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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: legitimacy

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  • The Legitimacy Of The Armed Struggle Of The Tamil People - 1,977 words
    The legitimacy of the armed struggle of the Tamil people Democracy may mean acceding to the rule of the majority, but democracy also means governments by discussion and persuasion. It is the belief that the minority of today may become the majority of tomorrow that ensures the stability of a functioning democracy. The practice of democracy in Sri Lanka within the confines of a unitary state served to perpetuate the oppressive rule of a permanent Sinhala majority. It was a permanent Sinhala majority, which through a series of legislative and administrative acts, ranging from disenfranchisement, and standardisation of University admissions, to discriminatory language and employment policies, a ...
    Related: armed, armed conflict, armed forces, legitimacy, tamil
  • A Comparison Of Judaism, Islam, Christianity - 1,507 words
    A Comparison Of Judaism, Islam, & Christianity Religion is one of the driving forces behind many of the events and attitudes that have shaped our world. Throughout the centuries, laws have been enacted; cities and countries have been created and destroyed; and wars have been fought, all to promulgate or protect one religion or another. This paper will examine aspects of the three major Western religions of the world: Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. Topics covered will include the origin of all three religions, the view of God held by each tradition, and conflicts. Several of the beliefs of these religions will be examined, such as judgment, and the Trinity. Origin of Judaism The origins of ...
    Related: christianity, christianity and islam, christianity religion, comparison, great religions
  • Affirmative Action - 1,599 words
    Affirmative Action AFFIRMATIVE ACTION INTRODUCTION Affirmative action is the name of an American social practice through which members of historically disadvantaged racial and/or ethnic groups are given preferential treatment in an effort to compensate for past harm caused to their ancestors. For thirty years, affirmative action was carefully shielded from open, honest evaluation while it simultaneously grew more pervasive along with the federal bureaucracy and welfare state. The recent political upheaval caused by the Republican takeover of Congress in 1994 has opened the door for opponents of affirmative action programs to successfully pursue their gradual elimination. If affirmative actio ...
    Related: action program, affirmative, affirmative action, jossey bass, american people
  • Affirmative Action - 3,345 words
    ... Aguilar 1. Affirmative action should be eliminated (Sadler 70). Affirmative action does not solve discrimination problems; on the contrary, it harms those the program is meant help. The program divides society into two groups based on ethnicity; this completely defies the effort to have a color-blind America (where society does not see ethnicity or a color difference in any person). Disguised as an equal opportunity program affirmative action discriminates against non-minorities. Affirmative action has its affects in collegiate admissions and employment, however, remains more controversial in college admissions. Many groups protest the abolishment of affirmative action for sake of higher ...
    Related: affirmative, affirmative action, college admissions, best method, dominate
  • Affirmative Action - 1,487 words
    ... f Prop. 209 permits gender discrimination that is "reasonably necessary" to the "normal operation" of public education, employment and contracting. In 1998, The ban on use of affirmative action in admissions at the University of California went into effect. UC Berkeley had a 61% drop in admissions, and UCLA had a 36% decline. This decline strengthens the position of the Pro side of affirmative action. However, a contingency plan has been established. According to a source (who asked to remain nameless), UC Berkeley has a program to actively recruit more minority students that falls out of the guidelines established by prop. 209. These types of "loop holes" can ultimately hurt the various ...
    Related: action program, affirmative, affirmative action, chicago tribune, public administration
  • Air Traffic Strike - 4,516 words
    ... emands rested upon prevailing norms of workers' interests and power. Since World War II, labor leaders have placed a disproportionate amount of emphasis on economic gains, and the collective bargaining process has gravitated toward these areas. At the same time, management has carefully guarded its prerogatives from the bargaining process.24 In this context, it seems likely that in envisioning a future strike, controllers felt that wages could and should be one aspect of it. Yet wages were not the decisive factor for most, and their other demands, derived from a far more vital, ideological interest than economic gains, evoked their passionate and surprisingly unified response. Individual ...
    Related: strike, traffic, traffic control, traffic controllers, worlds apart
  • Alternative Medicine - 1,013 words
    Alternative Medicine Alternative Medicine by Joe Grodjesk Sociology Of Medicine Professor Buban May 5, 2001 Alternative Medicine Throughout recorded history, people of various cultures have relied on what Western medical practitioners today call alternative medicine. The term alternative medicine covers a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. It generally describes those treatments and health care practices that are outside mainstream Western health care. People use these treatments and therapies in a variety of ways. Alternative therapies used alone are often referred to as alternative; when used in combination with other alternative therapies, or in addition to co ...
