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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: interest rate

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  • 30year Treasury Bond - 1,120 words
    30-Year Treasury Bond Once considered the linchpin of the government securities market, the United States Treasurys 30-year bond is losing its place as the credit markets bellwether as traders and investors shirt their attention to the shorter-term notes. The bond market is struggling to establish what the new benchmark is, said Ward McCarthy at Stone & McCarthy Research Associates in Princeton, NJ. The U.S. 30-year bond known as the long bond because of its the Treasury with the longest maturity was seen since 1977 as the key gauge of expectations for U.S. inflation and economic growth, and a barometer of overall borrowing rates for the federal government and corporations. Also, these bon ...
    Related: bond, treasury, treasury bonds, stock market, united states government
  • Got Those Opec Blues Again And Rational Exuberance - 738 words
    "Got Those Opec Blues Again" And "Rational Exuberance" "Got those OPEC Blues Again" and "Rational Exuberance" SUMMARY Since March of 1999, when the price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil was at $13 a barrel, we have seen a steady increase in prices in all phases of the economy. OPEC, the organization that is largely responsible for setting production goals in the Middle East, was under fire to find ways to increase prices. OPEC members at this time "pledged to cut back the supply of crude and push oil prices higher." (Business Week, 48) The results were better than most expected: crude oil prices were almost $27 a barrel on November 23, 1999, the highest price since the 1991 Gulf War. (B ...
    Related: blues, opec, rational, monetary policy, business week
  • A Risk Neutral Framework For The Pricing Of Credit Derivatives - 1,476 words
    A Risk Neutral Framework For The Pricing Of Credit Derivatives 1. INTRODUCTION Considerable research effort has gone into Credit Derivatives since the early 1990s. The roots of credit derivatives can be traced back to the notion that the credit risk of a firm can be captured by the credit rating ascribed to it. This premise is also the cornerstone of loan pricing and credit risk management models the world over, including J.P. Morgans CreditMetricsTM. Empirical research enables the predictability of the event of default as well as the Loss in the Event of Default (LIED). This information is expressed in terms of a transition matrix - a matrix that traces out the probabilities the migration o ...
    Related: credit, credit risk, derivatives, framework, neutral, pricing, risk management
  • A Risk Neutral Framework For The Pricing Of Credit Derivatives - 1,578 words
    ... A or B (6) The probabilities of transition from period 2 to period 3 are obtained as: {RN}02 {RN}23 = {RN}03 Where {RN}ij is the risk-neutral transition matrix from period i to period j Thus, {RN}23 = {RN}-102 {RN}03 Table -6 shows the risk neutral probabilities of transition from period 2 to period 3. From this table, it can be seen that P (F / EA ) = 0.074 and P (F / EB ) = 0.176. In addition, we know that P(EA) = 0.181 and P(EB) = 0.530 (refer Table -5a). Thus, the risk-neutral probability that Rs. 100 is received in period 3 is 0.074 x 0.181 + 0.176 x 0.530 = 0.107 The value of the derivative is obtained as 20.76 Table-6 Risk neutral probabilities of transition from period 2 to perio ...
    Related: credit, credit risk, derivatives, framework, neutral, pricing, rate risk
  • Abe Lincoln - 1,112 words
    ... him from the chores Lincoln attended ABC school.10 This is where Lincoln learned to become a hard worker. Lincolns working days started in 1831. Abe and his brother were hired to build a boat and float it down the Mississippi with a load of cargo on it. The boat was headed towards New Orleans and this is where Lincoln saw his first, but not last, slave auction. Lincoln is quoted in saying, if I ever got a chance to hit that thing, I would hit it hard. 11 Lincoln was not in favor of slavery but he was certainly to abolitionist. Lincolns career in politics began in the spring of 1832, when Lincoln was 23, he ran for a seat on the Illinois House of Representatives. In his campaign, Lincoln ...
    Related: abe lincoln, lincoln, interest rate, republican party, auction
  • Accounting 2 - 949 words
    Accounting 2 PRINCIPLES of ACCOUNTING II (AC202) CHAPTER 12 CURRENT AND LONG-TERM LIABILITIES LIABILITIES DEFINED: A probable future payment of assets or services a company is presently obligated to make as a result of past transactions or events. Fundamentally liabilities are measured by the cost principle however: Liabilities are comprised of known obligations of a definite amount and known obligations of an estimated amount (i.e. warranties) CURRENT LIABILITIES: Obligations expected to be paid using current assets or by creating other current liabilities LONG-TERM LIABILITIES: Obligations not expected to be paid within one year. Includes long-term notes payable; mortgages payable; warra ...
