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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: monetary policy

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  • Fed And Monetary Policy - 1,018 words
    Fed And Monetary Policy Justin McVay Period 4 Macroeconomics Term Paper FEDERAL RESERVE AND MONETARY POLICY Monetary policy affects the economic and financial decisions of virtually all of us from workers to borrowers to investors (Rukeyser 105). Louis Rukeyser wrote, If we want monetary policy to play its proper role in a true national economic reconstruction, the authentic task is to get the Fed to stop bouncing like a Chinese Ping-Pong ball, switching every few months between the inflationary effect of pumping far too much money into the economy and cramping, recessionary effect of supplying far to little (Rukeyser 104). And, because the US is the largest economy in the world, its monetar ...
    Related: fiscal policy, monetary, monetary policy, short term, money supply
  • Fed And Monetary Policy - 1,083 words
    ... on of its own while the national economy is prosperous. But the Fed can not concentrate its efforts to expand the weak region for two reasons. First, monetary policy works through credit markets, and since credit markets are linked nationally, the Fed simply has no way to direct stimulus to any particular part of the country that needs help. Second, if the Fed stimulated whenever any state had economic hard times, it would be stimulation much of the time, and this would mean higher inflation. The Fed can not control inflation or unemployment directly; instead, it influences them indirectly, mainly by raising or lowering short-term interest rates. The major tools the Fed uses to affect in ...
    Related: monetary, monetary policy, federal funds, short term, trading
  • Federal Reserve Monetary Policy - 3,287 words
    Federal Reserve Monetary Policy If taxation without representation could rally the colonists against the British Crown in 1776, tight money and ruinous interest rates might be cause for populist revolt in our own day. Federal Reserve monetary policy also has severe social burdens, measured by huge changes in aggregate output, income, and employment. The imperious Fed, much like the English Crown two centuries ago, formulates and carries out its policy directives without democratic input, accountability, or redress. Not only has the Fed's monetary restraint at times deliberately pushed the economy into deep recession, with the attendant loss of millions of jobs, but also its impact on the str ...
    Related: economic policy, federal budget, federal funds, federal government, federal open market, federal open market committee, federal reserve
  • Federal Reserve Monetary Policy - 3,304 words
    ... economists vehemently opposed incomes policy and pushed for classic central bank restraints and eventually full-blown monetarism. Once the central bank earned credibility in the persistent use of conventional monetary restraints, they argued, embedded inflationary expectations would subside and inflation be brought under control. This alternative approach is spelled out in a series of policy analyses published by the American Enterprise Institute under the direction of the late William Fellner (1978, 1979, 1981-82). Under their advice, policy would be aimed at bringing down the growth rate of nominal GNP gradually. Fellner cites Phillip Cagan's econometric analysis on reducing inflation ...
    Related: federal funds, federal reserve, macroeconomic policy, monetary, monetary policy, policy makers, reserve
  • Goals Of The Monetary Policy - 896 words
    Goals Of The Monetary Policy Goals of monetary policy are to promote maximum employment, inflation (stabilizing prices), and economic growth. If economists believe it's possible to achieve all the goals at once, the goals are inconsistent. There are limitations to monetary policy. The term maximum employment means that we should try to hold the unemployment rate as low as possible without pushing it below what economists call the natural rate or the full- employment rate. Pushing unemployment below that level would cause inflation to rise and thereby ruin the other objective--stable prices, economic growth, which is our objectives in the long run. Overall financial stability will lead to a b ...
    Related: economic policy, monetary, monetary policy, policy makers, financial stability
  • Monetary Policy - 2,587 words
    ... r to the recent Asian financial turbulence was a significant contributing factor to this crisis.25 Specifically, several key emerging economies in Asia tied their currencies to the dollar, yet maintained significant trading relationships with Japan. Consequently, a significant appreciation of the dollar relative to the yen impelled these countries to follow the dollar (and U.S. monetary policy), thereby causing their currencies to appreciate against the yen. Consequently, their trade positions with Japan were severely effected just before the currency attacks began, thereby significantly contributing to the financial crises in Asia.26 Other Evidence Evidence on the impact of changes in ...
    Related: federal reserve policy, international monetary, monetary, monetary policy, policy changes, policy implementation, policy research
  • Got Those Opec Blues Again And Rational Exuberance - 738 words
    "Got Those Opec Blues Again" And "Rational Exuberance" "Got those OPEC Blues Again" and "Rational Exuberance" SUMMARY Since March of 1999, when the price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil was at $13 a barrel, we have seen a steady increase in prices in all phases of the economy. OPEC, the organization that is largely responsible for setting production goals in the Middle East, was under fire to find ways to increase prices. OPEC members at this time "pledged to cut back the supply of crude and push oil prices higher." (Business Week, 48) The results were better than most expected: crude oil prices were almost $27 a barrel on November 23, 1999, the highest price since the 1991 Gulf War. (B ...
