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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: perestroika

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  • Perestroika - 507 words
    Perestroika Emergence of the Modern World Gorbachev and Perestroika In 1985, Soviet leader and Communist Party General Secretary Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced perhaps the most far-reaching plan for his country's economic restructuring. This plan, called Perestroika, was a set of strategies aimed at resolving the gap in scientific and technological development with the West by initiating economic reform in the Soviet Union. The meaning of Perestroika was best defined by the Party Plenum of January 1987: Perestroika is the decisive defeat of the processes of stagnation, the destruction of the braking mechanism, the creation of a reliable and effective mechanism for increasing the pace of the ...
    Related: perestroika, modern world, economic reform, economic development, secretary
  • Communism East Europe - 3,047 words
    Communism East Europe TITLE: Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe? SUBJECT: European Studies B EDUCATION: First year university GRADE: first honour AUTHOR'S COMMENTS: I liked it. Interested to hear other people's comments. TUTOR'S COMMENTS: Well done!! Extremely informative. Well researched. Good Layout. Stress Gorbachev's role more. Communism is like Prohibition - its a good idea but it wont work (Will Rogers, 1927) (1) This essay will give a brief introduction to communism. It will then discuss the various factors which combined to bring about the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe. It will examine each of these factors and evaluate the effect of each. Finally it will attempt ...
    Related: communism, east europe, east germany, eastern europe, western europe
  • Communism East Europe - 3,045 words
    Communism East Europe TITLE: Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe? SUBJECT: European Studies B EDUCATION: First year university GRADE: first honour AUTHOR'S COMMENTS: I liked it. Interested to hear other people's comments. TUTOR'S COMMENTS: Well done!! Extremely informative. Well researched. Good Layout. Stress Gorbachev's role more. Communism is like Prohibition - its a good idea but it wont work (Will Rogers, 1927) (1) This essay will give a brief introduction to communism. It will then discuss the various factors which combined to bring about the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe. It will examine each of these factors and evaluate the effect of each. Finally it will attempt ...
    Related: communism, east europe, east germany, eastern europe, western europe
  • Communism East Europe - 2,955 words
    ... a contributing factor to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe. If a party has not got the support of a majority, then it has a weak political basis. The fact that undemocratic means were used to ensure that the communists came to, and then maintained, power shows that communism was a political failure. Throughout the history of communism in Russia, never once did the party gain a majority support or truly succeed in suppressing public demonstrations of antipathy towards communism. It can therefore be argued that a political leadership with no political basis or support could ever hope to survive. Another important factor to note is communisms utter failure in relation to society a ...
    Related: century europe, communism, east europe, east european, east german, east germany, eastern europe
  • Communism History - 1,338 words
    Communism History Communism has long been heralded in capitalist countries as the root of all evil. However, as with all phobias, this intrinsic fear of communism comes from a lack of knowledge rather than sound reasoning. It is that same fear that gave the world the Cold War and McCarthys Red Scare. The purpose of this paper is neither to support communism over capitalism nor the reverse of that. Rather, it is to inform the reader of communisms migration through time and hopefully assist the regression of such fear. The ideology of communism came out of the minds of two men, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Marxism, 11). (Dueto Marx being the more widely known influence, he will be the one m ...
    Related: communism, history, long history, red scare, long march
  • Eastern Europe From 1970 To 1990 - 356 words
    Eastern Europe - From 1970 to 1990 From 1970 to 1990, Eastern European nations realized they needed a change in their governments as well as economies. Politically, reformers and dissidents wanted to end party-state dictatorships and move towards a pluralist democracy. Economically, centrally planned economies were unsuccessful due to increased bureaucracy, excessive centralization, and debt obligation. Velvet revolutions in Eastern Europe changed countries towards market-oriented economies and pluralist democracies. Countries of the Eastern European bloc had a similar goal in the 1970s and 1980s: to end party-state dictatorships. Under party-state dictatorships, one political party dominate ...
    Related: eastern, eastern europe, eastern european, lech walesa, free elections
  • Economic Transition In Poland Russia - 1,160 words
    ECONOMIC TRANSITION IN POLAND & RUSSIA Since approximately 1988, Poland and the republic of Russia (formerly Soviet Union) have gone through major economic reform. The main emphasis of this paper is to identify the different approaches that the governments in these two countries have taken and to look at the positive and negative effects that these drastic changes have had on their economies. Specifically, the question asked in this paper is, "Why has the economic transition in Poland been more successful than in Russia? We will be looking at what factors are being used to measure this success and what their prospects are for the future. With almost half of the world stayed under the communi ...
    Related: economic growth, economic reform, poland, russia, transition
  • Geopolitics - 1,575 words
    ... barrel infected by one rotten one, the corruption of Greece would infect Iran and all to the east. It would also carry infection to Africa through Asia Minor and Egypt, and to Europe through Italy, France, already threatened by the strongest domestic Communist parties in Western Europe (Acheson, 1969). Presenting "apples in a barrel" is a mark of excessive pride in the American intellectuals of statecraft with the Truman administration. Thus when Truman declares in his speech that it is "necessary only to glance at a map," the map he has in his mind is one where states are equivalent to dominoes about to fall. Only physical proximity is seen as geography and nothing else. The geopolitica ...
