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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: ancient world

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  • Governmental Techniques In The Ancient World - 1,978 words
    Governmental Techniques in the Ancient World Throughout history, many techniques have been used for organizing society. Experimentation with different styles primarily took place in the ancient Mediterranean world. Athenian democracy, Hebrew temple state, Hellenic city-states, Hellenistic kingdoms, the Roman Republic, and the Christian Roman Empire were all major forms of governance, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. To determine which of these forms was successful, it is impotent to look at each forms chronological development. Hebrew State Origin The Hebrew State began as a loose confederation of twelve tribes. A tribes elders ruled it, and while there was intermarriage between ...
    Related: ancient world, governmental, world power, athenian democracy, city states
  • One Of The Earliest Inventions Of The Ancient World, The Candle Is Still Favored For The Beautiful Light Cast By Its Flame In - 805 words
    One of the earliest inventions of the ancient world, the candle is still favored for the beautiful light cast by its flame. In its most basic form the candle consists of a cylinder of wax, tallow, or similar material surrounding and saturating a fibrous wick. Ancient Egyptian tombs at Thebes bear relief carvings of cone-shaped candles on dish-like holders, or candlesticks. The oldest known candle fragment was found at Vaison, near Avignon, in France and dates from the 1st century AD. During the Middle Ages in Europe, the usual source of light for poor peasants was the rushlight, consisting of a reed stripped to its pith and dipped in oil. Both tallow and beeswax candles were commonly known, ...
    Related: ancient world, candle, cast, earliest, flame
  • Seven Wonders Of The Ancient World - 1,282 words
    Seven Wonders Of The Ancient World How many individuals can name the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World? These ancien, man made monuments were compiled into a list considerable in their enormous size or some other unusual quality (Donovan 325). We should not let these legacies be left behind in the past, because each of these Seven Wonders has a story hidden within their ruins, or in one case, within its remains. Picture these architectural structures as I uncover the legends of The Statue of Zeus, the Colossus of Rhodes, the Pyramids of Egypt, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, and the Temple of Artemis. The first full modern version of the list appeared less th ...
    Related: ancient world, literary works, greeks and romans, king alexander, olympia
  • Seven Wonders Of The Ancient World - 1,242 words
    ... upported by rows of arches connected them (15). They lined the terraces with lead in order to keep water in and covered them with earth from fields, which created a half dozen huge flowerbeds the size of tennis courts (15). These flowerbeds held exotic trees, shrubs, flowers, and creepers lay along the terrace (15). On top of the terrace was fountains, waterfalls, and streams which had the water raised by pumps from the Euphrates River worked by slaves (15). Twenty -two years after Nebuchadnezzar's death, the empire of Babylon was lost to the Persian Emporer Cyprus the Great, and today all that remains is on or two arches and a well (16). In 312 B.C. Rhodes joined King Ptolemy of Egypt i ...
    Related: ancient world, bronze statue, city states, mediterranean sea, kingdom
  • A Myriad Of Mysteries Is Contained In The Pages Of The Old Testament For Centuries, Scholars Of Theology, Archeology And Anth - 1,419 words
    A myriad of mysteries is contained in the pages of the Old Testament. For centuries, scholars of theology, archeology and anthropology have labored to produce some explanation of the contradictions and impossibilities put forth in these texts. The ancient ruins of lost cities reveal evidence that some writings may be incorrectly dated, or even that they may be false. Faith and tradition give way to speculation that the Bible may be nothing more than a collection of ancient Israelite mythology. Some things, however, prove tantalizingly true. Temple Judaism and its monarchy, for example, are historical fact; the records of surrounding civilizations corroborate the chronicling of their place in ...
    Related: anth, archeology, myriad, pages, testament
  • Ancient History - 1,386 words
    Ancient History Tombs and Temples What are some major architectural structures of Ancient Egypt? There are many amazing sites of architecture in Egypt from ancient times. Many have been discovered, but there are still ones being discovered and excavated today. Pyramids, tombs, and temples are the main structures still standing that can be seen today. The first tombs of the pharaohs were large, unimpressive, bunker affairs called mastabas. A mastaba (Arabic for"bench") is a low rectangular structure which was built over a shaft which descended to the burial location. They were made from sun dried mud bricks and most have long since crumbled to dust. This all changed around 2630 BC with the cr ...