    Related: alternative medicine, chinese medicine, environmental medicine, herbal medicine, medicine, oriental medicine
  • Ancient Civilization - 1,498 words
    Ancient Civilization Describe Paleolithic and Neolithic cultures. What were the main characteristics of each? The Paleolithic Old Stone era began in about 40,000 - 10,000 B. C. The beginning of this period was marked by the first human hunter-gatherer societies. Hunting, fishing, and gathering of fruits and nuts were the main economic endeavors at the time. The responsibilities in these hunter-gathering societies were shared. The men of this period did the very dangerous hunting of large wild animals like bison and reindeer, while women gatherer fruits and nuts for an entire year. The small communities of 25-50 people came to consensus on decisions and ideas were shared. The extended family ...
    Related: civilization, epic of gilgamesh, men and women, religion & politics, irrigation
  • Anthrax Vaccination Program - 1,394 words
    Anthrax Vaccination Program On May 18, 1998, Secretary of Defense William Cohen approved a plan to vaccinate all U.S. service members for anthrax. This plan has caused a fierce ethical debate over the legitimacy of this vaccination. The Department of Defense claims the vaccination is completely safe and has been in use for decades. Some doctors dispute this claim, and contend the vaccination may not be effective against weapon versions of anthrax. Many service members have refused the vaccination and have either separated or faced formal punishment for their decision. The Bioport Corporation of Lansing Michigan is the only company that produces the anthrax vaccine. According to a Phoenix Tim ...
    Related: anthrax, vaccination, microsoft encarta, quality control, visible
  • Beowulf Is One Of The Oldest Existing Poems In The English Language Originally Written In Anglosaxon, It Has Been Translated - 728 words
    Beowulf is one of the oldest existing poems in the English language. Originally written in Anglo-Saxon, it has been translated to give readers the opportunity to enjoy this colorful, heroic poem of Englands epic age. It has been declared as a heroic-elegaic poem because of the various characteristics it clearly possesses. An epic consists of a hero who is larger than life. Beowulf is unquestionably a perfect example of this hero because of the amazing acts of heroism he commits. Epic characters also give numerous speeches that revel something about the past or the speakers characteristics. Beowulf does not give many, but from those he gives, the reader leans about his character traits. The l ...
    Related: beowulf, english language, old english, oldest, poems
  • Beyond The Problem Of Evil - 3,962 words
    ... is caught in his illusion of volition . . . [This illusion], his assumption that free will exists, is also part of the calculable mechanism ( 106). When a misfortune strikes, we can overcome it either by removing its cause or else by changing the effect it has on our feelings . . .( 108). There are elements in each of these texts--e.g., the denial of free will, the rejection of the idea retributive justice, and the recognition of possibility of overcoming our emotional reactions rather than our external environment--which resonate with the sympathetic reader of Spinoza. And while, in later years, Nietzsche loses some of his positivistic fervor, we shall see that significant similarities ...
    Related: good and evil, spoke zarathustra, heavenly father, c. s. lewis, attain
  • Bible About Muhammad - 5,518 words
    ... a hundred different tests that the unprejudiced seeker after truth can apply to the Holy Quran and it will qualify with flying colors to being a Message from on High. Like Adam Does the miraculous birth of Jesus make him a God or a "begotten" son of God? No! says the Holy Quran: "The similitude of Jesus before Allah (God) is that of Adam; He created him from dust then said to him: 'Be', and he was." (3:59) Yusuf Ali, comments in his notes in the Quran translation: "After a description of the high position which Jesus occupies as a prophet in the preceding verses we have a repudiation of the dogma that he was God, or the son of God, or any thing more than man. If it is said that he was bo ...
    Related: bible, books of the bible, christian bible, holy bible, muhammad, the bible
  • Boot Legger Version 20 Legalize Drugs - 1,293 words
    Boot Legger Version 2.0 (Legalize Drugs) I go to Tulane and received an A+ on this paper. You cant tell if a boy or girl wrote it either. Good Luck Bootlegger: Version 2.0 Prohibition will work great injury to the cause of temperance for it goes beyond the bounds of reason in that it attempts to control a mans appetite by legislation and make a crime out of things that are not a crime. A prohibition law strikes a blow at the very principle upon which our government was founded Abraham Lincoln On January 16, 1920 the Eighteenth Amendment was ratified by thirty-six states and became part of the Constitution. The intention of this new amendment was to lower alcohol consumption by Americans. At ...