    Related: blues, opec, rational, monetary policy, business week
  • Analysis On Bulgaria - 4,369 words
    ... rry out economic and other activities to satisfy their interests, by mutual aid and co-operation. A co-operative is a legal entity and is deemed a merchant under the Commerce Act. Co-operative members can only be individuals, at least 7 in number. To participate in a co-operative, foreign person should have permanent residence in Bulgaria. Sole Trader - any capable individual, residing in the country, can register as a sole trader. State Companies - they exist under the forms of one-member private limited or joint-stock companies where the quotas/shares are solely owned by the State. These forms of business are established to facilitate the process of privatization of the state companies ...
    Related: bulgaria, special forces, living standards, political parties, branch
  • Banking Commission - 1,178 words
    Banking Commission "More than 70% of commercial bank assets are held by organizations that are supervised by at least two federal agencies; almost half attract the attention of three or four. Banks devote on average about 14% of their non-interest expense to complying with rules" (Anonymous 88). A fool can see that government waste has struck again. This tangled mess of regulation, among other things, increases costs and diffuses accountability for policy actions gone awry. The most effective remedy to correct this problem would be to consolidate most of the supervisory responsibilities of the regulatory agencies into one agency. This would reduce costs to both the government and the banks, ...
    Related: banking, banking system, commission, most effective, federal reserve bank
  • Brazilian Economy - 1,055 words
    Brazilian Economy An Economy Recovering From Chaos. Brazil earned the reputation of being a "miracle economy" in the late 1960s when double-digit annual growth rates were recorded and the structure of the economy underwent rapid change. Since 1981, however, Brazils economic performance has been poor in comparison to its potential. The countrys dramatic reduction in output growth, which averaged an annual GDP growth of only 1.5 percent over 1980-93, reflected its inability to respond to the events of the late 1970s and 1980s. Some events that took place during this period were: the oil shock, increases in real interest rates, the debt crisis, and the resulting cutoff of foreign credit and for ...
    Related: brazilian, brazilian economy, economy, gross national, income distribution
  • Britain Return To Gold In 1925 - 1,429 words
    Britain Return to Gold in 1925 Economic History The Gold Standard, like the Exchange Rate Mechanism, ensures stable exchanges and economic discipline. Why, then, was there so many criticism of the return to gold in 1925? In March 1919, the large trade deficit and low level of gold reserves resulted in formal abandonment of the gold stand by the UK. On Apr. 28, 1925, Churchill announced in his Budget speech that there would be an immediate return to gold at pre-1913 parity. Reddaway (Lloyds Bank Review, 1970) expresses in his article that returning to gold at $4.76 was a failure of the committee that they had not done enough research and had not have enough consideration and look at other cou ...
    Related: britain, gold standard, balance sheet, monetary policy, consideration
  • Chinas Economics - 2,814 words
    Chinas Economics For various reasons, China has always been an important country in the world. With its increasing large population, it was determined by other countries that is has a lot of economic potentials. In just one decade and a half, China has transformed itself from a giant that use to live in poverty into a wealthy powerhouse to the world economy. With one-fifth of the worlds population, China is now producing 4% of world merchandise and a proportion of global production. It has also one of the worlds oldest and most influential civilizations. China has established three approaches to the world economy and they are establishing an alternative socialist system (1950s); isolating it ...
    Related: economic activity, economic freedom, economic growth, economic outlook, economic reform, economic stability, economic system
  • Choate, P 1986 The Highflex Society New York: Alfred A Knopf - 2,281 words
    ... Kortez, 1997, P.32). The United States has fought each type of fought unemployment differently. There are several steps that can be taken to achieve low unemployment once again. These steps are also known as the fiscal point and the monetary policy. Fiscal point occurs when taxing and spending are used to regulate economic activity. In turn, this creates the economy to surge and forces the economy into an expansion phase. On the other hand, monetary policies include government policies that have had a great effect on the interest rates. This also affects the quantity of the money within circulation. According to the SIRS Researcher, "Some people believe the government must become the emp ...