    Related: ancient egypt, ancient egyptians, ancient history, ancient times, ancient world, history
  • Athena - 1,216 words
    Athena Athena Back in time when Greece was making its mark in history as one of the great civilization of the Ancient World, there was a great deal of emphasis on the Gods and Goddesses. To the Greeks the world was governed by the Gods and they were the reason many things happened in the world, mostly thing that where unexplainable. The goddess Athena was one of the many gods or goddesses that played a large role in Greek mythology. Even though Athena was the patron saint of Athens she supported other Greeks outside of Athens, such as, Achilles, Orestes, and especially Odysseus (Athena-1). Athena is know to be the goddess of war, guardian of cities, patroness of arts and crafts, and promoter ...
    Related: athena, goddess athena, pallas athena, world wide, world wide web
  • Athens - 750 words
    ATHENS THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS is a photographic archive of the archaeological and architectural remains of ancient Athens (Greece). It is intended primarily as a resource for students of classical languages, civilization, art, archaeology, and history at Indiana University who may wish to take a "virtual tour" of the chief excavated regions and extant monuments. We also hope that this site will be useful to all who have an interest in archaeological exploration and the recovery, interpretation, and preservation of the past. Copyright All of the images presented here are from the personal slide collection of Kevin T. Glowacki and Nancy L. Klein. You are free to download and use unmodified ...
    Related: ancient athens, athens, athens greece, religion & politics, ancient world
  • Aztec Indians - 1,096 words
    Aztec Indians The Aztec Indians, who are known for their domination of southern and central Mexico, ruled between the 14th and 16th centuries. They built a great empire and developed very modernized ways of doing things. They had phenomenal architectural skills and waterway systems. The Aztec Indians also had very developed social class and government systems and practiced a form of religion. To begin with, the Aztecs were very skilled in the art of Architecture and waterway systems. "An example of the monumental architecture within the Aztec society is the great pyramid of Tenochtitlan. Montezuma I, who was the ruler of the Aztecs in 1466, created it. The pyramid was not finished until the ...
    Related: aztec, aztec empire, aztec religion, external affairs, social structure
  • Aztecs - 1,637 words
    Aztecs The Aztec Empire was a Native American state that ruled much of what is now Mexico from about 1427 until 1521, when the empire was conquered by the Spaniards. The empire represented the highest point in the development of the rich Aztec civilization that had begun more than a century earlier. At the height of their power, the Aztec controlled a region stretching from the Valley of Mexico in central Mexico east to the Gulf of Mexico and south to Guatemala. The Aztec built great cities and developed a complex social, political, and religious structure. Their capital, Tenochitlan, was located on the site of present-day Mexico City. An elaborate city built on islands and marsh land, Tenoc ...
    Related: aztec civilization, aztec empire, aztec gods, aztecs, city states
  • Babylonian Civilization - 1,516 words
    Babylonian Civilization Babylonian Civilization What was the Babylonian civilization? What was so great about this particular civilization anyways? Babylonia was a civilization that had a way of life that was so effective that it underwent relatively little change for some 1200 years. In the following essay, I will be discussing their daily life, their economy, government, the people and society, arts, and religion, to show why and how their way of life was so effective. Daily life in Babylonia was very "down-to-earth". Law and justice were key concepts in the Babylonian way of life. People did a lot of farming in this ancient civilization. Each day people would go to work for a living. The ...
    Related: babylonian, civilization, legal rights, law and justice, arranged
  • Barely There: Women In Ancient Literature - 1,141 words
    Barely There: Women In Ancient Literature Are the ancient biblical stories and the myths of the Greeks irredeemably male oriented? All ancient societies treated women as the inferior gender. It has been historically shown that in the ancient world, men were the leaders, heroes, and kings, and women served primarily as companions, helpers, and child-bearers. In the Old Testament and throughout ancient Greek literature, there is a constant theme of male superiority that cannot be ignored. Men did not believe that women were capable of existing as anything other than the typical "housewife;" it was unthinkable that a woman would actually need an education, let alone earn a living. Rarely was a ...
    Related: ancient literature, ancient times, ancient world, greek literature, literature, working women
  • Body Modification - 1,086 words
    Body Modification Body modification and adornment is a universal culture. All civilizations have attempted to change their body in order to fulfill their cultural construct of beauty, religious and/or social obligations. Body adornment and modification is a very broad subject, ranging from ceremonial body paint to the amputation of appendages. In modern society many people today are looking more like tribal warriors of many African cultures. In fact many of these modifications actually do come from many ancient cultures. So why is body modification just now coming to the attention of the modern world? It is my belief that a greater amount of young adults are finding that imitating traditions ...