    Related: geopolitics, third world, soviet military, military technology, rapid
  • Korean Unification - 1,631 words
    ... promotion of joint ventures might be a signal in the direction of such a reform. South Korea appears to be prepared to extend economic and social cooperation should such a course materialize. Ultimately, both Koreas must have some kind of vision on the kind of country they would like to have after reunification. Gradualism has to be balanced against the risk of reversal. A gradual approach should only be pursued if it is certain that the process cannot be reversed. If there is too much gradualism, the process may equally falter unless there is a critical mass of institutional change, which by itself is difficult to determine. The main task would be to prevent military complications durin ...
    Related: korean, korean peninsula, korean war, north korean, south korean, unification
  • Kyrgyzstan - 761 words
    Kyrgyzstan The collapse of the Soviet Union created 15 new states. These states over the last 5 years have all struggled with economic, ethnic, political and territorial problems left to them by the Soviet empire. Kyrgyzstan, is a former Soviet Republic (FSR) located in the Central Asia. This paper will give a statistical representation of the state, Kyrgyzstan. The statistical data will reflect the basic geography of the subject country containing population, size and location. This miniature report will also contain brief descriptions of current political and economic situations. Included in the current information section of this report, is an outlook for possible near future events conce ...
    Related: collapse of the soviet union, political spectrum, environmental concerns, highlight, floor
  • Soviet Downfall - 2,160 words
    ... tal issues are political and ethical. Gradually, subconsciously, I was approaching an irrevocable step--a wide-ranging public statement on war and peace and other global issues.[10] In 1968 Andrei Dmitriyevich Sakharov took his major step of historical significance--he published Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence and Intellectual Freedom. There he wrote about the crimes of Stalin, denounced the personality cult and asked for the full disclosure of his crimes; warned about ecological catastrophe and the dangers of the arms race and especially, thermonuclear weapons; he argued for convergence, for a rapprochement of the socialist and capitalist systems that could eliminate or su ...
    Related: collapse of the soviet union, downfall, soviet, soviet state, soviet union
  • The Baltics: Nationalities And Other Problems - 4,525 words
    ... moved 2000 government and party people, including the Party chief Kalberzins. The new Party First Secretary, Arvid Pelshe, accused his former associates of deviating from "the right path in carrying out Leninist nationality policy." (42) "..., there was at least one nationalistic demonstration by non russians on a mass scale during this period. It occurred in July, 1960, in Lithuania when Mikhail Suslov, then a member of the Party's Presidium and who, after the war, had directed the pacification of this republic, visted Kaunas. Protests and disturbances broke out, troops were called in, and several youths are reported to have been killed by the soldiers." (43) The purges continued throug ...
    Related: self determination, international affairs, social relations, commissioner, industrialization
  • The Reasons For The Fall Of Socialismcommunism And The Troubles - 1,542 words
    The Reasons for the fall of Socialism/Communism and the Troubles of Starting the New Democratic System in the Russian Federation "Let's not talk about Communism. Communism was just an idea, just pie in the sky." Boris Yeltsin (b. 1931), Russian politician, president. Remark during a visit to the U.S. Quoted in: Independent (London, 13 Sept. 1989). The fall of the Communist regime in the Soviet Union was more than a political event. The powerful bond between economics and politics that was the integral characteristic of the state socialist system created a situation that was unique for the successor states of the Soviet Union. The Communist regime was so ingrain in every aspect of Soviet life ...
    Related: consumer goods, super power, russian federation, china, manufacturing
  • Timeline History Of Russia 15331991 - 1,224 words
    Timeline History of Russia 1533-1991 1533-1584 The Russian Empire, covering over one-sixth of the world, is governed by the sovereignty of Czar Ivan the Terrible. The feudal system oppresses every man, woman and child as the Czar releases "Tax Collectors" to maintain support for the nobles in the land. Brigands and financial extortionists persecute any lower class citizen who refuses to help contribute to the Czar's regime. 1682-1725 Under Czar Peter I (Peter the Great), the Russian Empire begins to flourish with traces of traditional social structure modifications in the country. Observing the radical advances of western civilizations, Peter orders the modernization of the army, creation of ...
    Related: history, russia, timeline, leon trotsky, soviet union
  • Tony Kushner: Angels In America - 970 words
    Tony Kushner: Angels In America Explore how any playwright of the time has successfully dramatised a social issue. Contemporary theatre has stepped further and further away from the sugar-coated happy society plays and musicals that once dominated Broadway and the West End. Now, harsher more realistic stories with issues facing todays society and politics are shocking that conventional-type of theatre. Shock is a part of art. Art thats polite is not much fun (Kushner:Bernstein). One of these stories that have made this kind of impact on modern drama and theatre is Tony Kushners Angels in America. Described as the best American play in forty years, this two part play (Millennium Approaches an ...
    Related: america, tony, federal court, american society, representing
  • Tony Kushner: Angels In America - 1,024 words
    ... ow a nurse, who is friends with Prior and Roys nurse. Roy (described previously) who is in the final stages of AIDS. Louis, a non-committal character, who leaves Prior when the virus takes hold and moves onto a new and healthy lover, Joe, who he too leaves in the end to return to the injured Prior. This variety of characters, like the realistic society they represent, were subject to a type of generic labelling as in the 1980s. Roy has a discussion with his doctor about these labels when it is diagnosed that he has AIDS: Your problem, Henry, is that you are hung up on words, on labels, that you believe they mean what they seem to mean. AIDS. Homosexual. Gay. Lesbian. You think these are ...
    Related: america, tony, boston globe, aids epidemic, dream
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