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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: immanuel kant

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  • An Overview Of Immanuel Kant - 1,043 words
    ... tegorical imperative focuses on the principle, rather than the people, involved. Kants theory also avoids utilitarianism, which would permit lying, murder, stealing, and the like, if it produces happiness. His theory is for capital punishment(2). Kant writes: Even if a civil society resolved to dissolve itself with the consent of all its members- as might be supposed in the case of a people inhabiting an island resolving to separate and scatter through the whole world- the last murder lying in prison ought to be executed before the resolution was carried out. This ought to be done in order that every one may realize the desert of his deeds, and that bloodguiltiness may not remain on the ...
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  • Immanuel Kant Enlightenment - 1,104 words
    Immanuel Kant - Enlightenment What is enlightenment? Immanuel Kant attempts to clarify the meaning of enlightenment while composing the essay, "What is Enlightenment?". This document was written in response to political and social changes brought about by King Frederick of Prussia. The goal of Kant's essay was to discuss what the nature of enlightenment was. It also taught one how enlightenment can be brought about in the general public. Kant explains that, "enlightenment is man's release from his self-incurred tutelage" (Kant 85). Tutelage is man's incompetence to have direction for oneself. In other words, enlightenment is the progress of a society through the free activity of rational tho ...
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  • Immanuel Kant Simply Stated The Creed Of The Enlightenment: Dare To Know, Kant 1 To Thinkers Like Kant, To Achieve Enlightenm - 1,261 words
    Immanuel Kant simply stated the creed of the enlightenment: "Dare to know," (Kant 1). To thinkers like Kant, to achieve enlightenment was to "gain release from...self-incurred tutelage...[the] inability to make use of [ones] understanding without direction from another," (Kant 1). Enlightenment thinkers addressed this issue. They present to us the question; why is it so hard to think for oneself? They propose answers to this puzzle, as well as provide solutions that will teach us how to think for ourselves. Through Immanuel Kants "What is Enlightenment" and J.S. Mills On Liberty, we can gain a deeper understanding of this question, and its answers. According to Kant, "laziness and cowardice" ...
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  • Absolutism And Relativism - 1,251 words
    Absolutism And Relativism Absolutism and relativism are two extreme ethical approaches to reality. While they are both valid and supported by facts, they are very contrasting in their views. Values are what a person cares about and thinks is worthwhile. For example, values can include life, love, religious faith, freedom, relationships, health, justice, education, family and many other things. Usually these values are what provides the passion in a person's life, and gives them hope and a reason for being. A person might go to any lengths to protect what they feel is right and to preserve these values. Values can be divided up into two subcategories: absolute and relative. Absolute values de ...
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  • Anna Karenina - 1,503 words
    Anna Karenina The world of Tolstoy's Anna Karenina is a world ruled by chance. From the very opening chapters, where a watchman is accidentally run over by a train at Moscow's Petersburg station, to the final, climactic scenes of arbitrary destruction when Levin searches for Kitty in a forest beset by lightning, characters are brought together and forced into action against their will by coincidence and, sometimes, misfortune. That Anna and Vronsky ever meet and begin the fateful affair that becomes the centerpiece of the novel is itself a consequence of a long chain of unrelated events: culminating Anna's sharing a berth with Vronsky's mother on her way to reconcile Dolly and Stiva in Mosco ...
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  • Capital Punishment And Ethics - 1,114 words
    Capital Punishment And Ethics The use of capital punishment has been a permanent fixture in society since the earliest civilizations and continues to be used as a form of punishment in countries today. It has been used for various crimes ranging from the desertion of soldiers during wartime to the more heinous crimes of serial killers. However, the mere fact that this brutal form of punishment and revenge has been the policy of many nations in the past does not subsequently warrant its implementation in today's society. The death penalty is morally and socially unethical, should be construed as cruel and unusual punishment since it is both discriminatory and arbitrary, has no proof of acting ...
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  • Catagorical Imperative - 1,590 words
    Catagorical Imperative The only acceptable motive for a moral action is that it should be done as a sense of moral duty. Is this a justifiable claim? Before it is possible to analyse whether the statement, The only acceptable motive for a moral action is that it should be done as a sense of moral duty, is a justifiable claim we must consider what ones moral duty is and if is it dependant or independent on the consequence of its action? For example we could state ones moral duty is never to lie. It is popularly believed that to lie is detrimental to ones own reputation and often causes emotional and social damage. But what if this principal causes damage itself. Truth telling for a negative m ...
