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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: moral philosophy

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  • Ethics Or Moral Philosophy - 424 words
    Ethics Or Moral Philosophy The field of ethics, also called moral philosophy, involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Metaethics investigates where our ethical principles come from, and what they mean. Metaethical answers to questions are focused on the issues of universal truths, the will of God, the role of reason in ethical judgments, and the meaning of ethical terms themselves. Normative ethics involves a more practical task, which is to arrive at moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct. Idea ...
    Related: applied ethics, ethics, moral obligation, moral philosophy, philosophy
  • Moral Philosophy - 1,069 words
    Moral Philosophy Moral Philosophy 9 - 24 - 00 I. Sam was in trouble when the stock market slide turned into a steep slope. He not only lost most of his millions; he was also exposed as having been engaged in financial practices, which were shady and even dishonest. One evening he was found in his office, a victim of suicide. Those attending his funeral including his wife, children, and his business partners. B) The agent is this specific situation is Sam, due the fact that he acted on committing suicide because he lost millions in the stock market. In this situation the action that occurs is a suicide act by Sam. The patients are this case is everyone who is involved. Sam is affected because ...
    Related: moral issue, moral philosophy, philosophy, business partners, life span
  • Adam Smith - 803 words
    Adam Smith Adam Smith was born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. His exact date of his birth is unknown but he was baptized on June 5, 1723. At the age of fifteen, Smith began attending Glasgow University where he studied moral philosophy. In 1748 he began giving lectures in Edinburgh where he discussed rhetoric and later he began to discuss the economic philosophy of the "simple system of natural liberty" which he later proclaimed in his Inquiry into Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. In 1751, Smith was appointed professor of logic at Glasgow university, transferring in 1752 to the chair of moral philosophy. His lectures covered the field of ethics, rhetoric, jurisprudence and politica ...
    Related: adam, adam smith, smith, moral sentiments, free enterprise
  • Analysis Of The Underlying Social Psychology - 1,161 words
    ... ople rescued others for various reasons. Some were motivated by a sense of morality. Others had a relationship with a particular person or group and thus, felt a sense of obligation. Some were politically driven and were adamantly opposed to Hitler. Other rescuers were involved at work as diplomats, nurses, social workers, and doctors, and thus were conditioned to continue their involvement beyond their professional obligation. This is where cognitive dissonance comes into effect in this instance. These people were raised to help, it was a part of their moral fabric. To go against that learned belief would cause dissonance, therefore, these people had it woven into them to rescue, to hel ...
    Related: psychology, social animal, social psychology, social workers, underlying
  • Bacon, Roger - 442 words
    Bacon, Roger Roger Bacon was an English Scholastic philosopher, scientist and one of the most influential teachers of the 13th century. He was born in Ilchester, Somersetshire in 1214. Roger Bacon was educated at the universities of Oxford and Paris. He remained in Paris after completing his studies and taught for a while at the University of Paris. When he returned to England in about 1251, he entered the religious order of the Franciscans and lived at Oxford. He carried on active studies and did experimental research in alchemy, optics, and astronomy. Bacon was critical of the methods of learning of the times, and in the late 1260s, at the request of Pope Clement IV, he wrote his Opus Maju ...
    Related: roger, roger bacon, franciscan order, experimental research, oxford
  • Business Ethics - 1,729 words
    ... r=s decision. Example 2: Price-fixing-Managers of firms manufacturing paper bags used for packaging foods, coffee, and other goods were fined for getting together and conspiring to fix the prices of those paper bags. When firms are operating in an oligopoly market, it is easy enough for managers to meet secretly and agree to set their prices at artificially high levels. Example 3: Manipulation of Supply-When hardwood manufacturers met periodically in trade associations, they would often agree on output policies that would secure high profits. Firms in an oligopoly industry might agree to limit their production so that prices rise to levels higher that those that would result from free co ...
    Related: business conduct, business ethics, code of ethics, ethics, financial reporting
  • Confucius - 1,260 words
    Confucius The history of Chinese civilization spans thousands of years and encompasses countless ideas, beliefs, and societal and political doctrines. However, from a modern standpoint one distinct perspective prevails above the rest in the manner and degree it has influenced the development of China. For the previous 2,000 years the teachings of Confucius, and the systems of thought and behavior that have evolved from them, have had significant effects on Chinese thought, government institutions, literature and social customs. Confucianism has served a primary role as a social and moral philosophy and as practiced by many, especially in the educated upper classes, Confucianism had definite ...
