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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: immune system

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  • The Effects Of Hiv Mutations On The Immune System Science Cj Stimson Introduction The Topic Of This Paper Is The Human Immuno - 1,046 words
    The Effects of HIV Mutations on the Immune System Science C.J. Stimson INTRODUCTION The topic of this paper is the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, and whether or not mutations undergone by the virus allow it to survive in the immune system. The cost of treating all persons with AIDS in 1993 in the United States was $7.8 billion, and it is estimated that 20,000 new cases of AIDS are reported every 3 months to the CDC. This question dealing with how HIV survives in the immune system is of critical importance, not only in the search for a cure for the virus and its inevitable syndrome, AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), but also so that over 500,000 Americans already infected with th ...
    Related: human immunodeficiency, immune, immune system, lymphatic system, science, stimson
  • The Effects Of Hiv Mutations On The Immune System Science Cj Stimson Introduction The Topic Of This Paper Is The Human Immuno - 1,026 words
    ... give rise to an advantageous trait. This great genetic variability stems from a property of the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase. As stated above, in a cell, HIV uses reverse transcriptase to copy its RNA genome into double-strand DNA. The virus mutates rapidly during this process because reverse transcriptase is rather error prone. It has been estimated that each time the enzyme copies RNA into DNA, the new DNA on average differs from that of the previous generation in one site. This pattern makes HIV one of the most variable viruses known. HIVs high replication rate further increases the odds that a mutation useful to the virus will arise. To fully appreciate the extent of HIV multip ...
    Related: immune, immune system, science, stimson, evolutionary theory
  • Aging Theories - 1,709 words
    Aging Theories This report outlines the main theories of how the process of aging works. Since researchers have not discovered a universally-accepted theory of aging, the theories discussed are potential explanations of how we age. The likelihood of each hypothesis is considered roughly equal. The different theories discussed focus on the workings of different parts of the body, from the molecular level of DNA mutations and replication, to the organism level of becoming "worn out." Aging is a very complex and gradual process, and its ongoing operation is present to some degree in all individuals. It is a journey to the maturity, as well as to the degeneration of the body. Because aging affec ...
    Related: aging, aging process, cell division, free radicals, gradual
  • Aging Theories - 1,767 words
    ... ter a certain number of divisions, the clock genes are triggered and may produce proteins responsible for cell destruction (Keeton, 1992, 50). Cellular Aging In 1961, a discovery made by Leonard Hayflick showed that normal, diploid cells from such continually Areplaced@ parts of the body as skin, lungs, and bone marrow, divide a limited number of times. Although the cells stop dividing at the point just before DNA synthesis, they do not die. The longer-lived the species, the more divisions the cells undergo. As the age of an individual increases, the number of potential divisions decreases (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 29). This discovery was found using fibroblasts, or cells found in the c ...
    Related: aging, aging process, bone fracture, concise encyclopedia, testosterone
  • Aids - 1,564 words
    Aids Matchmaker.com: Sign up now for a free trial. Date Smarter! AIDS "Somewhere among the million children who go to New York's publicly financed schools is a seven-year-old child suffering from AIDS. A special health and education panel had decided, on the strength of the guidelines issued by the federal Centers for Disease Control, that the child would be no danger to his classmates. Yet, when the school year started on September 9th, several thousand parents in two school districts in the borough of Queens kept their children at home. Fear of plague can be as pernicious, and contagious, as the plague itself(Fear of dying 1)." This article was written in 1985. Since then much has been fou ...
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  • Aids - 1,527 words
    ... AIDS from handshakes, hugs, coughs, sneezes, sweat, tears, mosquitoes, or other insects, pets, eating food prepared by someone else, or just being around an infected person. A person can't get it from sharing a cigarette, cigar, or pipe, drinking from the same fountain, or from someone spitting on him or her. A person also can't get it from using the same swimming pools, toilet seats, phones, computers, straws, spoons, or cups. Although the virus has been found in saliva, medical opinion states there is no evidence of contamination through wet kissing(What are HIV/AIDS 1). HIV is not spread through the air or water, unlike many other viruses(HIV/AIDS 2). No one has ever caught AIDS by go ...
    Related: aids, protease inhibitors, local government, state and local government, isolated
  • Aids - 1,103 words
    Aids Aids Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suppresses the immune system related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A person infected with HIV gradually loses immune function along with certain immune cells called CD4 T-lymphocytes or CD4 T-cells, causing the infected person to become vulnerable to pneumonia, fungus infections, and other common ailments. With the loss of immune function, a clinical syndrome (a group of various illnesses that together characterize a disease) develops over time and eventually results in death due to opportunistic infections (infections by organisms that do not normally cause disease except in people whose immune systems have be ...
