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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: market economy

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  • Chinese Way To Market Economy - 824 words
    Chinese Way To Market Economy Introduction Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented economy but still within a rigid political framework of Communist Party control. To this end the authorities switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978 (C ...
    Related: chinese, chinese government, economy, market, market economy
  • Market Economy Vs Command Economy - 1,272 words
    Market Economy Vs. Command Economy Intorduction: Within the overall umbrella of the word economy, one speaks today of the market economy, the formal economy, the informal economy, the underground economy, the productive economy and perhaps even the reproductive economy, the post-industrial or post-modern economy and the global economy. Thus while the concept of an economy is not fixed but arbitrary, and may have strayed rather far from the management of household resources, it is nonetheless spoken of in official circles as if there were genuine agreement (sometimes almost as if it were tangible, as we must get the economy back on track). The official economic paradigm operative in Canada is ...
    Related: command, command economy, economy, global economy, market, market economy, underground economy
  • Market Economy Vs Command Economy - 1,216 words
    ... moderately each year and safely meet, but not noticeably exceed, their assigned production assignments: In other words, they ratcheted up production one notch each year. (Dyker, 1992, P26) In a similar fashion, centrally assigned production goals discouraged Soviet management from developing or employing technological innovations. (Dyker, 1992, P29) The excessive emphasis on central planning discouraged both managerial and technological innovation, as a consequence of this emphasis on steady mediocrity, and an excessive emphasis on centrally assigned production goals, a style of management that encouraged complacency and consistency at the expense of productivity and innovation developed ...
    Related: command, command economy, economy, free market, market, market economy
  • Ad And Ego - 422 words
    Ad And Ego The Ad and the Ego Students will never look at an ad the same way again after screening The Ad and the Ego, the first comprehensive examination of advertising and our culture of consumption. The film artfully intercuts clips from hundreds of familiar television ads with insights from Stuart Ewen, Jean Kilbourne, Richard Pollay, Sut Jhally, Bernard McGrane and other noted critics, performing a cultural psychoanalysis of late 20th century America and its principal inhabitants, Consumer Man and Woman. The Ad and the Ego depicts how the market economy has metastasized until today commercialism invades the most intimate aspects of our lives. The average American is exposed to 1500 ads ...
    Related: individual psychology, political beliefs, environmental degradation, market
  • Albania - 1,470 words
    Albania Introduction Today, Albania is a real mess. What is currently occurring in the region complicates the situation even further. I'm not sure what Albania should do for the next ten days, let alone ten years. But, I will try to discuss economics and resources. Second, past and current military and diplomatic policy. Finally, I want to tie all of this to the idea of adopting the policies and philosophies of the Western democracies. Only through the aid, encouragement and protection of the West, can Albania hope to make progress for itself and it's citizens. Economics Albania is the poorest country in Europe. Years of dependence on the Soviet Union and China, followed by virtually complet ...
    Related: albania, greek orthodox, first year, strategic importance, geographic
  • An Alternate China - 1,200 words
    An Alternate China History 315 AN ALTERNATE CHINA The obituaries that marked Deng Xiaoping's death on February 19, 1999 were extremely outspoken in their praise of the economic reforms he had unleashed on China. However, while getting rich has been glorious for many Chinese, a much larger number, although enjoying some of the reform's benefits live a less capital existence. We must start back a few years for a proper analysis. On June 4, 1989, there was a massacre that took place in Tinanmen Square in Beijing. It was a military suppression of students and others of a democracy movement. This happened under the Deng regime. Many foreign observers were in agreement that dire economic consequen ...
    Related: alternate, china, public welfare, gross domestic product gdp, capita
  • Analysis On Bulgaria - 4,272 words
    Analysis On Bulgaria External historical events often changed Bulgaria's national boundaries in its first century of existence, natural terrain features defined most boundaries after 1944, and no significant group of people suffered serious economic hardship because of border delineation. Postwar Bulgaria contained a large percentage of the ethnic Bulgarian people, although numerous migrations into and out of Bulgaria occurred at various times. None of the country's borders was officially disputed in 1991, although nationalist Bulgarians continued to claim that Bulgaria's share of Macedonia--which it shared with both Yugoslavia and Greece--was less than just because of the ethnic connection ...
