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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: inflation

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  • Inflation - 650 words
    Inflation Hyperinflation The term hyperinflation refers to a very rapid, very large increase in the price level. Measurement problems will be too minor to notice on this scale. There is no strict formal definition for the term, but cases of hyperinflation tend to be expressed in terms of multiples rather than percentages. For example, in Germany between January 1922 and November 1923 (less than two years!) the average price level increased by a factor of about 20 billion. Some representative examples of hyperinflation include Hyperinflation 1922 Germany 5,000% 1985 Bolivia *10,000% 1989 Argentina 3,100% 1990 Peru 7,500% 1993 Brazil 2,100% 1993 Ukraine 5,000% These quotations from other web p ...
    Related: inflation, german people, coup d'etat, purchasing power, stability
  • Inflation - 1,230 words
    Inflation INFLATION Inflation, in economics, is used to describe an increase in the value of money; in relation to the goods and services it will buy. Inflation is the sustained rise in the aggregate level of prices measured by an index of the cost of various goods and services. Repetitive price increase cause the purchasing power of money and other financial assets with fixed values, creating serious economic uncertainty. Inflation results when actual economic pressures anticipation of future developments cause the demand for goods and services to exceed the supply available at existing prices or when available output is restricted by undecided productivity and marketplace constraints. Cons ...
    Related: inflation, inflation rate, american revolution, middle ages, scarcity
  • Inflation Evaluation - 1,589 words
    Inflation Evaluation Today it is almost impossible to pick up a financial journal without seeing news on the bull market that some consider to be overvalued. Overvalued or fairly valued, only the future will show the truth. Either way, this market is one that has shown greater run ups and returns, than any other market in history. (Reference Appendix #1a) Recently the Dow Jones Industrial Average has reached historical highs and then receded back to previous levels, leaving investors who are used to consistent and record setting gains month after month, baffled. Both the Dow Jones and the S & P 500 indices have seen modest and even flat performances over the past three months. (Reference #1b ...
    Related: evaluation, inflation, savings rate, wall street journal, correction
  • Inflation Evaluation - 1,543 words
    ... single exponential smoothing model for its' forecast which produced a Durbin Watsin statistic of 1.85, and standard error statistic of 1.211. This model eventually proved to be the superior model because of its lower than others error statistics. The combination model produced lower MAD, MSE, RMSE statistics than did the automatic method, but smoothing model was more accurate in that it produced a significantly lower MAPE. The summary of method errors, as well as forecasting models, are contained in appendix 6a. Therefore, using these crude methods I have been able to determine that Smart's single exponential smoothing model provides the most accurate forecasting tool for considering th ...
    Related: evaluation, inflation, federal open market committee, reserve bank, currency
  • Inflation Rates - 1,069 words
    Inflation Rates The price of one currency in terms of another is called the exchange rate. The exchange rate affects the economy in our daily lives because it affects the price of domestically produced goods sold abroad and the cost of foreign goods bought domestically. Mexicans use pesos, French use francs, Austrians use schillings, and this use of different monies by different countries results in the need to exchange one money for another to facilitate trade between countries(Husted 315). Without the exchange rate it would make it impossible to purchase goods in other countries that have a different currency. Day-to-day movements in exchange rates are closely related to peoples expectatio ...
    Related: exchange rate, exchange rates, inflation, main problem, bretton woods
  • Inflation Rates - 1,076 words
    ... le exchange rates could accommodate differential inflation rates(Corden 179). Since then, all major industrial countries have followed the U.S. and allowed their currencies to float also. So each country has the freedom to find their own values in relation to other currencies to set their own exchange rates, but the central banks still have the authority to intervene occasionally to prevent large short-term fluctuations in the exchange rates. There are, at least, some advantages to freely floating rates. They can act as shock absorbers. The biggest advantage of floating exchange rates is that they give each country control over its domestic affairs. Some economists favor floating rates f ...
    Related: exchange rate, exchange rates, inflation, encyclopaedia britannica, free market
  • Inflation: - 858 words
    INFLATION: In the 1970s the prices of most things Americans buy more than doubled. Such a general increase in prices is called inflation. Of course prices of selected goods may increase for reasons unrelated to inflation: the price of fresh lettuce may rise because unseasonably heavy rainfall in California has ruined the lettuce crop, or the price of gasoline may rise if the oil-producing countries set a higher price for oil. During inflation, however, all prices tend to rise. Over the last 400 years there have been many periods of inflation. In the 16th century, when the Spaniards began bringing back gold and silver from the New World, prices in Western Europe moved upward as the supply of ...