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  • Death Pentaly - 1,082 words
    Death Pentaly The use of capital punishment has been a permanent fixture in society since the earliest civilizations. It has been used for various crimes ranging from the desertion of soldiers during wartime to the more heinous crimes of serial killers. However, the mere fact that this brutal form of punishment and revenge has been the policy of many nations in the past does not subsequently warrant its implementation in today's society. The death penalty is morally and socially unethical, should be construed as cruel and unusual punishment since it is both discriminatory and arbitrary, has no proof of acting as a deterrent, and risks the atrocious and unacceptable injustice of executing inn ...
    Related: death penalty, death sentence, capital punishment, ethical standards, edward
  • Enlightenment Of 18th Century - 1,604 words
    Enlightenment Of 18th Century The enlightenment was a great time of change in both Europe and America. Some of the biggest changes, however, happened in the minds of many and in the writings of many philosophers. These included some of the beliefs of David Hume, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and Francois Voltaire. Writers during this time focused on optimism, which is the opinion to do everything for the best (Chaney 119), and the best for these philosophers was to stretch the minds of the ordinary. David Hume was Scottish and was born on April 26, 1711 and died in 1776. He states that he was not born into a rich family and was born into the Calvinist Presbyterian Church. However, af ...
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  • Enlightenment Of 18th Century - 905 words
    Enlightenment Of 18th Century The Enlightenment is a name given by historians to an intellectual movement that was predominant in the Western world during the 18th century. Strongly influenced by the rise of modern science and by the aftermath of the long religious conflict that followed the Reformation, the thinkers of the Enlightenment (called philosophers in France) were committed to secular views based on reason or human understanding only, which they hoped would provide a basis for beneficial changes affecting every area of life and thought. The more extreme and radical philosophes--Denis Diderot, Claude Adrien Helvetius, Baron d'Holbach, the Marquis de Condorcet, and Julien Offroy de L ...
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  • For A Genuine Empiricist The Phrase God Exists Is Meaningless - 1,528 words
    ... ng of the question, a few key concepts must first be established. What is meant by the term Empiricism? To an empiricist, the occurrence of consciousness is simply the product of experience. It is assumed that all human knowledge is acquired from experience and observation alone. It is believed that we are born with an empty slate; it is through sense perception that our knowledge begins to form and shape our mind. Empiricism is against the idea of spontaneous or a priori thought (knowledge that is independent of all particular experience). They believe in a posteriori knowledge, which is derives from experience alone. The belief opposing Empiricism is that of Rationalism. In this philos ...
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  • Germany - 1,954 words
    Germany Basic Facts Germany is in central Europe, at 50 degrees latitude, and 10 degrees longitude. It is bordered by Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Switzerland, Austria, Czechs Republic, And Poland. The capitol of Germany is Berlin. The population of Germany is 81,264,000. The estimated population for Germany in the year 2000 is 82,583,000. Germany is smaller than Texas, or about 4 1/2% of the size of the U.S.A. The German flag has black, red, and gold, horizontal stripes without any symbols on it. In 1950 when Germany was divided, West Germany's flag was black, red, and dark gold, with no symbols. East Germany's flag was black, red and, yellow with a coat of arms sy ...
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  • God Existence - 1,440 words
    God Existence If you take a look up out in the sky on a seemingly clear night, try and ask yourself how the stars, the moon and everything else came to be. Again the question of existence takes over your mind the same way it did everyone else's years ago. How did the world begin? What was the cause? Who was the cause? A couple of weeks ago, I had the most interesting conversation with my brother. Actually, it was more like a provoked conversation to help me begin this paper. I asked him, "Do you believe that there is a God? A God who is said to be creator of all things, the one responsible for life and everything that happens to it? A being so mighty and great?" Of course, like he and any ot ...