    Related: bulgaria, district court, separation of church and state, public transportation, music
  • Analysis On Bulgaria - 4,369 words
    ... rry out economic and other activities to satisfy their interests, by mutual aid and co-operation. A co-operative is a legal entity and is deemed a merchant under the Commerce Act. Co-operative members can only be individuals, at least 7 in number. To participate in a co-operative, foreign person should have permanent residence in Bulgaria. Sole Trader - any capable individual, residing in the country, can register as a sole trader. State Companies - they exist under the forms of one-member private limited or joint-stock companies where the quotas/shares are solely owned by the State. These forms of business are established to facilitate the process of privatization of the state companies ...
    Related: bulgaria, special forces, living standards, political parties, branch
  • Antebellum Periods And Reforms - 1,429 words
    Antebellum Periods And Reforms The Ante-bellum Period and The Reforms The overwhelming number of reforms in the ante-bellum period was a result the rapid change that was occurring around the country. These changes were seen in economics, politics and society. Americans reacted in a nationwide panic which created doubts of the goodness of the changes America was going through. The institution and then rise of the market economy and the Second Great Awakening had the greatest effect on America. The effect of these two things brought on many reforms by many different people in various aspects of America. Market economy had a significant change in all politics, economics, and society. The market ...
    Related: antebellum, rapid change, civil government, great awakening, panic
  • Anthropology Of Capitalism - 393 words
    Anthropology Of Capitalism For the past six hundred years a culture and a society, dedicated for the most part to development and trade as the ultimate source of well being, began to expand all over the world. In a great number of ways this development, capitalism, became the most successful culture and society the world has ever seen. Capitalism ascended as a successful social means. It was successful as it provided a more effective means of creating a surplus. This was an important feature for mankind. It proved to be an easier and more cost effective means of creating a surplus. Capitalism also allowed for the world system to function with their own states. This system of functioning enco ...
    Related: anthropology, capitalism, cultural anthropology, social classes, more effective
  • Capitalism - 1,003 words
    Capitalism The free market economy is a system devised to resolve the basic economic problem (resources having to be allocated to many competing users that have infinite wants) through the market mechanism. The centrally planned economy is an economic system where government go through detailed planning procedures to allocate resources in society. The Free Market Economy: The government provides public goods and services, but in order to pay for these the government need to raise some funds this is done through taxation. The government is also responsible for the issuing of money, its value and keeping stable prices. The government are also responsible for free goods (a good or service avail ...
    Related: capitalism, private property, planning process, government spending, actors
  • Capitalism Vs Socialism - 1,084 words
    Capitalism Vs. Socialism In order to debate between Capitalism and Socialism, it is necessary to understand what the differences, advantages, and disadvantages are of both systems. Basically, Capitalism advocates private property, and that society does better when an individual can purchase and produce as they see fit. Socialism, in essence, is the theory that property ownership should reside in the hands of the government, and that the government can do more with the assets than individuals can. The difference between Capitalism and Socialism can be summed up by their definitions. They are based upon completely opposite philosophies. Capitalism is a political and economic system in which fa ...
    Related: capitalism, socialism, free market economy, health care, equality
  • Capitalism: On Our Side - 668 words
    Capitalism: On Our Side? In the twenty-first century efforts need to be made to enhance the benefits of capitalism. This system has been able to improve the lives of many Americans. Critics however, point out that the improvements have come at a high cost. Specifically, they point to the amount of damage done to the environment. Although capitalism has raised the standard of living, because of the damage done to the environment capitalism is a wasteful system. Throughout history capitalism has raised the standard of living for many individuals. As former University of Vienna economics professor Ludwig von Mises says, "Modern capitalism is essentially mass production for the needs of the mass ...
    Related: standard of living, mass production, energy consumption, vienna, howard
  • Changes In Health Care - 1,459 words
    Changes In Health Care In today's society, public perception of the U.S. health care system is widespread. Many people are satisfied with the advancements that we have made in the medical community. Less than one hundred years ago, health care was non-existent. Today, it is one of the leading industries in our country and worldwide. However, many people criticize where health care is going. They believe that doctors are giving up quality care and replacing it with the quantity served. This paper will describe the changes that have occurred and are occurring in the US health care system. Beginning with the health care environment, we will see that although we are downsizing some subdivisions, ...