    Related: alfred, small business, structural unemployment, economic activity, promoting
  • European Union - 926 words
    European Union The managed exchange rate system deals with trade rate between countries. Managed rates assume that one country sets the monetary policy, takes the exchange rate that is given, and assumes the other country will go along with that rate. The other country then tries to reduce inflation by setting their own exchange rate. The managed exchange rate system slows down exchange-rate movement through the foreign trade market intervention. The whole purpose behind the European Union is to maintain peace between the European counties, and to integrate them. The founding gentlemen of the EMS wanted to restore the integration of the European Communities. In 1949, the Council of Europe wa ...
    Related: european central, european central bank, european coal, european currency, european economic, european monetary, european monetary union
  • Federal Reserve And The Economic Bubble - 923 words
    Federal Reserve And The Economic Bubble On Tuesday, November 16, 1999, the Federal Reserve Board will decide whether or not to tighten monetary policy at the Federal Open Market Committee meeting. Throughout the year the Fed has been somewhat hesitant to raise rates, which could slow the economy. While raising the Federal Funds and Discount Rates could, in the long run, lead to higher interest rates, many people worry that the potential for an overheated economy is high, and there is little risk from too slow growth. Overheating in the economy, popularly known as the economic bubble, could reverse the current decline in inflation. Therefore, action should be taken to prevent such a thing fro ...
    Related: bubble, bureau of economic analysis, economic analysis, economic outlook, federal funds, federal open market, federal open market committee
  • Federal Reserve System - 1,350 words
    Federal Reserve System Why do a report on the Federal Reserve System? This is a question I went over in my head while making a decision on the type of report to do, and what I wanted to learn more about and why. Over the past few years I have realized the impact that the Federal Government has on our economy, yet I never knew enough about the subject to understand why. While taking this Economics course it has brought so many things to my attention, especially since I see inflation, gas prices, and interest rates on the rise. It has given me a better understanding of the affect of the Government on the economy, the stock market, the interest rates, etc. Since the Federal Government has such ...
    Related: federal deposit insurance, federal deposit insurance corporation, federal government, federal open market, federal open market committee, federal reserve, federal reserve bank
  • Federal Reserve System - 1,361 words
    ... banking system. A major component of the System is the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), which is made up of the Board of Governors, the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and presidents of four other Federal Reserve Banks, who serve on a rotating basis, The FOMC oversees open market operations, which is the main tool used by the Federal Reserve to influence money market conditions and the growth of money and credit. Two other groups play roles in the way the Federal Reserve System works; depository institutions, through which the tools of monetary policy operate, and advisory committees, which make recommendations to the Board of Governors and to the Reserve Bans re ...
    Related: banking system, federal deposit insurance, federal deposit insurance corporation, federal funds, federal government, federal open market, federal open market committee
  • Financial Regulation In The Uk And Ireland - 974 words
    Financial Regulation In The Uk And Ireland There has been considerable changes in the regulation of financial markets in the UK and other countries. Why is this? Financial markets tend to be more highly regulated than other markets. Explain why. In May 1997, the British Chancellor of the Exchequer made the decision to move the responsibility of supervision of financial institutions into the hands of a new regulatory authority, the Financial Services Authority (FSA). This new authority replaced the Securities and Investments Board and took over responsibility for the supervision of banks, listed money market institutions and clearing houses from the Bank of England. (Blake, 1999). Overall res ...
    Related: financial market, financial services, financial services industry, financial system, financial times, government regulation, ireland
  • Gdp - 1,844 words
    Gdp The current state of the economy in the United States has been slow in recent months. While the economy is not currently in a recession, we may eventually fall victim to the first recession we've had in nearly ten years. The economy in general is showing growth, just not much. It will be difficult to predict what exactly will happen to the US economy in the future. Many economists do not agree on what will become of the economy. Some feel that we will begin a recession over the next year, and some feel that there is significant policy implementation that will allow us to dodge a recession and regain our economic strength. There are many factors that make up the US economy. The means in w ...
    Related: domestic product, alan greenspan, foreign exchange, downward
  • Germany Analysis - 1,050 words
    Germany Analysis INDUSTRY IN GERMANY Country Issues Country issues related to Germany are addressed in four contexts. The areas of consideration are (1) cultural, social, and demographic trends and concerns, (2) political/governmental concerns, (3) exchange rate issues, and (4) macroeconomic issues. Cultural, Social, and Demographic Trends and Concerns Germany is the slightly larger then the combined size of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. (137,691 square miles.) Germany is a nation of 81.5 million people (Hunter, 1997). The rate of population growth in Germany approximates one-percent per year. The head of the government is Chancellor Gerhard Schroder (elected on October 27,1998). The off ...
    Related: east germany, germany, west germany, federal government, catholic christianity
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