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  • Hume Vs Kant - 1,751 words
    Hume Vs. Kant Hume vs. Kant On the Nature of Morality From the origin of Western philosophical thought, there has been an interest in moral laws. As Hume points out in the Treatise, morality is a subject that interests us above all others (David Hume A Treatise of Human Nature'). Originally, thoughts of how to live were centered on the issue of having the most satisfying life, with virtue governing one's relations to others (J.B. Schneewind 'Modern Moral Philosophy'). However, the view that there is one way to live that is best for everyone and the view that morality is determined by God, came to be questioned, and it is this that led to the emergence of Modern moral philosophy. The moral de ...
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  • Hume Vs Kant - 1,407 words
    Hume Vs Kant Morality Hume vs. Kant David Hume and Immanuel Kant each made a significant break from other theorists in putting forward a morality that doesnt require a higher being or god, for a man to recognize his moral duty. Although Hume and Kant shared some basic principals they differed on their view of morality. In comparing the different views on human will and the maxims established to determine moral worth by David Hume and Immanuel Kant, I find their theories on morality have some merit although limited in view. Hume and Kant shared some basic principle of empiricism, but each took different directions on the theory of morality. The moral theory of Hume was based on his belief tha ...
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  • Joshua Wegner - 1,111 words
    Joshua Wegner Philosophy 101 12/07/00 Trentacoste Immanuel Kant vs. Joshua Wegner THE RIGHT TO PUNISH: RETRIBUTIVISM As a society we all accept the fact that if you do something wrong you must be held responsible for your actions and pay the consequences. We all accept the concept of punishment, even though we are aware that we, ourselves, could one day be subjected to answer for our actions. While we may all be in favor of punishment in general, it is often debated upon how or why we punish a criminal. According to Immanuel Kants Retributivism argument, "the punishment must be in exact proportion to the severity of the wrongdoing..." (Kant, 585) Kant believes that crime causes the scale of ...
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  • Mill And Kants Theories - 1,643 words
    Mill And Kant's Theories John Stuart Mill (1808-73) believed in an ethical theory known as utilitarianism. There are many formulation of this theory. One such is, "Everyone should act in such a way to bring the largest possibly balance of good over evil for everyone involved." However, good is a relative term. What is good? Utilitarians disagreed on this subject. Mill made a distinction between happiness and sheer sensual pleasure. He defines happiness in terms of higher order pleasure (i.e. social enjoyments, intellectual). In his Utilitarianism (1861), Mill described this principle as follows:According to the Greatest Happiness Principle ... The ultimate end, end, with reference to and for ...
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  • Philosophy Free Term Papers, Book Reports, Essays, And Research - 1,348 words
    - Philosophy Free Term Papers, Book Reports, Essays, And Research Ethics can be defined broadly as a set of moral principles or values. Each of us has such a set of values, although we may or may not have clearly expressed them. It is common for people to differ in their moral principles and values and the relative importance they attach to them. These differences reflect life experiences, successes and failures, as well as the influences of parents, teachers, and friends. Ethical behavior is necessary for a society to function in a orderly manner. It can be argued that ethics is the glue that holds a society together. Philosophers, religious organizations, and other groups have defined in v ...
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  • Philosophy Of The Human Mind: Truth - 1,279 words
    ... we know that we cannot see or hear things that other animals can, is something very useful to us. With technology and science, we can build devices that will let us see and hear things that we may never see or hear. Furthermore, You must know that there are certain things that we may never know about the universe. What we have to do is reason with others what we are claiming is true. Metaphysics is one branch of philosophy that deals with restrictions. If you are majoring in philosophy, this is one of the branches of philosophy in which you must learn. Metaphysics, to put it, is the basic of Philosophy. Understanding where to draw the line is one of the keys in doing philosophy. There a ...
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  • Pro Choice Among Women - 1,592 words
    Pro Choice among Women Many clinics provide abortion services for women with unplanned or uncontrollable pregnancies. Some women find themselves with an unplanned pregnancy rather than an uncontrollable one. Unplanned in fact that a contraceptive failed, or may not have been easily accessible: uncontrolled in the sense of factors being greater than limited contraception. Abortion has been performed in many clinics as a treatment for unfit or unhealthy women, and for women who may have been molested or raped. Abortion shouldnt be used as a form of contraception, nor should womens lives be sacrificed to bear an infant before morally ready to commit. If a woman is raped, and the outcome incurs ...
    Related: stuart mill, right to life, most effective, zygote, handicapped
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