    Related: modification, third world, personal statement, ancient world, pleasure
  • Boethius - 1,879 words
    Boethius Throughout history, every society has searched for some way to express its feelings and beliefs. Music has been an integral part of virtually every culture, so it is quite natural for people to have written about this subject. More literature has survived than actual music, which leaves modern scholars with the job of translating, interpreting, and trying to understand the writings of people prior to modern musical notation. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius wrote and translated many books on subjects he felt were important to the education of future generations. Of particular interest is his book, The Fundamentals of Music (De institutione musica). Even though this book is no long ...
    Related: boethius, eighteenth century, ancient world, tudor england, depth
  • Book Of Arts - 1,699 words
    Book of Arts The account of St.Paul's ill-fated journey to Rome in the New Testament's Book of Acts provides some useful insights into shipping practices during the first century of the common era. In this paper, I intend to summarise the information and clues provided in the Book of Acts and present an overview of some of the basic interpretations of the relevant passages. It is important to understand that the Book of Acts is a continuation of the gospel according to Luke and any reference to him here is in his capacity as writer of the Book. St.Paul, as a Roman prisoner, had been put in the charge of Julius, an officer in the "Emperor's Regiment" who was to take the prisoners to Rome to s ...
    Related: arts, the bible, modern english, good news, deaf
  • Buddhism - 635 words
    Buddhism Though some of the religions of the ancient world have disappeared, their heritage continues to influence the religions of today. In the following essay I will discuss Buddhism. I will focus on key concepts, beliefs, practices, developments and how they are manifested in everyday life. Buddhism is a religion founded by an ex-Prince Siddhartha Gaumata. Gaumata was a prince who was brought up in a perfect surrounding. When the prince left the palace he saw all the poverty in the land. At the age of twenty nine, the prince left his wife and his infant son to meditate and practice Yoga to find peace and enlightenment. Gaumata was meditating for a long time when finally, while sitting un ...
    Related: buddhism, the prince, eightfold path, noble eightfold path, palace
  • Christianity - 371 words
    Christianity When one passes judgement on the credibility of a work of literature, he must first thoroughly examine the studies upon which the author bases his composition. In the case of Tim LaHayes sensational series of novels regarding the rapture, biblical prophecy is the primary platform of substance. Left Behind deals directly with the prophecies claimed by theologians in the book of Revelations. Many are skeptical of the seemingly outrageous predictions made by the book. To get a better understanding of the possibility of such events taking place lets first examine the history of other biblical prophecy. One outstanding book that is packed with fulfilled prognostications is the book o ...
    Related: christianity, thomas nelson, the bible, ancient world, catastrophic
  • Christianity And Politics - 1,167 words
    Christianity And Politics Christianity as a Way of Life The descriptions of the Roman Empire and state authority offered in Christian texts seems to be one that is oppressive. Since the state often punished Christians for disturbing the peace, the Empire is often shown as merciless and callous. However, texts seem to suggest that the Empire did not treat Christians any differently from the other citizens of the state. Christianity in itself was not illegal under Roman law, so Christians were not targeted specifically as a group. Then, the popular portrayal of early Christianity as a mass political movement that the Romans dedicated much resources to thwart seems implausible. Although popular ...
    Related: christianity, early christianity, criminal acts, early years, cult
  • Comparisons Of Greek And Oceanic Mythology - 1,363 words
    Comparisons Of Greek And Oceanic Mythology Jeff Cressy Cressy1 The purpose of myths is to answer questions, to educate, and to entertain. How was man created? Why does the earth do the things it does? Cultures all throughout the ancient world tried to answer these questions in the form of myth. In Greece, Australia, and New Zealand, ancient storytellers created unique stories that entertained taught values and helped explain their worlds. Even though the people of these countries were separated by thousands of miles, there are an astonishing amount of similarities between their myths. While the inhabitants of these regions may have looked totally different from each other, their myths showed ...
    Related: greek, greek myth, greek mythology, mythology, oceanic, world mythology
  • Cyprus History Of Conflic - 1,822 words
    Cyprus History Of Conflic annon Cyprus, an island in the Eastern Mediterranean, at the cross-roads of three continents - Europe, Asia and Africa - has one of the oldest histories of the world, dating back 9000 years. Its strategic position, its wealth in forests and mineral deposits, as well as its skilled craftsmen, made it the prized possession of the powers of the day. Cultural influences came from all directions - all major regional civilisations left their mark on the island, contributing to the development of a very rich and diverse cultural heritage. ANCIENT TIMES The Stone Age The first signs of human life on the island date back to c. 8500 BC during the Palaeolithic period. Evidence ...
    Related: cyprus, history, ottoman empire, british rule, olympic
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