    Related: confucius, social customs, shang dynasty, chinese civilization, encompassing
  • Egyptian Religous Reforms - 1,377 words
    ... is name to, brought about many religious reforms. Amenhotep IV began a series of reforms to ensure the Pharaoh's status as a living god among the people, as opposed to a simple agent of the sun-god Amen-Re, as the priests of the royal court were beginning to assert a more powerful and independent role. Assisted by the royal family, Amenhotep IV commenced on a series of religious reforms, which would help him regain the power lost to the priests. He worshiped Aten, the radiant god of the sun disk. Why this particular god Aten was chosen may never be known, But Amenhotep IV apparently so inspired by his faith that he wrote The Hymn to the Aten in his praise. At first he tolerated worship o ...
    Related: egyptian, egyptian culture, moral philosophy, religion & politics, nile
  • Elizabethan Drama - 2,729 words
    ... wer to imitate any place. This vacancy - quite literally, this absence of scenery - is the equivalent in the medium of the theater to the secularization of space ... (p. 195) On this basis Marlowe's dramatisation of the history of Tamburlaine is seen by Greenblatt as Tamburlaine's will to power in the occupation of theatrical space. Just as Elizabethan dramatists breezily rewrite historical source materials, so Greenblatt breezily rewrites Tamburlaine in terms which implicitly argue the perspicuity of Deleuze and Guattari: `Tamburlaine is a machine, a desiring machine that produces violence and death.' (p. 195) Hence the terms of Tamburlaine's dynamic occupation of stage space are furthe ...
    Related: drama, elizabethan, elizabethan drama, human life, complete works
  • Explanation And Analysis Of Stoic Philosophy - 1,984 words
    Explanation And Analysis Of Stoic Philosophy Stefano R. Mugnaini Dr. Ralph Gilmore Introduction to Philosophy 26 April 1999 Explanation and Analysis of Stoic Philosophy Stoicism is, without a doubt, one of the most widely misunderstood schools of Philosophy ever established and followed by a wide number of people. The common opinion of Stoic adherents is that they are merely cold, somber individuals dedicated to the idea that happiness is evil, emotion is to be avoided at all costs and pleasure is wicked. Although they do stress control over strong emotions and that pleasure is not the sole end of life, this is a gross misunderstanding of Stoicism. According to Dr. Zeno Breuninger, Stoics be ...
    Related: explanation, moral philosophy, philosophy, stoic, bertrand russell
  • Hume Vs Kant - 1,751 words
    Hume Vs. Kant Hume vs. Kant On the Nature of Morality From the origin of Western philosophical thought, there has been an interest in moral laws. As Hume points out in the Treatise, morality is a subject that interests us above all others (David Hume A Treatise of Human Nature'). Originally, thoughts of how to live were centered on the issue of having the most satisfying life, with virtue governing one's relations to others (J.B. Schneewind 'Modern Moral Philosophy'). However, the view that there is one way to live that is best for everyone and the view that morality is determined by God, came to be questioned, and it is this that led to the emergence of Modern moral philosophy. The moral de ...
    Related: david hume, hume, immanuel kant, kant, categorical imperative
  • Kant - 689 words
    Kant Kant starts off making two distinctions regarding kinds of knowledge, empirical/rational and formal/material. Empirical or experience-based knowledge is compared with rational knowledge, which is independent of experience. This distinction between empirical and rational knowledge rests on a difference in sources of evidence used to support the two different kinds of knowledge. Formal is compared with material knowledge. Formal knowledge has no specific subject matter; it is about the general format of thinking about any subject matter whatsoever. Material knowledge is of a specific subject matter, either nature or freedom. Rational knowledge is metaphysics, of which there are two branch ...
    Related: kant, different kinds, moral obligation, moral philosophy, intrinsic
  • Kants Morality - 712 words
    Kant`s Morality Kant starts off making two distinctions regarding kinds of knowledge, empirical/rational and formal/material. Empirical or experience-based knowledge is contrasted with rational knowledge, which is independent of experience. This distinction between empirical and rational knowledge rests on a difference in sources of evidence used to support the two different kinds of knowledge. Formal is contrasted with material knowledge. Formal knowledge has no specific subject matter; it is about the general structure of thinking about any subject matter whatsoever. Material knowledge is of a specific subject matter, either nature or freedom. Rational knowledge is metaphysics, of which th ...