    Related: aids, deficiency syndrome, human immunodeficiency, acquired immune, bacterial
  • Aids - 1,140 words
    ... f the mouth by the fungus Candida Albicans, is common in the early symptomatic phase of AIDS. Other infectious fungi include species of the genus Cryptococcus, a major cause of Meningitis in up to 13 percent of people with AIDS. Also, infection by the fungus Histoplasma Capsulatum affects up to 10 percent of people with AIDS, causing general weight loss, fever, and respiratory complications or severe central nervous system complications if the infection reaches the brain. Viral opportunistic infections, especially with members of the Herpes virus family, are common in people with AIDS. One Herpes family member, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), infects the retina of the eye and can result in blindn ...
    Related: aids, blood cells, nervous system, human cells, nose
  • Aids - 1,178 words
    Aids For an epidemic that would explode to claim hundreds of thousands of lives, AIDS surfaced very quietly in the United States, with a small notice on June 4, 1981 in a weekly newsletter published by the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, alerting doctors to five unusual cases of pneumonia that had been diagnosed in Los Angeles residents over the previous few months. All the patients were homosexual men who had come down with PCP (Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia), a lung infection usually seen only severely malnourished children or adults undergoing intensive chemotherapy. But until they got sick the California men were well nourished, vigorous adults, whose immune systems should have ...
    Related: aids, aids epidemic, aids research, high blood pressure, blood cells
  • Aids - 1,146 words
    AIDS Being one of the most fatal viruses in the nation, AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is now a serious public health concern in most major U.S. cities and in countries worldwide. Since 1986 there have been impressive advances in understanding of the AIDS virus, its mechanisms, and its routes of transmission. Even though researchers have put in countless hours, and millions of dollars it has not led to a drug that can cure infection with the virus or to a vaccine that can prevent it. With AIDS being the leading cause of death among adults, individuals are now taking more precautions with sexual intercourse, and medical facilities are screening blood more thoroughly. Even though HI ...
    Related: aids, aids epidemic, latin america, hepatitis b, pneumonia
  • Aids - 1,140 words
    ... rom a few days to several weeks and is associated with fever, sweats, exhaustion, loss of appetite, nausea, headaches, soar throat, diarrhea, swollen glands, and a rash on the torso. Some of the symptoms of the acute illness may result from HIV-1 invasion of the central nervous system. In some cases the clinical findings have correlated with the presence of HIV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid. Symptoms disappear along with the rash and other sings of acute viral disease. When the blood test for HIV-1 antibodies become available, researchers demonstrated the lymphadenopathy was a frequent consequence of infection with the virus. Scientist do not know what causes the wasting syndrome, but som ...
    Related: aids, immune system, human immunodeficiency, recent studies, regulation
  • Aids - 1,410 words
    Aids Aids by sean ross How is HIV Diagnosed? You can get tested for HIV in a number of locations -- including public clinics, AIDS organizations, physicians' offices, and hospitals. Many locations give the test for free. You can choose between anonymous tests, in which you do not give your name to the HealthCare provider, or confidential tests, in which you do give your name. Test sites should provide trained counselors who can offer you support and guidance, no matter what the test result.(Balch-97) An HIV test looks for the antibodies your immune system creates in response to the virus. These antibodies may not appear in your blood until three to six months after HIV infection. Therefore, ...
    Related: aids, aids hiv, aids research, disease control, santa monica
  • Aids - 1,443 words
    AIDS Gonzales 1 The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first discovered in 1981 as a unique and newly recognized infection of the body's immune system (Mellors 3). The name AIDS was formally know as GRIDS (Gay Related Immune Defiance Syndrome). The first case of AIDS was discovered in Los Angeles, where scientists from the CDC (Center for Disease Control) were called in on a half dozen cases. The CDC was convinced what they were seeing was a new strand of virus. None of the staff members had ever seen a strand of virus that could do so much destruction to the immune system like this one did. Many theories about this disease were in question. Many scientists believed it originated ...
    Related: aids, aids hiv, president clinton, health organization, sample
  • Aids And Retroviruses - 1,241 words
    AIDS And Retroviruses Today, tens of millions of people around the world are going to die young because they are infected by HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The primary AIDS virus is HIV-1, which can be spread via sexual intercourse or drug use (activities, which result in body fluid exchange like blood and semen). HIV can also be passed from mother to child and can also be acquired during blood transfusions. AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, is a virus that causes a loss of protection against disease causing microorganisms. People who are infected by AIDS usually have a decline in the number of T-cells that are responsible for their immune system. Because the virus reproduces by a ...
