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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: independent states

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  • A More Perfect Union: - 1,031 words
    A More Perfect Union: The Articles of Confederation The determined Madison had for several years insatiably studied history and political theory searching for a solution to the political and economic dilemmas he saw plaguing America. The Virginian's labors convinced him of the futility and weakness of confederacies of independent states. America's own government under the Articles of Confederation, Madison was convinced, had to be replaced. In force since 1781, established as a league of friendship and a constitution for the 13 sovereign and independent states after the Revolution, the articles seemed to Madison woefully inadequate. With the states retaining considerable power, the central g ...
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  • Anaysis Of Turkey - 2,155 words
    Anaysis Of Turkey Analysis of Turkey 1999 Political Stability: (4)***(3) Probably the most unpredictable facet of Turkey at this time. It remains to be seen if the instability will level out and stabilize. A recent election has brought a new president to power Suleyman Demirel. Consequently, the next few months are likely to prove beneficial for political critics in Ankara as well as elsewhere but perhaps less so for those who have been waiting patiently for a strong and decisive government to tackle Turkey's many pending problems. The country of Turkey has a population where more than One-Half of the people are under the age of 35, the consensus is too bring a leader with new ideals and sen ...
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  • Ancient Egypt - 1,607 words
    Ancient Egypt Between 3100 and 332 B.C was the rise and climax of one of the richest and oldest ancient civilizations. Its lifeline was the Nile river in the Nile valley. Here, Egyptian dynasties ruled from the first cataract of the Nile to the Mediterranean Sea. At the its height it ruled an empire that reached from Syria in the east to Nubia in the south. In this report I will be covering the Archaic Period, the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom the New Kingdom and The Late Period or 3100-332 B.C. Archaic Period: 3100 B.C to 2750 B.C There long history began with there first King who began the first Egyptian dynasty. In 3100 B.C Pharaoh Menes united upper and lower Egypt. Making Egypts first ...
    Related: ancient civilizations, ancient egypt, egypt, lower egypt, upper egypt
  • Articles Of Confederation - 631 words
    Articles Of Confederation From 1781 to 1789 the Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an ineffective government, however there were some strong steps taken in the articles to try and make the United States a better country. The articles created a loose confederation of independent states that gave limited powers to a central government, known as Congress. Some actions taken by Congress, such as the Treaty of Paris, and certain powers that were given to them were sometimes beneficial to the United States. Nevertheless, in attempting to limit the power of the central government, the Second Continental Congress created one without sufficient power to govern effectively, whic ...
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  • Athens And Sparta The Culture - 1,029 words
    Athens And Sparta; The Culture Athens Athens was one of the first city-states. Each of these independent states consisted of a city and the region that surrounded it. Athens had a king, as did other Greek states. According to tradition, the first king of Athens was named Cecrops. Kings ruled the city-state until 682 B.C. Beginning that year, elected officials called archons headed the government of Athens. The general assembly, which consisted of all adult male citizens of Athens, elected the archons to one-year terms. After their term of office, the archons joined the Areopagus, a council of elder statesmen. The Areopagus judged murder trials and prepared political matters for the vote of t ...
    Related: athens, sparta, city states, greek state, eastern
  • Charles V - 2,540 words
    Charles V Emperor Charles V (CHARLES I, King of SPAIN). Born at Ghent, 1500; died at Yuste, in Spain, 1558; was a descendant of the house of Hapsburg, and to this descent owed his sovereignty over so many lands that it was said of him that the sun never set on his dominions. Charles was the son of Philip, Duke of Burgundy, by Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, and Burgundy was the first heritage to which he at his led, on his fathers death in 1506. As he was a minor at that time, his aunt, Margaret of Austria, undertook the regency for him. William of Chivres, his father's chief counsellor, had charge of the prince's household; Adrian of Utrecht, the Humanist and professor of theolo ...
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  • Communism East Europe - 2,955 words
    ... a contributing factor to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe. If a party has not got the support of a majority, then it has a weak political basis. The fact that undemocratic means were used to ensure that the communists came to, and then maintained, power shows that communism was a political failure. Throughout the history of communism in Russia, never once did the party gain a majority support or truly succeed in suppressing public demonstrations of antipathy towards communism. It can therefore be argued that a political leadership with no political basis or support could ever hope to survive. Another important factor to note is communisms utter failure in relation to society a ...