    Related: morality, subject matter, different kinds, moral obligation, rightness
  • Laissezfaire Economy - 862 words
    Laissez-faire Economy Concept of the Invisible Hand in a Laissez-faire economy "By preferring the support of domestic to that of foreign industry, he intends only his own security; and by directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value, he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of it." Adam Smith, Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations 1776. What business does a government have in commerce and trade? Why would a government want to interfere between two countries benefiting from each other by trade? What right does the government have in two ind ...
    Related: economy, market economy, political economy, government intervention, wealth of nations
  • Machiavelli - 3,073 words
    Machiavelli Biography of Niccolo Machiavelli Niccolo Machiavelli was born in Florence on 3 May 1469 during a time of great political activity in Italy. His first role in political affairs came at the young age of twenty-nine when the ruling regime of Savonrola fell from power in his native city. Though he had no previous administrative background, Machiavelli was appointed to serve as second chancellor of the Florentine Republic under the new government. His nomination to this powerful diplomatic post was in large part due to the powerful influence of the Italian humanists who stressed the need for an education in the humane disciplines of Latin, rhetoric, classical studies, ancient history ...
    Related: machiavelli, niccolo machiavelli, prince machiavelli, the prince, famous book
  • Martin Luther - 1,291 words
    Martin Luther Martin Luther was a German theologian and religious reformer that had a great impact on not only religion but also on politics, economics, education and language. Martin Luther was born in the town of Eisleben, Germany, on November 10, 1483, (Encarta 1). His father Hans Luther, was a worker in the copper mines in Mansfield. His mother was Margaret. Martin grew up in a home where parents prayed faithfully to the saints and taught their children to do the same. His father and mother loved their children dearly, but were also very strict with them. Luther said, my father once whipped me so that I ran away and felt ugly toward him until he was at pains to win me back. My mother onc ...
    Related: luther, martin, martin luther, introductory lectures, young child
  • Martin Luther Protestant Reformation - 1,678 words
    ... received his priesthood. He was then sent to Wittenberg, where he held the professorship of moral philosophy for a year are so before returning to Efurt. Around 1512, Luther fell into a depression. He was plagued by the feeling that he was unable to fulfill God's wishes. But from this depression sprang illumination. Luther began to develop ideas which would eventually become the groundwork for Protestantism. He saw the theory of original sin and redemption for it as a selfish form of idolatry. He cited Paul's Epistle to Rome as showing God to be a beneficent creator filled with love, not condemnation. The forgiveness of sin wasn't a holy ritual which miraculously wiped away a person's si ...
    Related: counter reformation, luther, martin, martin luther, protestant, protestant reformation, reformation
  • Martin Luther Was A German Theologian And Religious Reformer, Who Started The Protestant Reformation, And Whose Vast Influenc - 1,184 words
    Martin Luther was a German theologian and religious reformer, who started the Protestant Reformation, and whose vast influence during his time period made him one of the crucial figures in modern European history. Luther was born in Eisleben on November 10, 1483 and was descended from the peasantry, a fact that he often stressed. Hans Luther, his father, was a copper miner. Luther received a sound primary and secondary education at Mansfeld, Magdeburg, and Eisenach. In 1501, at the age of 17, he enrolled at the University of Erfurt, receiving a bachelor's degree in 1502 and a master's degree in 1505 . He then intended to study law, as his father had wished. In the summer of 1505, he abandone ...
    Related: german, german language, luther, martin, martin luther, protestant, protestant reformation
  • Metaphysics - 1,177 words
    ... le, medical knowledge can produce either illness or health and a hot thing can only produce heat. The reason he gives for this is that a rational potential is a rational account and a rational account necessarily reveals the need of its object as well as its object. A non-rational potential cannot produce or receive contraries since contraries cannot occur in the same thing at once. A rational potentiality can produce contraries only because the contraries are not in a thing. Aristotle notes that a complete potentiality implies a partial potentiality, but that the converse is not generally true. Aristotle says that a potential is "a potentiality to do something, to do it at some time, an ...
    Related: metaphysics, more practical, active life, different ways, necessity
  • Moral Accountability - 1,588 words
    Moral Accountability Morality depends on the ability of an individual to choose between good and evil, thus, entailing freedom of the will and the moral responsibility of the individual for his actions. It is obvious this is so for the individual, but what about groups and governments? Do they have the ability to choose between good and evil, do they have free will and therefore are they subject to the same paradigms of morality as the individual or does an autonomous morality apply. What if we relate this concept of morality to a present day moral dilemma? Such as should the United States government fire cruise missiles at Serbian cities in order to force the government of Serbia to comply ...
    Related: accountability, moral dilemma, moral obligation, moral philosophy, moral responsibility
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