    Related: care facilities, care system, community health, health, health care, health insurance, hospital care
  • Charcters In Animal Farm - 1,821 words
    Charcters In Animal Farm Symbolism/Interpretation The novel Animal Farm is a satire on the Russian revolution, and therefore full of symbolism. General Orwell associates certain real characters with the characters of the book. Here is a list of the characters and things and their meaning: Mr Jones: Mr. Jones is Orwell's chief (or at least most obvious) villain in Animal Farm. Of course Napoleon is also the major villain, however much more indirectly. Orwell says that at one time Jones was actually a decent master to his animals. At this time the farm was thriving. But in recent years the farm had fallen on harder times and the opportunity was seen to revolt. The world-wide depression began i ...
    Related: animal farm, farm, stock market, lower class, criticised
  • Chilean Economic Shock Therapy - 1,146 words
    Chilean Economic Shock Therapy Chile is seen to be the quintessential model of liberal restructuring in Latin America in the late twentieth century. After the overthrow of the socialist regime of Salvador Allende in 1973, Chiles government has implemented an authoritative economic restructuring program that replaced state intervention with market incentives and opened Chile to the global economy. This four-phase process transformed the economy from highly protective industrialized to an open free market economy based on agricultural exports. The process by which the Chilean economy was stabilized was termed shock therapy. Like other dramatic economic policy changes, the therapy caused the un ...
    Related: chilean, economic benefits, economic change, economic crisis, economic growth, economic policy, shock
  • China 2000 - 1,724 words
    China 2000 CHINA 2000 What is China? Is it maybe the image of the ancient times with the glorious old dynasties, the powerful emperors, the wondrous temples, the fascinating winding gardens? Or is it maybe a strict communist world with uniformed people wearing Mao suits and living in dreary gray concrete apartment blocks? Or perhaps it is the skyscrapers of Hong Kong and Shanghai, the horrendous traffic, the buzzing commotion, ultra modern electronics and plate glass buildings? In reality, China is all this in one. It is a land that intertwines a miraculous ancestral heritage with a capitalist reality blooming in the heart of a still surviving communist system. In todays China, the gigantic ...
    Related: china, mainland china, chinese people, ancient times, relics
  • Chinas Economics - 2,814 words
    Chinas Economics For various reasons, China has always been an important country in the world. With its increasing large population, it was determined by other countries that is has a lot of economic potentials. In just one decade and a half, China has transformed itself from a giant that use to live in poverty into a wealthy powerhouse to the world economy. With one-fifth of the worlds population, China is now producing 4% of world merchandise and a proportion of global production. It has also one of the worlds oldest and most influential civilizations. China has established three approaches to the world economy and they are establishing an alternative socialist system (1950s); isolating it ...
    Related: economic activity, economic freedom, economic growth, economic outlook, economic reform, economic stability, economic system
  • Chinas Economics - 2,554 words
    ... will continue for some time (Table 4). Table 4. Urban per capita income Year Average Income (RMB) Growth Rate 1992 1,826.1 18.3% 1993 2,336.5 28.0% 1994 3,179.4 36.1% Source: Internet article: "How to Benefit from the Booming Retail Market in China" China has now developed large shopping centres and department stores in many provinces in order to bring up the standard of living, as well as to encourage consumer spending (Table 5). Table 5. Consumer spending in different provinces. Rank Area 1994 ( RMB billion ) 1993 ( RMB billion ) Rate 1 Guangdong 175.67 131.40 +33.7% 2 Jiangsu 124.73 93.50 +33.4% 3 Shandong 113.24 84.23 +34.4% 4 Zhejiang 96.37 67.44 +42.9% 5 Sichuan 93.33 71.79 +30.0% ...
    Related: china trade, economic conditions, economic development, economic growth, economic indicators, economic performance, economics
  • Chinese Economy - 956 words
    Chinese Economy If China's economy grows as fast for the next 20 years as it has for the past 14, it will be the biggest economy on earth: I feel that China's drastic improvements over the last 14 years are overwhelming, with their Real GNP growing at a rate of 9% a year, which means by, 1994, China's economy will match the performance of countries like Japan and Taiwan. China's standard of living has also increased, and the number of people who were considered absolutely poor decreased approximately 63%. I feel with the vast amount of people living in China, and the economic activity booming like it is, China's exports will continue to grow, as well as the standard of living. This will crea ...
    Related: chinese, chinese economy, economy, market economy, communist party
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