    Related: century europe, communism, east europe, east european, east german, east germany, eastern europe
  • Communism History - 1,338 words
    Communism History Communism has long been heralded in capitalist countries as the root of all evil. However, as with all phobias, this intrinsic fear of communism comes from a lack of knowledge rather than sound reasoning. It is that same fear that gave the world the Cold War and McCarthys Red Scare. The purpose of this paper is neither to support communism over capitalism nor the reverse of that. Rather, it is to inform the reader of communisms migration through time and hopefully assist the regression of such fear. The ideology of communism came out of the minds of two men, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Marxism, 11). (Dueto Marx being the more widely known influence, he will be the one m ...
    Related: communism, history, long history, red scare, long march
  • Decolonization: Abandonment - 1,218 words
    De-Colonization: Abandonment De-colonization began with the British colonists in the United States who declared independence in 1776. Most of Latin America gained independence a few decades later. De-colonization continued through the mid-1970s, mostly in Asia and Africa, until almost no European colonies remained. Most of the newly independent states have faced tremendous challenges and difficulties in the post-colonial era. The stability and harmony of de-colonized countries are not guaranteed once the countries are left to the hands of indigenous people. Colonies were flourishing under the colonial administrative government which creates bureaucratic, legislative and educative filters tha ...
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  • Eighteen Year Old Vote - 1,746 words
    Eighteen Year Old Vote When the thirteen British colonies in North America declared their independence in 1776, they laid down that governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. In so doing they were consciously echoing the words of the Great Charter which King John had sealed 561 years before, wherein he had undertaken that no tax may be levied in our kingdom without its general consent. Similarly, the federal constitution which the newly independent states drew up in 1787 was to a large extent the formal statement of rights and liberties already won in Britain. However, while England had for centuries been intent on limiting the power of ...
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  • Germany Analysis - 1,050 words
    Germany Analysis INDUSTRY IN GERMANY Country Issues Country issues related to Germany are addressed in four contexts. The areas of consideration are (1) cultural, social, and demographic trends and concerns, (2) political/governmental concerns, (3) exchange rate issues, and (4) macroeconomic issues. Cultural, Social, and Demographic Trends and Concerns Germany is the slightly larger then the combined size of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. (137,691 square miles.) Germany is a nation of 81.5 million people (Hunter, 1997). The rate of population growth in Germany approximates one-percent per year. The head of the government is Chancellor Gerhard Schroder (elected on October 27,1998). The off ...
    Related: east germany, germany, west germany, federal government, catholic christianity
  • Interpertation Of The Declaration Of Independence - 273 words
    Interpertation Of The Declaration Of Independence At some point in time, it may become necessary for the governed to abolish the government and set up a new government because it failed to protect the people's rights. People set up governments so their rights cannot be taken away. The government gets its power from the governed. If the government failed to protect the people's rights, the people have the right to abolish the government and set up a new one. However, people do not change the government for a small reason. They do so when a government becomes doctorial such as Parliament and King George were. Great Britain did three things to cause the colonies to break off. First, the king ab ...
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  • Israel Foreign Policy - 1,967 words
    Israel Foreign Policy Israel is located in the Middle East, along the eastern coastline of the Mediterranean Sea, bordered by Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt. It lies at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. Long and narrow in shape the country is only 290 miles in length and 85 miles in width at its widest point. Israel is a country of immigrants. Since its creation in 1948, the population has increased seven-fold. Today, its over six million inhabitants represent many different cultures and traditions, including Jews from Ethiopia, Morocco, the Soviet Union, Europe and America. Jews from around the world have immigrated to Israel and make up 80% of the Israeli popula ...