    Related: interest payments, purchasing power, durable goods, congress, israel
  • Introduction Hyper Inflation Has Plagued Most Of The Worlds Developing Countries Over The Past Decades Countries In The Indus - 2,083 words
    ... venue. A more significant impact of inflation arises from its effect on interest rate and the dynamic sustainability of fiscal situation. High rates of inflation signal weak resolve to control inflation and imply higher expected inflation in future." Obviously, this results in upward rigidity in nominal interest and leads to high debt service burden on the budget, thus reducing the flexibility of fiscal management. And as just noted, it is well known that the adverse implications of inflation are more intense at high rates of inflation. A moderate inflation rate is usually more desirable, and manageable as it ordinarily does not imply severe costs. Indeed, moderate inflation rates are ne ...
    Related: hyper, indus, inflation, inflation rate, world trade
  • The Annual Inflation Rate - 935 words
    The Annual Inflation Rate The Annual Inflation Rate Just about everything we do as a nation lends to the annual inflation rate. In this article, though, I have chosen four of the most important variables that influence inflation the most. Inflation is the sustained increase in prices, or in other words, a steady decline in the buying power of the dollar. I have come up with an equation that includes the following variables: the unemployment rate, the federal funds interest rate, per capita income, and new home sales. These variables consistently have shown a relationship to the inflation rate and aggregately may help to explain the cause of inflation. The first variable I chose was the unemp ...
    Related: annual, inflation, inflation rate, interest rate, unemployment rate
  • The Great Inflation - 1,184 words
    The Great Inflation In late-1922 the German government were forced to ask the Allies for a moratorium on reparations payments; this was refused, and she then defaulted on shipments of both coal and timber to France. By January of the following year, French and Belgian troops had entered and occupied the Ruhr. The German people, perhaps for the first time since 1914, united behind their government, and passive resistance to the occupying troops was ordered. A government-funded strike began as thousands of workers marched out of their factories and steel works. The German economy, already under massive pressure, gave way. The huge cost of funding the strike in the Ruhr and the costs of imports ...
    Related: inflation, german economy, consumer goods, government spending, workers
  • The Great Inflation - 1,118 words
    ... of the German people. The Republic was built on weakness: the idea that the fledgling Republic had stabbed Germany in the back by surrendering was widespread, and therefore led to the perceived necessity of avoiding reparations. This policy was doomed to failure, particularly in the face of French belligerence. More short-sightedness was to blame for the passive resistance in the Ruhr. Whilst clearly wishing to prevent German production from falling into French hands, it is clear that the government could not afford to finance the resistance for long and, as we have seen, this was the proverbial straw which broke the camels back. There were, of course, external influences: the manipulati ...
    Related: great powers, inflation, term effects, international financial, decade
  • Uk Inflation - 1,318 words
    Uk Inflation Macroeconomics History, causes and costs of Inflation in the UK economy Before starting to explain inflation it is necessary first to define it. Inflation can be described as a positive rate of growth in the general price level of goods and services. It is measured as a percentage increase over time in a price index such as the GDP deflator or the Retail Price Index. The RPI is a basket of over six hundred different goods and services, weighted according to the percentage of how much household income they take up. There are two measurements of this: the headline rate (includes all the items in the basket) and the underlying rate (RPIX) which excludes mortgage interest payments. ...
    Related: high inflation, inflation, over time, money supply, economy
  • Uk Inflation - 1,232 words
    ... ts while keeping normal profit levels. ( See diagrams: Appendix 1) Another factor in the high level of inflation in the '70's - it reached almost 25% in '75 (see appendix 2) - was the power of the Trade Unions. Because of closed shop practices, strike threats (and actual strikes; miners, Feb-Mar 1974) and an amenable Government, Trade Unions were able to increase the price of labour beyond proportional increases in productivity. It is the wage price spiral that is the most common feature of cost inflation: an increase in wages that is designed to compensate for an increase in prices will generate a further increase in prices, and in turn a further increase in wages, and so on. Other type ...