    Related: boot, drug addicts, drug legalization, drug offenders, drug prohibition, drugs, illegal drugs
  • British Church In The 14th Century - 1,396 words
    British Church In The 14Th Century In the summer of 1381 a large group of peasants led by Wat Tyler stormed London. These peasants, unwilling to pay another poll tax to pay for an unpopular war against France and discontent with unfair labor wages, freed prisoners from London prisons, killed merchants, and razed the home of John of Gaunt, considered the creator of the poll tax. Perhaps more important, however, was the rebels attack on the Temple, a symbol of the British Church's wealth and power. The rebels burned the charters, legal records of the Church's vast land-holdings, stored within the Temple. This act - a religious building being targeted of in rebellion against a mismanaged, abusi ...
    Related: british, british society, political power, great schism, archbishop
  • Brown Vs The Board Of Education - 1,416 words
    ... abolition of segregation in the school system. Brown and the other black parents testified to the fact that their children were denied admission to white schools. According to Knappman one parent testified: "It wasn't to cast any insinuations that our teachers are not capable of teaching our children because they are supreme, extremely intelligent and are capable of teaching my kids or white kids or black kids. But my point was that not only I and my children are craving light, the entire colored race is craving light, and the only way to reach the light is to start our children together in their infancy and they come up together." (467) With the experience of dealing with many court bat ...
    Related: brown, public education, kansas city, psychological impact, ruling
  • Can Sociology Be Value Free - 1,286 words
    Can Sociology Be Value Free? Value neutrality is a term used by Weber to indicate the necessary objectivity researchers need when investigating problems in the social sciences. Weber also cautioned against the making of value judgements which coincide with the orientation or motives of the researcher. It is important to note that although Weber believed that value neutrality was the aim of research, his view was that no science is fundamentally neutral and its observational language is never independent of the way individuals see phenomena and the questions they ask about them (Morrison 1995 pp.267, 347) It is this link between the researcher's theoretical stand and the methods adopted that ...
    Related: sociology, twentieth century, research process, scientific method, dissimilar
  • Capital Punishments Cost - 1,179 words
    ... se facing the death penalty. There is legal assistance provided and an automatic appeals process for persons convinced of capital crimes. Persons under the age of eighteen, pregnant women, new mothers, or persons who have become insane cannot be sentenced to death. Capital punishment saves lives as well as takes them. We must accept the few risks of wrongful deaths for the sake of defending public safety. Abolitionists say the cost of execution has become increasingly expensive and that life sentences are more economical. A study of the Texas Criminal System estimated the cost of appealing capital murder at approximately $3.2 million. This high cost includes $265,640 for the trial; $294. ...
    Related: capital murder, capital punishment, high cost, white woman, most black
  • Checks And Balances - 1,079 words
    Checks And Balances Constitutional Interpretation The problem of interpreting the Constitution and framer's intent is a constantly permeating and troublesome question in the minds of Supreme Court Justices, judges, prominent politicians, and policy makers alike. It is a problem that has been pondered for years and years in the courtrooms and on paper with no real conclusion. One such essay arguing this dilemma is "How Not to Read the Constitution" by Laurence H. Tribe and Michael C. Dorf, who explore the questions "Is reading the text just a pretext for expressing the reader's vision in the august, almost holy terms of constitutional law?" and "Is the Constitution simply a mirror in which on ...
    Related: balances, alexander hamilton, small group, modern society, medium
  • China And American Foreign Policy - 1,329 words
    China And American Foreign Policy China and American Foreign Policy Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the Cold War was over, making the U.S. the only superpower left in the world. This has made the international system much more tranquil, and relaxed. The only country potentially powerful besides the U.S., is China. Many Americans fear China, not only because they are communist, but also because of their huge population. Their population is 1.3 billion people, which accounts 1/5th of the worlds population. As one of the only potential superpowers in the world, it would be in the best interest of all Americans if the U.S. and China became allies, instead of enemies. Peace and development, e ...
    Related: american, american foreign, american foreign policy, china, foreign policy, foreign relations, south china
  • China Economic Growth - 2,074 words
    China Economic Growth Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China's leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China's premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Guofeng, the man who had succeeded Mao Zedong as CCP leader after Mao's death" (Shirk 35). Hua had demonstrated a desire to continue the ideologically based movements of Mao. Unfortunately, these movements had left ...
    Related: china, chinese economic, economic crisis, economic development, economic growth, economic performance, economic reform
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