    Related: american foreign, american foreign policy, foreign affairs, foreign policy, israel
  • Life Expectancy - 563 words
    Life Expectancy The environmentalist view of the energy intensity is based on the legacy of the I = PAT equation in which environmental Impact equals Population, multiplied by Affluence, and further multiplied by Technology (Earth Report 2000: Revisiting the True State of the Planet. 1999). The further desegregation of this formula implies that energy intensity can be looked upon as an integrative variable describing the impact of both technology and affluence. Bruce et al. (1996) argue that intensity is inversely related to efficiency. Improving efficiency reduces the amount of energy required to provide a given output, i.e. an output of the same quality and quantity. In real life, though, ...
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  • Lincoln Vs Davis - 1,264 words
    Lincoln Vs. Davis Charles Beard, a noted historian said that the American Civil War was a conflict between industry and agriculture. Alexander Stephens, a southern statesman said that the war was about states rights. Horace Greeley, a northern newspaper man, and prominent abolitionist claimed the war was fought over the issue of slavery. Abraham Lincoln said it was a struggle testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. Lincoln said his paramount object was to save the Union, and if he could accomplish that by not freeing any slaves, he would free none; if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing ...
    Related: abraham lincoln, davis, jefferson davis, lincoln, chief justice
  • Manhattan Project - 1,922 words
    Manhattan Project Manhattan Project In the early morning hours of July 16, 1945, the first ever nuclear explosion took place in Alamogordo, New Mexico. The explosion was the first test of the most destructive weapon ever known to man, and was the result of almost six years of research and development by some of the world's top scientists. This endeavor was known as the Manhattan Project. Less than a month after the test, which was known as Trinity, the United States dropped two nuclear bombs on Japan, three days apart, which forced the Japanese to surrender. The story of the Manhattan Project is an abysmal subject, as is the effect of the Manhattan Project on international politics, and both ...
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  • Market Economy Vs Command Economy - 1,216 words
    ... moderately each year and safely meet, but not noticeably exceed, their assigned production assignments: In other words, they ratcheted up production one notch each year. (Dyker, 1992, P26) In a similar fashion, centrally assigned production goals discouraged Soviet management from developing or employing technological innovations. (Dyker, 1992, P29) The excessive emphasis on central planning discouraged both managerial and technological innovation, as a consequence of this emphasis on steady mediocrity, and an excessive emphasis on centrally assigned production goals, a style of management that encouraged complacency and consistency at the expense of productivity and innovation developed ...
    Related: command, command economy, economy, free market, market, market economy
  • Modern History Of Russia - 777 words
    Modern History of Russia Modern History of Russia The reigns of Peter I and Catherine the Great in the late 1600s and the 1700s marked the beginning of Russia's establishment as a major European power. These rulers attempted to westernize the traditional society of Moscow, and they ambitiously expanded Russian territories. In the early 1800s, Alexander I began to carry out further plans to westernize the government by attempting to create a Duma, or representative body. However, Russia became involved in the Napoleonic Wars and played a key role in the alliance that overthrew French emperor Napolean I. This firmly established Russia as a major power in Europe. The influence of Western Europe ...
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  • Nato - 1,707 words
    NATO Fifty years ago on April 4, 1949, twelve countries signed the Treaty of Washington and formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. There were a total of sixteen countries that signed this treaty. Those countries were the following: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. These various groups of countries came together and formed the NATO Alliance. They wanted to help the world maintain peace due to the Soviet Unions threat on the non-Communist countries of Western Europe. In the early 1990s, political critics began to criticize NATO saying that is was not needed anymore after the control ...
    Related: nato, british isles, coastal zones, arms control, civilization
  • Pepsi Marketing Mix - 1,199 words
    Pepsi Marketing Mix Contributing to this industrial revolution among other industries were Manufacturing, Agricultural, Automotive, Chemical, Hotel, Banking Business Services, Real estate, Tourism and information Technology to name a few. But on such industry that has been holding onto its share of the market since its inception note in the USA - its birthplace - but all across the globe as well as the Beverage Industry. It has introduced icons that very few are oblivious to. The industry and its role in the Pakistan economy, the conditions under which it is working and the effects it has on the consumers is to remain the concern of this study. According to Richard D. Brown and George J. Pet ...
    Related: marketing, pepsi, pepsi cola, public offering, progress report
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