    Related: accounting, working capital, time value, notes payable, principal
  • Ag Edwards Inc - 1,474 words
    A.G. Edwards Inc. Business Profiles in American Enterprise A.G. Edwards Inc. The industry for securities is undoubtedly an exciting and fast paced industry. This means that brokerage firms such as A.G. Edwards and Sons must always be watching the stock prices on every stock in the market so that they can give their clients maximum profit. When A.G. Edwards and Sons clients do well then in turn so does the brokerage firm. A.G. Edwards Inc. is not the biggest corporations in America, but yet it is still a very large corporation and has great importance in the industry for which it participates. This paper will give an in depth explanation about how A.G. Edwards functions as a cor-poration. Alo ...
    Related: security firms, life insurance, mutual funds, salary, volume
  • America Sports Construction Boom - 1,726 words
    America - Sports Construction Boom America is in the midst of a sports construction boom. New sports facilities costing at least $200 million each have been completed or are under way in Baltimore, Charlotte, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Nashville, San Francisco, St. Louis, Seattle, Tampa, and Washington, D.C., and are in the planning stages in Boston, Dallas, Minneapolis, New York, and Pittsburgh. Major stadium renovations have been undertaken in Jacksonville and Oakland. Industry experts estimate that more than $7 billion will be spent on new facilities for professional sports teams before 2006. Most of this $7 billion will come from public sources. The subsidy starts with th ...
    Related: america, boom, construction, professional sports, sports, sports facilities
  • American General Corporation - 977 words
    American General Corporation American General Corporation Evaluating the Risk of the American General Corporation we started from looking at company's market standing from potential investors point of view. First we take a look at the companies profile. American General Corporation is a diversified financial services organization, provides retirement services, life insurance, and consumer loans. The company offers retail financial programs through fifteen thousand merchants. American General Corp. operates in 41 states. Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands. Well, first we find out that American General Corporation is a blue chip, multibillion dollar company. This tells us right ...
    Related: american, american general, corporation, market value, virgin islands
  • Americas Great Depression - 1,607 words
    America's Great Depression America's Great Depression by Chima Lonstone The Great Depression is probably one of the most misunderstood events in American history. It is routinely cited, as proof that unregulated capitalism is not the best in the world, and that only a massive welfare state, huge amounts of economic regulation, and other Interventions can save capitalism from itself. Among the many myths surrounding the Great Depression are that Herbert Hoover was a laissez faire president and that FDR brought us out of the depression. What caused the Great Depression? To get a handle on that, it's necessary to look at previous depressions and compare. The Great Depression was by no means the ...
    Related: americas, great depression, interest rate, minimum wage, clearing
  • Asian Crisis - 1,978 words
    Asian Crisis On the 2nd of July 1997, Asia was hit by one of the most devastating financial crises it has ever seen. Of all the financial crisis that have taken place, this was one of the most distressing in that it was totally unexpected. The purpose of this paper is to show that particular developmental strategies employed by these economies eventually led to their downfall. It will attempt to find out where the origins of the crisis lie, and what events started the cycle that eventuated with this disaster. In order to trace the events that led to the eventual collapse of the Asian economies, one must venture across the ocean to the United States. The issue of liberalisation first gained a ...
    Related: asian, asian countries, asian crisis, crisis, east asian, financial crisis, southeast asian
  • Asian Crisis - 998 words
    ... dollar attractive they would have to keep the interest rate therefor business would slump. (see why did it happen?) Another article; Four myths of the Asian economic crisis. 12-18 January 1998. Web site www.newaus.com, disagrees with the view that pegged currencies is one of the problems. The article states that pegging currencies cannot be damaging as long as they are pegged at their market rates. It says that the only way a problem could arise is if the currency of an economy begins to inflate against the currency to which it is pegged. The countries will then begin to experience the crisis. "They find their currencies become overvalued, current account problems begin to emerge and spe ...
    Related: asian, asian crisis, asian financial, asian financial crisis, asian market, crisis, economic crisis
  • Automobile Industry - 1,464 words
    ... sistency within Fords manufacturing plants. Fords borrowing can be explained by its leverage ratios. Fords debt ratio has remained relatively steady over the last 5 years. 1998s debt ratio was 82.65%. This shows how they were relying heavily on borrowed funds to finance operations. This is further evinced by Fords debt-to-equity ratio of 4.77 in 1998, which is up from past years. Compared to the 1.97 industry average, Fords number appears quite high. Fords times-interest-earned for 1998 was 3.68, an increase from previous years. This could be due to the $15,955 million gain Ford recorded as a result of the spin-off of their interest in The Associates, Inc. The liquidity of Ford, indicate ...