    Related: aids, immune system, deficiency syndrome, fact sheet, mediate
  • Aids And Retroviruses - 1,286 words
    ... AP) to a cellular receptor. Receptor molecules can be proteins (glycoproteins), or the sugar residues present on glycoproteins or glycolipids. Some complex viruses, for example, Poxviruses and Herpesviruses may have more than one receptor-binding protein, therefore, there may be alternative routes of uptake into cells. The expression or absence of receptors on the surface of cells largely determines the tropism of most viruses, that is, the type of cell in which they are able to replicate.  Penetration Unlike attachment, viral penetration is an energy-dependent process; that is, the cell must be metabolically active for this to occur. Three mechanisms may be involved:  Tr ...
    Related: aids, genetic code, life cycle, immune system, replication
  • Aids As An Invader - 1,827 words
    Aids As An Invader Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, also known as AIDS, is a silent invader. The first cases of this disease were reported in the early 1980s. AIDS is caused by the infection known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is a microscopic organism that can grow and multiply inside living cells. HIV attacks and disables the bodys immune system. The immune system is the system that usually fights off illnesses. When the immune system breaks down, a person with AIDS will develop life-threatening illnesses. (Flynn & Lound, 6) The invasion of the AIDS virus in an individuals body leaves the body open to an invasion by many other different infections, called opportunistic d ...
    Related: aids, western europe, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, saharan africa, infected
  • Aids Conspricay Is Aids Biological Warfare - 3,107 words
    Aids Conspricay - Is AIDS Biological Warfare? Refinance now homeowner even if you have bad credit. 185 loc Aids Conspricay - Is AIDS Biological Warfare? The following is a complete verbatim transcription from a recent broadcast of "Network 23", a program shown on a local Los Angeles Public Access Cable Channel. Good evening, I'm Michel Kassett. This is Network 23. A couple of weeks ago we had a program on the subject of AIDS, addressing the question of whether AIDS-the AIDS virus-was created by the government; and I'm sure that some people were quite shocked by what they heard. We spent that entire program relating to you the evidence of a very substantial amount of factual evidence which su ...
    Related: aids, aids research, biological, biological warfare, warfare
  • Aids Fundingtoo Much Or Too Little - 1,248 words
    Aids Funding..Too Much Or Too Little? Each author explains their views on the AIDS debate; they discuss the importance of AIDS research, the numbers of AIDS patients and their cost, and benefits of research to other fields. Freundlich and Fumento agree that it is important to study AIDS, because it is a threat to young and old alike, opposed to cancer and heart disease being mainly targeted at older people. But Fumento thinks that AIDS spending should be realistic, not just tailored to fit the needs of protesters and demanding organizations, simply to keep them quiet. They also both agree that AIDS is a new and upcoming epidemic that is becoming more of a problem with each passing year. Each ...
    Related: aids, aids research, government spending, public health, sufficient
  • Aids In Detail - 2,050 words
    AIDS In Detail Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Today, despite the continuing production of better antibiotics since the discovery of penicillin, we are facing an infectious disease against which all these drugs are virtually powerless. This disease is spreading inexorably, killing more people and more people each year. AIDS does not know no national boundaries and does not discriminate by race or sex. It is rampaging not only throughout the United States, but also through Africa, India, China, Russia, Europe, South America, and the Caribbean countries. Even infants and children are at risk. AIDS is similar to the bubonic plague or the "BLACK DEATH" that killed perhaps one-third in ...
    Related: aids, aids epidemic, infectious disease, human immunodeficiency, purple
  • Aids In Detail - 2,125 words
    ... ne anonymous partner per year. Homosexual men have higher rates of sexually transmits diseases than heterosexual men and women because gay men tend to have larger numbers of different sexual partners, more often engage in furtive (anonymous) sexual activities, and more frequently have anal intercourse. PUZZLING SYMPTOMS Any theory of the new disease also had to account for a puzzling factor: the variety of symptoms seen in AIDS patients before they entered the final phase of complete susceptibility to opportunistic infections and cancers. Interviews with AIDS patients revealed many had been very sick for up to a year before they developed their first case of Pneumocystis pneumonia or sho ...
    Related: aids, life expectancy, men and women, hepatitis a, discovery
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