, known as the Peloponnesian War. As a result, writers such as Thucydides, Plato, and Aristotle developed their own views ...
    Related: philosophical, philosophical views, relevant, society today, world today
  • Scarlet Letter Philosophical Issues - 739 words
    Scarlet Letter Philosophical Issues "Wilt thou let me be at peace, if I once tell thee?" asked Hester. In Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter, life is centered around a stiff Puritan society in which one can not indulge in their deepest thoughts. Puritan society does not let human beings show how they really feel. Therefore Hester had to seek refuge to explore her inner thoughts, such as the forest. In the forest Hester brings out many hidden emotions, Hester shows her love for Dimmsdale, and the forest is a place where the both of them may have an open conversation without the constraints of Puritan society. The forest is a symbol of freedom. Nobody ever watched over the forest as a pla ...
    Related: philosophical, scarlet, scarlet letter, the scarlet letter, human beings
  • Buckley Jr - 2,713 words
    1. WM. F. BUCKLEY JR. Last summer WFB was asked by the New York Bar Association to make a statement to the panel of lawyers considering the drug question. He made the following statement: We are speaking of a plague that consumes an estimated $75 billion per year of public money, exacts an estimated $70 billion a year from consumers, is responsible for nearly 50 per cent of the million Americans who are today in jail, occupies an estimated 50 per cent of the trial time of our judiciary, and takes the time of 400,000 policemen--yet a plague for which no cure is at hand, nor in prospect. Perhaps you, ladies and gentlemen of the Bar, will understand it if I chronicle my own itinerary on the sub ...
    Related: buckley, illegal drug, medical care, federal government, princeton
  • 13 Were The Elizabethans More Bloodthirsty Or Tolerant Of - 1,210 words
    ... repulsiveness. His is a Dionysianism so passionately self-serving, so deliberate if not cold-blooded, that, corrosive rather than life-giving like the Dionysian at its best, it turns all not only to destruction but to cheapness, ignominy, pointlessness. -Theodore Weiss, The Breath of Clowns and Kings, 1974 - The great stories of murder are about men who could not have done it but who did. They are not murderers, they are men. And their stories will be better still when they are excellent men; not merely brilliant and admirable, but also, in portions of themselves which we infer rather than see. Richard is never quite human enough. The spectacle over which he presides with his bent back a ...
    Related: romeo and juliet, executive committee, the merchant of venice, artist, coriolanus
  • A Comparison And Analysis Of Hiroshima - 1,156 words
    A Comparison And Analysis Of Hiroshima. This documented discussion will address and include analysis, comparison, stylistic contrast, purposes, personae, and argumentative techniques of Michael Walzer's Hiroshima: An Act of Terrorism and Paul Fussell's Hiroshima: A Soldier's View. Additionally, this author will include specific doctrine by President Harry S. Truman as relates to the content. During his term in office, Harry Truman addressed the Congress and paid homage to Franklin D. Roosevelt and pledged to follow his policies. Truman reaffirmed the allied military policy of unconditional surrender and held out a vision of future peace achieved through the United Nations and through continu ...
    Related: comparison, hiroshima, harry truman, world war ii, philosophy
  • A Comparison Of Coleridge's Rationalism To Wordsworth's Liberalism - 1,720 words
    A Comparison Of Coleridge'S Rationalism To Wordsworth'S Liberalism All friendships grow and nurture each other through time. The friendship between Coleridge and Wordsworth allowed for a special relationship of both criticism and admiration to develop. As their friendship matured, they would play important roles in each other's works, culminating in their joint publication of Lyrical Ballads, which is said to mark the beginning of the Romantic period and be a combination of their best works. Despite their basic differences in poetic styles and philosophical beliefs, they would help each other create numerous works renown for their depth and creativity. Coleridge was a reserved dreamer, a tru ...
    Related: comparison, liberalism, rationalism, young boy, samuel taylor coleridge
  • A Postmodern Age - 1,398 words
    ... t is the idea that areas of existence and culture can be separated from, that is abstracted out of, other areas of existence and culture. In addition, we tend to form social groups that are largely based on abstractions (corporations, nations, economic classes, religious preferences, race (which is really an abstract rather than a physical or biological category or relationship), sexual preferences, etc.). As a result, membership in social groups tends to be unstable and transitory as one can easily move between social groups. This, again, creates a high sense of anxiety and tension; this anxiety results, on the one hand, in attempts within these abstract groups to define and redefine th ...
    Related: postmodern, social life, media images, popular culture, ties
  • A Time In History - 938 words
    A Time In History A Time in History Ive been asked before: What time period in history would you most like to visit and experience the most? And I would have to stop and wonder where exactly I would want to go. I use to have much trouble in answering this question. There are countless events and points of time in history that I would absolutely love to get to see with my own eyes and experience with my own body and mind. However, I now find it rather easier to respond without having to stop and think for so long. Somewhere along thereabouts of the 13th century would definitely be one of my choices now. There are many things I would like to see for myself. For one, the works of art produced d ...
    Related: european history, history, human body, higher level, boccaccio
  • Abortion - 1,294 words
    Abortion There are few issues that can cause as many heated and sometimes, irrational, debates than that of abortion. The issue strikes at the very heart of an individual's religious and philosophical beliefs. Does a woman have the right to terminate a pregnancy? Is it moral to do so in any circumstance? Is a fetus a living human being? The debate has raged for nearly thirty years and there does not seem to be any end to the controversy that often results in violence. Irrational individuals who have committed murder want to make their beliefs heard and followed. In response to the question, some people have resulted to using qualifiers: no, abortion is not moral except if the pregnancy is th ...
    Related: abortion, morality of abortion, population growth, child abuse, candy
  • Abortion - 1,138 words
    Abortion Abortion has been one of the topics of hot debate for the last three decades in our nation. Since the Roe v/s Wade decision in 1973, some Americans feel the need to ponder whether aborting fetuses is a moral action. On the one hand, some people feel that abortion should be legal because a woman has a right to choose whether she wants to continue a pregnancy or not. It's her body. On the other hand, some feel that fetuses have no advocates and deserve a right to live, so it is immoral to abandon their rights and kill them. This issue is not only at the center of political debate, but philosophical debate as well. In this paper, I will examine and critique Mary Anne Warren's On the Mo ...
    Related: abortion, hierarchy of needs, moral status, right to life, personhood
  • Abortion - 2,032 words
    Abortion Abortion in today's society has become very political. You are either pro-choice or pro-life, and there doesn't seem to be a happy medium. As we look at abortion and research its history, should it remain legal in the United States, or should it be outlawed to reduce the ever growing rate of abortion. A choice should continue to exist but the emphasis needs to be placed on education of the parties involved. James C. Mohr takes a good look at abortion in his book Abortion in America. He takes us back in history to the 1800s so we can understand how the practice and legalization of abortion has changed over the year. In the absence of any legislation whatsoever on the subject of abort ...
    Related: abortion, induced abortion, court cases, civil war, affluent
  • Abortion - 1,190 words
    Abortion Almost half of American women have terminated at least one pregnancy, and millions more Americans of both sexes have helped them, as partners, parents, health-care workers, counselors, friends. Collectively, it would seem, Americans have quite a bit of knowledge and experience of abortion. Yet the debate over legal abortion is curiously abstract: we might be discussing brain transplants. Farfetched analogies abound: abortion is like the Holocaust, or slavery; denial of abortion is like forcing a person to spend nine months intravenously hooked up to a medically endangered stranger who happens to be a famous violinist. It sometimes seems that the further abortion is removed from the ...
    Related: abortion, abortion debate, legalizing abortion, nineteenth century, control laws
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