    Related: automobile, automobile industry, automotive industry, ford motor company, market value
  • Banking Industry Analysis - 723 words
    Banking Industry Analysis Graham Mavar Mgmt. 415 Sec 6 Industry Analysis: Banking The banking industry has come under increasing pessimism of late because of rising short and long-term interest rates. The banking industry's market capitalization made a substantial decline. Most investors are concerned with whether the industry can sustain continued profitability as a result of these factors. Banks have responded in recent years to these problems by diversifying away from interest sensitive products and services. But interest rates are the fundamental aspect of any financial services. Therefore, I believe the financial services industry will be deeply affected by rising interest rates. Banks ...
    Related: banking, banking industry, banking system, financial services industry, industry analysis, investment banking, services industry
  • Brazilian Economy - 1,016 words
    ... mption, although this will lag behind the other drivers of growth. Industrial production grew in February for the fifth time in seven months, the first time Brazil has posted such a broad expansion since late 1997 (LaitnFocus) Public debt growth accelerated after mid-1995 due to the need to stabilize short-term capital inflows drawn by high domestic interest rates. This policy together with the need to extend central bank credit to the financial sector to help troubled banks has also led to a growing quasi-fiscal deficit. The Real's value has held well below its weakest point early in 1999 (around R2: $1), ending 1999 at R1.79: $1. Although debt repayments are forecast to be higher in th ...
    Related: brazilian, brazilian economy, economy, open economy, world economy
  • Chinas Economics - 2,814 words
    Chinas Economics For various reasons, China has always been an important country in the world. With its increasing large population, it was determined by other countries that is has a lot of economic potentials. In just one decade and a half, China has transformed itself from a giant that use to live in poverty into a wealthy powerhouse to the world economy. With one-fifth of the worlds population, China is now producing 4% of world merchandise and a proportion of global production. It has also one of the worlds oldest and most influential civilizations. China has established three approaches to the world economy and they are establishing an alternative socialist system (1950s); isolating it ...
    Related: economic activity, economic freedom, economic growth, economic outlook, economic reform, economic stability, economic system
  • Chinas Economics - 2,554 words
    ... will continue for some time (Table 4). Table 4. Urban per capita income Year Average Income (RMB) Growth Rate 1992 1,826.1 18.3% 1993 2,336.5 28.0% 1994 3,179.4 36.1% Source: Internet article: "How to Benefit from the Booming Retail Market in China" China has now developed large shopping centres and department stores in many provinces in order to bring up the standard of living, as well as to encourage consumer spending (Table 5). Table 5. Consumer spending in different provinces. Rank Area 1994 ( RMB billion ) 1993 ( RMB billion ) Rate 1 Guangdong 175.67 131.40 +33.7% 2 Jiangsu 124.73 93.50 +33.4% 3 Shandong 113.24 84.23 +34.4% 4 Zhejiang 96.37 67.44 +42.9% 5 Sichuan 93.33 71.79 +30.0% ...
    Related: china trade, economic conditions, economic development, economic growth, economic indicators, economic performance, economics
  • Depreciation - 1,165 words
    Depreciation Information about cash flows can influence decision makers in many ways . For example , if a companys regular operations bring in more cash than it uses , investors will value the company higher than if property and equipment must be sold to finance operations . Information about cash flow can help creditors decide whether a company will have enough cash to pay its debts as they mature. Management and investors use cash flow information to evaluate a companys ability to meet unexpected obligations . Cash flow information is also used to evaluate companys ability to take advantage of new business opportunities that may arise. In November 1987, the FASB issued Statement of Financi ...
    Related: depreciation, short term, income statement, different ways, stock
  • Do Credit Problems Lead To Bankruptcy - 816 words
    Do Credit Problems Lead To Bankruptcy? Do Credit Problems Lead to Bankruptcy? The reasons we as Americans buy on credit varies, but without it most of us would probably never be able to purchase necessities such as a home or automobile. The nation's economy depends on credit; the promise to pay later for goods and services used today. But along with consumer credit comes consumer debt. With the rise in telemarketing and commercializing in America it is no wonder why Americans feel the impulse to buy now, pay later. The most common form of consumer debt is installment debt, which is when a consumer borrows the money to purchase an item and agrees to repay the loan in equal installments over a ...
    Related: bad credit, bankruptcy, consumer credit, credit, credit card
  • Duration, Sensitivity And Pla In Bonds - 608 words
    Duration, Sensitivity And Pla In Bonds Subject: DURATION, SENSITIVITY AND PLA IN BONDS ---------- I would like to help some of you with a general explanation on how to calculate sensitivity and PLA in bonds. Many of you may know these issues, but I prefered to send a general message. Please disregard this CM if this is your case. The market factor (what generates the risk) in a bond, is the yield (the interest rate embedded in the investment). This means that the Position Sensitivity should relate to changes in yields. This sensitivities, then, multiplied by the volatility of the yields, would give us the PLA associated with the bond positions (expected portential loss if the yield moves aga ...
    Related: sensitivity, interest rate, cash flow, square root, tenor
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