    Related: inflation, margaret thatcher, cost benefit analysis, money supply, wearing
  • Zero Inflation - 1,993 words
    Zero Inflation Introduction Hyper inflation has plagued most of the worlds developing countries over the past decades. Countries in the industrialised world, too, have at times duelled with dangerously high inflation rates in the post WWII era. With varying degrees of success, all have employed great efforts to bring their inflation rates within acceptable limits. Generally, a moderate rate of inflation has been the ultimate goal. More recently, however, a few countries have pursued policies that strive to eradicate inflation altogether through complete price stability. This has proven to be a contentious enterprise, which clearly indicates that there is still no universally accepted solutio ...
    Related: high inflation, inflation, inflation rate, more successful, first half
  • 30year Treasury Bond - 1,120 words
    30-Year Treasury Bond Once considered the linchpin of the government securities market, the United States Treasurys 30-year bond is losing its place as the credit markets bellwether as traders and investors shirt their attention to the shorter-term notes. The bond market is struggling to establish what the new benchmark is, said Ward McCarthy at Stone & McCarthy Research Associates in Princeton, NJ. The U.S. 30-year bond known as the long bond because of its the Treasury with the longest maturity was seen since 1977 as the key gauge of expectations for U.S. inflation and economic growth, and a barometer of overall borrowing rates for the federal government and corporations. Also, these bon ...
    Related: bond, treasury, treasury bonds, stock market, united states government
  • Got Those Opec Blues Again And Rational Exuberance - 738 words
    "Got Those Opec Blues Again" And "Rational Exuberance" "Got those OPEC Blues Again" and "Rational Exuberance" SUMMARY Since March of 1999, when the price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil was at $13 a barrel, we have seen a steady increase in prices in all phases of the economy. OPEC, the organization that is largely responsible for setting production goals in the Middle East, was under fire to find ways to increase prices. OPEC members at this time "pledged to cut back the supply of crude and push oil prices higher." (Business Week, 48) The results were better than most expected: crude oil prices were almost $27 a barrel on November 23, 1999, the highest price since the 1991 Gulf War. (B ...
    Related: blues, opec, rational, monetary policy, business week
  • Spending Financed Not By Current Tax Receipts, But By - 1,531 words
    "Spending financed not by current tax receipts, but by borrowing or drawing upon past tax reserves." , Is it a good idea? Why does the U.S. run a deficit? Since 1980 the deficit has grown enormously. Some say its a bad thing, and predict impending doom, others say it is a safe and stable necessity to maintain a healthy economy. When the U.S. government came into existence and for about a 150 years thereafter the government managed to keep a balanced budget. The only times a budget deficit existed during these first 150 years were in times of war or other catastrophic events. The Government, for instance, generated deficits during the War of 1812, the recession of 1837, the Civil War, the dep ...
    Related: current state, current status, defense spending, federal spending, spending
  • A Current Look At Japans Financial And Political Risk - 992 words
    A Current Look at Japans Financial and Political Risk A global company faces a number of different types of risks-economic, legal, political, and competitive. The nature and severity of such risks are not the same for all countries. A global company is in a position to manage such risks effectively by planning and implementing strategies aimed at diffusing risk. By keeping a breast of news-breaking developments, and not easily forgetting the past, an international company will have the ability to achieve successful use of strategic risk management in the global business environment. In the past five years, much to their disgrace, Japan has fell victim to numerous financial scandals. In addit ...
    Related: financial institution, financial management, financial market, financial risk, financial system, political risk, risk management
  • A More Perfect Union: - 1,031 words
    A More Perfect Union: The Articles of Confederation The determined Madison had for several years insatiably studied history and political theory searching for a solution to the political and economic dilemmas he saw plaguing America. The Virginian's labors convinced him of the futility and weakness of confederacies of independent states. America's own government under the Articles of Confederation, Madison was convinced, had to be replaced. In force since 1781, established as a league of friendship and a constitution for the 13 sovereign and independent states after the Revolution, the articles seemed to Madison woefully inadequate. With the states retaining considerable power, the central g ...
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  • A Report On American Economics - 916 words
    A report on American economics Most of the problems of the United states are related to the economy. One of the major issues facing the country today is social security. The United States was one of the last major industrialized nations to establish a social security system. In 1911, Wisconsin passed the first state workers compensation law to be held constitutional. At that time, most Americans believed the government should not have to care for the aged, disabled or needy. But such attitudes changed during the Great Depression in the 1930's. In 1935, Congress passed the Social Security Act. This law became the basis of the U.S. social insurance system. It provided cash benefits to only ret ...
    Related: american, economic conditions, economics, federal government, united states government
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